Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian Fundamentalism is a movement which arose mainly within American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, the virgin birth of Christ, the doctrine of substitutionary atonement, the bodily resurrection of Jesus, and the authenticity of his miracles. This core set of beliefs was the line in the sand drawn by conservative Christians as they battled against the rise of rationalism, higher biblical criticism, and liberalism within Protestant denominations.
The nature of the Christian fundamentalist movement, while originally a united effort within conservative evangelicalism, evolved during the early-to-mid 1900s to become more separatist in nature and more characteristically dispensational in its theology.
The secular world's current perception of the term fundamentalism is colored by shifts in meaning on two fronts since the 1980s. First, the term was used in a negative sense for all Christian groups so deemed by liberal Lutheran theologian Martin E. Marty in his five-volume Fundamentalism Project (although recent social science research has raised questions about his assessment), and (2) during the holding of a number of Americans hostage in Lebanon, some members of the press began referring to the Islamic Hezbollah captors as Islamic fundamentalists, and consequently the term has increasingly come to have pejorative connotations of extremism and even terrorism.
Fundamentalist Christianity: 基督新教基要派，基督教基本派，正统派基督教
Christian Fundamentalism: 基督派基要派主义，基督派正统派主义
Protestantism: 新教, 新教徒, 新教教义
Fundamentalism Project: 基要主义、正统主义的教义
Islamic Hezbollah: 伊斯兰教真主党（在黎巴嫩）