第二讲 动词与动名词 打印本页  
 
    Part A Verbs 动词

  一、What Are Verbs? 什么是动词?
  动词是表示动作或状态的词。
  例如: work 工作, study 学习,eat 吃。
  英语中,每个句子必须有一个动词来担当谓语,说明主语“是什么”或者“做什么”。
  例如:She is my cousin. 她是我的表姐。
  They worked very hard. 他们工作非常努力。
  动词是一个句子的重心,从动词的变化可以看出该句是现在时或过去时。所以了解动词以及动词的时态,在英语学习上相当重要。

  二、Verb Classification 动词的划分
  (一)动词的种类
  动词可以分为以下五类
类别(英语缩写) 特点 举例
及物动词(vt.) 跟宾语 They helped me.
不及物动词(vi.) 不跟宾语 They will arrive soon.
系动词(link-v) 跟表语 She is beautiful.
助动词(aux.v.) 跟动词原形或分词
(无特殊意思)
Do you like the car?
情态动词(mod.v.) 跟动词原形
(有说话者的意思)
I should go home now.

  1.3个助动词
  be
  表进行(He is watching TV.)
  被动(Small fish are eaten by big fish.)
  have
  完成时(I have finished my homework.)
  do
  否定(I do not like you.)
  疑问(Do you want some coffee?)
  强调(I do want you to pass your exam.)
  代替某个实义动词 (He speaks faster than she does.)
  2.10个情态动词
  can, could
  may, might
  will, would,
  shall, should
  must
  ought to
  情态动词例句:
  I can't speak Chinese.
  John may arrive late.
  Would you like a cup of coffee?
  You should see a doctor.
  I really must go now.
  3.实义动词
  及物与不及物(Transitive and intransitive verbs)
  Somebody killed the President. He died.
  及物:
  I saw an elephant.
  We are watching TV.
  He speaks English.
  不及物:
  He has arrived.
  John goes to school.
  She speaks fast.
  (二)动词第三人称单数的变化
  1.在一般现在时句中,如果主语是第三人称单数时,动词要进行变化,变化规则如下:
  (1)一般情况下,动词后面直接加 –s。
  例如:works gets says reads    
  (2)以ch,sh,s,x 或 o 结尾的动词,在后面加 -es。
  例如:goes teaches washes    
  (3)以辅音字母 + y结尾的动词,把 y变为 i 再加 –es。
  例如:studies tries carries  
  2.动词 have 遇有主语是第三人称单数时,have 改为 has。
  例如:He has an interesting book.   
  他有一本有趣的书。    
  3.动词 be 遇有主语是第一人称单数时,be 改为 am 遇有主语是第二人称时,be 改为 are, 遇有主语是第三人称单数时,be 改为 is。   
  I'm a student and he is a student, too.    
  我是一个学生 ,他也是一个学生。
  (三)动词式和过去分词的变化
  规则动词与不规则动词
  规则动词:
  look, looked, looked
  work, worked, worked
  不规则动词:
  buy, bought, bought
  cut, cut, cut
  do, did, done
  规则动词的过去式变化如下:   
  1.一般情况下,动词词尾加 -ed 。    
  worked played wanted acted    
  2.以不发音的 -e 结尾动词,动词词尾加 -d。   
  lived moved decided declined hoped judged raised wiped
  3.以辅音字母 + y结尾的动词,把-y变为-i 再加-ed。   
  studied tried copied justified cried carried embodied emptied    
  4.以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节动词,双写词尾辅音字母,再加 -ed。   
  stopped begged fretted dragged dropped planned dotted dripped    
  5.不规则动词的过去式变化规律性不强,须多加记忆。   
  go–went make-made get-got    
  buy–bought come-came fly-flew

  Part B Gerunds (-ing) 动名词

  Fishing is fun. I hate working

  一、动名词像名词一样可以做主语、宾语、和补足语
  Smoking costs a lot of money.
  I don't like writing.
  My favourite occupation is reading.
  但是, 动名词也像动词一样可以有自己的宾语。在这种情况下,整个词组[动名词 + 宾语] 做主语、宾语、或补足语
  Smoking cigarettes costs a lot of money.
  I don't like writing letters.
  My favourite occupation is reading detective stories.

  二、动名词可以像名词一样有修饰语:
  pointless questioning
  a settling of debts
  the making of Titanic
  his drinking of alcohol
  请看下面两句话有什么区别?
  My favourite occupation is reading.
  我最喜欢的职业是读书。
  My favourite niece is reading.
  我最喜欢的侄女在读书。
  三、介词之后的动名词
  I will call you after arriving at the office.
  Please have a drink before leaving.
  I am looking forward to meeting you.
  Do you object to working late?
  Tara always dreams about going on holiday.
  请看下面两句话有什么区别?
  I am used to driving on the left.
  I used to drive on the left.

  四、需接动名词的动词
  admit, appreciate, avoid, carry on, consider, defer, delay, deny, detest,   dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, excuse, face,feel like, finish, forgive,   give up, can't help, imagine,involve, mention, mind, miss, postpone,   practise, put off, report, resent, risk, can't stand, suggest, understand
  例句:
  She is considering having a holiday.
  Do you feel like going out?
  I can't help falling in love with you.
  I can't stand not seeing you.

  五、被动语态中的动名词
  通常在 need, require and want几个动词后加上动名词,表示被动意义
  I have three shirts that need washing. (need to be washed)
  This letter requires signing.(needs to be signed)
  The house wants repainting.(needs to be repainted)
                 不规则动词表
Base Form Past Simple Past Participle
awake awoke awoken
be was, were been
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bid bid bid
bite bit bitten
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burned/burnt burned/burnt
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt
drive drove driven
drink drunk drunk
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
get got gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
learn learned/learnt learned/learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
sell sold sold
send sent sent
show showed showed/shown
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
stand stood stood
swim swam swum
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written