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抑郁症

2005-11-30 00:00   来源:翻E网       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  Topic Overview概述

  This topic covers depression in adults. For information on depression in young people, see the topic Depression in Childhood and Adolescence. For information on depression following childbirth, see the topic Postpartum Depression.

  本文探讨的主要关于成年人的抑郁症。若需查询关于末成人的抑郁症,请查看“儿童和青年人的抑郁症。产后抑郁症请查看”产后抑郁“。

  What is depression?什么是抑郁症?

  Depression is a mood disorder that causes you to feel sad or hopeless for an extended period of time. More than just a bout of the blues or temporary feelings of grief or low energy, depression can have a significant impact on your enjoyment of life, your work, your health, and the people you care about.

  抑郁是在一段时间内持续的一种精神絮乱,它让人感觉悲伤,对生活失去希望。不止发作一次的悲伤心情,或没有精力,抑郁对人们的生活,工作,健康,甚至对周围的人们都会产生很大的影响。

  Depression affects people differently. Some feel down for extended periods of time; for others the feelings of depression come and go. If you have short episodes of mild depression, you may be able to continue to work and take care of daily activities. However, if you do not seek some form of treatment for your depression, you are at risk for getting more depressed or becoming physically ill. In severe cases, depression can cause people to become incapable of communicating, unable to do routine activities, or suicidal. In these cases, it is essential to seek medical attention.

  抑郁对人们的影响是不同的。有些人经常情绪失落,而有些人只是偶尔有这种情绪。如果你偶尔有这轻微的抑郁,可能你能继续工作,应付日常工作。但,如果不对你的抑郁寻求一些治疗,你可能就会变得更加抑郁,或生病的风险。严重抑郁会导致人无法正常交流,不能进行日常的活动,甚至自杀。在这种情况下,寻求药物治疗就非常重要。

  People with depression may be reluctant to seek help because they feel that it is a sign of personal weakness or a character flaw or that they should be able to pull out of it on their own. We now know that depression, like other medical conditions, has a chemical and biological basis. Treatment for depression is safe and usually effective even for severely depressed people.

  患抑郁的人通常认为它是个人性格上的弱点,或是性格上的缺陷,他们认为能够通过自身的努力消除,从而他们不愿意寻求帮助。我们知道,抑郁和其它的疾病一样,都有生物和化学基础。治疗是安全的,对于患有严重抑郁的人,它通常是非常有效的。

  If you think you may have depression, take a short quiz to evaluate your symptoms:

  如果你认为你可能有抑郁的话,填写一份简短的测试问卷来分析你的症状。

  Are you depressed?你抑郁吗?

  What causes depression?什么会引起抑郁?

  Depression may be triggered by stressful life events, other illnesses, certain drugs or medications, or inherited traits. Although causes of depression are not entirely understood, we know it is linked to an imbalance in brain chemistry. Once the imbalance is corrected, symptoms of depression generally improve.

  过高压力的生活事件,其它疾病,一些药物或治疗,或遗传因素等都有有可能引发抑郁。虽然抑郁的起因不能完全搞清楚,但我们知道它和大脑内某种化学物质的失衡有联系。一旦这种失衡被纠正之后,抑郁就会大大的改善。

  What are the symptoms?抑郁有哪些症状?

  Depression is more than just the normal, temporary feelings of sadness and hopelessness associated with difficult life events. Common symptoms include:

  抑郁是一种和困难生活事件相关的,自然的,临时性的,伤心,失望的一种感受。一般的症状包括:

  • Depressed mood.
    情绪抑郁。
  • Inability to enjoy activities.
    不能享受运动。
  • Problems concentrating.
    注意力无法集中。
  • Poor memory.
    记忆力差。
  • Difficulty making decisions.
    优柔寡断
  • Changes in eating habits.
    饮食习惯改变。
  • Weight gain or weight loss.
    体重增加或减少。
  • Changes in sleeping habits.
    睡眠习惯改变。
  • Difficulty going to work or taking care of your daily responsibilities.
    无法正常地进行日常工作和生活。
  • Feelings of guilt and hopelessness; wondering if life is worth living (common).
    有罪恶感,感觉没有希望;怀疑生命存在的价值(普遍现象)
  • Slowed thoughts and speech.
    思考缓慢,表达缓慢。
  • Preoccupation with thoughts of death or suicide.
    常常想到死亡,或自杀。
  • Complaints that have no physical cause (somatic complaints) such as headache and stomachache.
    抱怨不存在的身体病痛,例如,头痛,胃痛。

  All of these symptoms can interfere with your quality of life. Even if you don't have major depression, if you have experienced a few of these symptoms for at least 2 weeks you may have a less severe form of depression that still requires treatment.

  所有的这些病症都会影响生活质量。即使没有这些主要的症状,如有这其中这些部分现象持续超过二周时间的,可能就患有轻度的抑郁,仍然需要治疗。

  How is it treated?如何治疗?

  Depression is usually treated successfully with professional counseling or antidepressant medication. Often a combination of the two is most effective. People with depression usually can be treated as outpatients, but in severe cases a period of hospitalization may be necessary.

  通过专业的开导或服用抗抑郁药物,都可能成功的治疗抑郁。通常将二者结合治疗效果更佳。通常抑郁患者不需住院治疗,但情况严重的,需要住院一段时间。

  If you have mild or moderate depression, you may be diagnosed and treated by your family health professional and a therapist or psychologist. If you have severe depression or other psychological disorders or do not respond to treatment, a psychiatrist, a doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental health problems, may be helpful.

  如果患有轻微或中度的抑郁,可以通进家庭医生或临床医师或心理专家进行诊断和治疗。严重的抑郁,或其它的精神絮乱,或治疗无效的,精神健康专业医生可能会提供帮助。

  Let your health professional know if you suspect that you have depression, because it is often overlooked. If you are diagnosed with depression, you and your health professional can decide on the best treatment. The earlier you are treated, the more quickly you will recover.

  如果你怀疑自已有抑郁,一定要让你的健康医生知道,因为它通常会被忽略。如果你被诊断患有抑郁,一起和你的健康医生决定最好治疗方案。越早治疗,越早恢复。

  How common is depression?抑郁普遍吗?

  If you have symptoms of depression, you are not alone. In the United States, an estimated 15% of people will have depression at some point in life, and chances of becoming depressed are even higher for certain people. For example:

  如果你有抑郁的症状的话,你并不孤单。在美国,预计15%的人都有抑郁,某些有患抑郁的有可能性还要高些。例如:

  Women experience depression twice as often as men, although men are more likely to commit suicide as a result of depression.女性患抑郁的可能性是男性的两倍,虽然,男性在患抑郁之后比女性更易自杀。

  Separated or divorced individuals, especially men, are more likely than married people to become depressed.

  分手或离异的人,特别是男性,比结婚的人更易患抑郁。

  People who have a serious illness are more likely to suffer from depression.

  患有严重疾病的人更易患抑郁。

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