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Issue写作详解(二)

2005-10-10 00:00

    Essay Template

    The template is just a guideline. You do not have to adhere to it. Often you will have to make changes to suit your argument.

    The numbers of sentences indicated for each paragraph is a guideline that varies depending on how much content you have.

    The transitional phrases we use in the Template are intentionally simplistic. This is not a simple approach where you can "fill-in-the-blanks." Flesh out the template somewhat and use it as a guideline to write a disciplined and focused essay.

    Template

    1) Introductory Paragraph (2-4 sentences)

    Make sure to keep your introductory paragraph concise, strong and effective.

    What the introductory paragraph should accomplish:

    Explain the issue (briefly).

    Show that you understand the full complexities of the issue (for example, by recognizing competing interests or various factors).

    State your position on the issue (without the details yet).

    Sample template for introductory paragraph (2 sentences):

    a) Whether ________________________ depends on _____________________.

    b) (insert your opinion), __________________________.

    2) First Body Paragraph (3-5 sentences)

    Begin to develop your position with your most important reason. Use one or two examples to back up your main point:

    a) The chief reason for my view is ___________________________________.

    b) For example, ____________________________________.

    c) Moreover, ______________________________.

    d) Finally, ________________________.

    3) Second Body Paragraph

    Expand your position with a "secondary" reason. Support your rationale further with at least one example.

    State your second reason (one only).

    Provide rationale and/or evidence to support it.

    Here's a sample template for the second body paragraph that accomplishes these objectives:

    a) Another reason for my view is_____________________________.

    b) Specifically,________________.

    c) The result is,__________________.

    4) Optional Third Body Paragraph

    In this paragraph (optional) you acknowledge a competing viewpoint or counter-argument (and rationale and/or examples that support it), and then provide rebuttals to further support your position. In this paragraph you walk a tightrope, you must acknowledge the counter-argument, but yet deny it immediately in the next sentence and use that denial to strengthen your own argument.

    Acknowledge a different viewpoint or a counter-argument.

    Provide rationale and/or examples that support it.

    Provide a rebuttal.

    Here's a sample template for the third body paragraph that accomplishes the objectives indicated above:

    a) Some might argue,_____________________________.

    b) Yet,____________________

    c) Others might cite, __________________.

    d) However,_____________________.

    5) Conclusion Paragraph

    In this paragraph you write a summary of your position in 1 to 3 sentences:

    State the thrust of your position.

    Restate the main points from the body of your essay.

    The concluding paragraph is not the place for new information or reasons. It is not a place to draw new conclusions.

    a) In sum, I concur that ________________________.

    b) However,_________________;on the whole______________.

    Time Breakdown:

    How to write a coherent 300 word essay in 45 minutes

    Step 1. Examine the issue (2-3 minutes)

    a. What is the basic issue? Try to phrase it as a question.

    b. Those in favor would say….

    c. Those against would say….

    Step 2. Choose what points you want to make (4-5 minutes)

    a. Arguments in favor:

    b. Arguments opposed:

    c. Take a side: which side do you prefer?

    d. What are the assumptions in the arguments?

    Step 3: Outline (1 minute)

    Use the templates on the prior page.

    1. Make sure that your outline:

    a. states the central idea of the essay clearly and forcefully;

    b. provides a word or phrase for every paragraph in the essay;

    c. relates each paragraph to the central idea of the essay in (2a) above;

    d. includes an opening and closing paragraph which tie the essay together.

    2. Build your paragraphs in the essay carefully. You may produce effective writing in the essay analytical writing section on the analysis of an issue by following a few simple rules:

    a. Each paragraph should state a central idea which relates to the central idea of the entire essay.

    b. Every statement in each paragraph should relate to the central idea of the paragraph in (3a) above. In each paragraph, use examples to support the central idea or explain it completely.

    c. Consciously choose paragraph length, for if your paragraphs are all too short (one or two sentences), you will be penalized, and if they are too long you will also be penalized.

    Step 4: Write/type your essay (35 minutes)

    What's your thesis sentence?

    Arguments for...

    Arguments opposed...

    Step 5: Proofread your work (2 minutes)

    Check for grammar, spelling, etc..

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