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西方流行音乐介绍(7)-R&B

2005-12-01 00:00连庆译自AMG
特别提示:本文中所说的节奏与布鲁斯音乐/R&B,与近年来在东亚地区流行的所谓节奏蓝调R&B有着音乐内涵和文化根源上有较大的区别,后者实属于流行歌曲范围。请读者小心明辨,莫将两者混为一谈。

  Evolving out of jump blues in the late '40s, R&B laid the groundwork for rock & roll. R&B kept the tempo and the drive of jump blues, but its instrumentation was sparer and the emphasis was on the song, not improvisation. It was blues chord changes played with an insistent backbeat. During the '50s, R&B was dominated by vocalists like Ray Charles and Ruth Brown, as well as vocal groups like the Drifters and the Coasters.

  (在美国)从1940年代的跳跃布鲁斯进化而来的节奏与布鲁斯音乐,为随后的摇滚音乐铺平了道路。节奏与布鲁斯保留有跳跃布鲁斯所特有的拍子速度和动机,但其重点放在了歌曲上,器乐演奏部分没有什么即兴,相对布鲁斯乐而言乏善可陈。音乐形式上主要是布鲁斯的和弦变化加上一个不变的基本节奏。在整个1950年代,节奏与布鲁斯乐被音乐家Ray Charles(编者注:建议看看去年获包括奥斯卡最佳男主角奖在内奖项的同名热门电影)和Ruth Brown,以及Drifter和Coasters这样的人声和唱组合统治着。

  Eventually, R&B metamorphosed into soul, which was funkier and looser than the pile-driving rhythms of R&B. Soul came to describe a number of R&B-based music styles. From the bouncy, catchy acts at Motown to the horn-driven, gritty soul of Stax/Volt, there was an immense amount of diversity within soul. During the first part of the '60s, soul music remained close to its R&B roots.

  但后来节奏与布鲁斯乐更多的借鉴了灵魂乐,因为后者比像是在打桩子的(传统)节奏与布鲁斯乐更加的生动和自由。结果是可以用灵魂乐来形容相当数量的以节奏与布鲁斯为基础的音乐子风格,它们简直有着数不完的风格变化。在整个1960年代的最初阶段,灵魂乐紧密保留着节奏与布鲁斯乐的根基。

  However, musicians pushed the music in different directions; usually, different regions of America produced different kinds of soul. In urban centers like New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, the music concentrated on vocal interplay and smooth productions. In Detroit, Motown concentrated on creating a pop-oriented sound that was informed equally by gospel, R&B, and rock & roll. In the South, the music became harder and tougher, relying on syncopated rhythms, raw vocals, and blaring horns.

  不过后来音乐家将这两种音乐带向了两个不同的方向;一般来说,在不同地区会产生不同类型的灵魂乐。如在大都市城市如纽约、费城和芝加哥,音乐的重点放在人声的交替轮唱和流畅的制作上。在底特律,摩城唱片则专注于制作包含均衡份量的福音,节奏与布鲁斯和摇滚乐元素的流行之声。而在美国南部,音乐则通过运用切分节奏、粗犷的人声和小号的齐鸣变得更硬更强。

  All of these styles formed soul, which ruled the black music charts throughout the '60s and also frequently crossed over into the pop charts. During the '60s and '70s, soul began to splinter apart — artists like James Brown and Sly Stone developed funk; Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff initiated Philly soul with the O'Jays and Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes; and later in the decade, danceable R&B became a mass phenomenon with the brief disco fad.

  所有这些音乐风格都成为灵魂乐的一部分,并统治着整个1960年代的黑人音乐排行榜,甚至有时能串到流行榜上。在1960年代到70年代之间,灵魂乐开始分化了——像James Brown和Sly Stone这样的艺人最后发展成为疯克乐;而乐人Kenny Gamble、Leon Huff则联合O‘Jays和Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes等组合一起,发起了“费城灵魂乐”;在那十年中的晚些时候,适合跳舞的节奏与布鲁斯乐借着短暂的迪斯科风潮迅速成为大众主流文化现象。

  During the '80s and '90s, the polished, less earthy sound of urban and quiet storm ruled the airwaves, but even then, R&B began adding stylistic components of hip-hop until — by the end of the millennium — there were hundreds of artists who featured both rapping and singing on their records.

  到了1980和90年代间,华丽又不太俗气的都市之声和安静的风潮成了电台的宠儿,随后,节奏与布鲁斯又马上加入了时髦的黑炮成份。于是到了千年之交的时候,成百上千的艺人们已经在唱片中又是说又是唱的了。

相关热词:music term
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