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英语写作基本技巧(一)

2005-10-21 00:00

  (一)写作基础讲解与练习:

  掌握如何写好篇章的技巧:

  (1)注意篇章结构,合理布局

  开始部分(opening paragraph)——说出文中的要点、核心问题。

  正文部分(Body paragraphs)——围绕主题开展叙述、讨论。

  结尾部分(concluding paragraphs)——对全文的总结和概括。

  要做到全文中心突出、段落之间必须是有机地联系,内容完整、连贯。前后呼应,祛除与主题无关的内容。

  (2)确定主题句

  主题句是对全文的概括,是文章的主旨。它能在文章中起到“画龙点睛”的作用。通常主题句出现在一篇文章的开头,而后,全文对主题句所提出的内容进行解释,扩展。

  写主题句应注意以下几点:

  ①归纳出你要写的文章的几个要点

  ②提炼出一句具有概括性的话

  ③主题句应具有可读性,抓住、吸引读者。

  下面我们通过例子来学习、体会“主题句”

  [范例1]

  Something unpleasant happened to us on our way to the beach. In the morning, while we were waiting to buy train tickets in the railway station, a bus driver came over to us. He told us he also was going to the beach, the ride was cheap, and the bus was air-conditioned. We felt grateful and got on his bus. As we were talking happily on the way, the bus suddenly stopped. The driver said he needed two hours to repair the engine. While he was working on the engine, he turned off the air-conditioner. He actually took four hours to finish his job, and we spent the whole morning sweating in the heat!

  [范例2]

  I am an active boy and I talk more than listen. When I talk with my friends, I'm always ready to express myself. I‘m not afraid to tell others what I think. I am usually the focus of the attention because I often have lots of ideas that interest everyone. In my opinion, people should share and exchange each other's ideas. But when I am with the quiet people, I feel the air is frozen. I’m always trying to find a topic and start a conversation. In this way, people will like me and feel happy.

  In a word, I am optimistic and active and I can make everybody as confident as me.

  (二)巧用连接词——连接上下文的关键

  要想使文章有整体性、连贯性,就要学会正确使用连接词

  下面请你认真学习并学会运用下列常见连接词

  表示罗列增加:

  First, second, third,

  First, then / next, after that / next, finally

  For one thing … for another…,

  On (the) one hand…on the other hand,

  Besides / what's more / in addition / furthermore / moreover / another / also,

  Especially / In particular,

  表示时间顺序:

  now, at present, recently,

  after, afterwards, after that, after a while, in a few days,

  at first, in the beginning, to begin with,

  later, next, finally,

  immediately, soon, suddenly, all of a sudden, at that moment, as soon as, the moment

  form now on, from then on,

  at the same time, meanwhile,

  till, not…until, before, after, when, while, as during,

  表示解释说明:

  now, in addition, for example, for instance, in this case, moreover

  furthermore, in fact, actually

  表示转折关系:

  but, however, while, though, or, otherwise, on the contrary, on the other

  hand, in contrast, despite, in spite of, even though, except (for), instead, of course, after all,

  表示并列关系:

  or, and, also, too, not only … but also, as well as, both… and, either …or, neither …nor, for

  表示因果关系:

  because, because of, since, now that, as, thanks to…, due to…, therefore, as a result (of), otherwise, so…that, such…that

  表示条件关系:

  as (so) long as, on condition that, if, unless, once, when

  表示让步关系:

  though, although, as, even if, even though, whether …or…, however, whoever,

  whatever, whichever, wherever, whenever, no matter how (who, what, which, where, when, whom)

  表示举例:

  for example, for instance, such as…, take… for example

  表示比较:

  be similar to, similarly, the same as, in contrast, compared with (to)…just like, just as,

  表示目的:

  for this reason,, for this purpose, so that, in order to, so as to,

  表示强调:

  in deed, in fact, surely, certainly, no doubt, without any doubt, truly,

  obviously, above all,

  表示概括归纳:

  in a word, in short, in brief, on the whole,  to sum up, generally speaking, in my opinion, as far as I know, as we all know, as has been stated, as I have shown, finally, at last, in summary, in conclusion

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