雅思辅导热招
您的位置:外语教育网 > 雅思 > 复习指导 > 阅读 > 正文

雅思模拟题(三)

2005-11-18 00:00   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  READING PASSAGE 3

  You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 26-39 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

  THE ORIGINS OF INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES

  The traditional view of the spread of the Indo-European languages holds that an Ur-language, ancestor to all the others, was spoken by nomadic horsemen who lived in what is now western Russia north of the Black Sea near the beginning of the Bronze Age. As these mounted warriors roamed over greater and greater expanses, they conquered the indigenous peoples and imposed their own proto-Indo-European language, which in the course of succeeding centuries evolved in local areas into the European languages we know today. In recent years, however, many scholars, particularly archaeologists, have become dissatisfied with the traditional explanation.

  The starting point of the problem of the origins of Indo-European is not archaeological but linguistic. When linguists look at the languages of Europe, they quickly perceive that these languages are related. The connections can be seen in vocabulary, grammar and phonology (rules for pronunciation). To illustrate the numbers from one to ten in several Indo-European languages. Such a comparison makes it clear that there are significant similarities among many European languages and also Sanskrit, the language of the earliest literary texts of India, but that languages such as Chinese or Japanese are not members of the same family (see figure 1).

  ENGLISH OLD GERMAN LATIN GREEK SANSKRIT JAPANESE

  ONE

  TWO

  THREE

  FOUR

  FIVE

  SIX

  SEVEN

  EIGHT

  NINE

  TEN AINS

  TWAI

  THRIJA

  FIDWOR

  FIMF

  SAIHS

  SIBUM

  AHTAU

  NIUN

  TAIHUM UNUS

  DUO

  TRES

  QUATTOUR

  QUINQUE

  SEX

  SEPTEM

  OCTO

  NOVEM

  DECEM HEIS

  DUO

  TREIS

  TETTARES

  PENTE

  HEKS

  HEPTA

  OKTO

  ENNEA

  DEKA EKAS

  DVA

  TRYAS

  CATVARAS

  PANCA

  SAT

  SAPTA

  ASTA

  NAVA

  DASA HITOTSU

  FUTATSU

  MITTSU

  YOTTSU

  ITSUTSU

  MUTTSU

  NANATSU

  YATTSU

  KOKONOTSU

  TO

  FIGURE 1       Words for numbers from one to ten show the relations among Indo-European languages and the anomalous character of Japanese, which is not part of that family. Such similarities stimulated interest in the origins of Indo-European languages.

  The Romance languages served as the first model for answering the question. Even to someone with no knowledge of Latin, the profound similarities among Romance languages would have made it natural to suggest that they were derived from a common ancestor. On the assumption that the shared characteristics of these languages came from the common progenitor (whereas the divergences arose later. as the languages diverged),it would have been possible to reconstruct many of the characteristics of the original proto-language. In much the same way it became clear that the branches of the Indo-European family could be studied and a hypothetical family tree constructed, reading back to a common ancestor roto-Indo-European.

  This is the tree approach. The basic process represented by the tree model is one of divergence: when languages become isolated from one other, they differ increasingly, and dialects gradually differentiate until they become separate languages.

  Divergence is by no means the only possible tendency in language evolution. Johannes Schmidt, introduced a "wave" model in which linguistic changes spared like waves, leading ultimately to convergence; that is, growing similarity among languages that were initially quite different.

  Today, however, most linguists think primarily in terms of linguistic family trees. It is necessary to construct some explicit models of how language change might occur according to a process-based view. There are four main classes of models.

  The first is the process of initial colonization, by which an uninhabited territory becomes populated; its language naturally becomes that of the colonizers. Second are processes of divergence, such as the linguistic divergence arising form separation or isolation mentioned above in relation to early models of the Indo-European languages. The third group of models is based on processes of linguistic convergence. The wave model, formulated by Schmidt in the 1870's, is an example, but convergence methods have not generally found favour among linguists.

  Now, the slow and rather static operation of these processes is complicated by another factor: linguistic replacement. That factor provides the basis for a fourth class of models. In many areas of the world the languages initially spoken by the indigenous people have come to be replaced, fully or partially, by languages spoken by people coming from outside. Were it not for this large complicating factor, the world's linguistic history could be faithfully described by the initial distribution of Homo Sapiens, followed by the gradual, ling-term workings of divergence and convergence. So linguistic replacement also has a key role to play in explaining the origins of the Indo-European languages.

  Questions 26-32

  Below is a summary of part of  Reading Passage 3,"The Origins of Indo-European Languages".

  Read the summary and then select the best word or phrase from the box below to fill each gap. according to the information in the Reading Passage. Write the corresponding letters (A-L) in boxes 26-32 on your answer sheet.

  N.B. There are more words and phrases than you will need to fill the gaps. You may use a word or phrase more than once if you wish.

  Summary-Models of Language Change

  Answer

  Example    There are four main models of language …… (Ex) ……                K

  The first is the process of initial colonization where an uninhabited territory becomes populated: the language spoken will therefore be that of the ……(26)……

  Processes of ……(27)…… occur where different dialects, and then languages, develop from a common ……(28)…… Many of the original characteristics of this common ancestor can be reconstructed from what we know of the present   separate ……(29)……

  Processes of linguistic ……(30)…… occur when languages which were initially different become more similar through contact. The wave model, formulated by Schmidt in the 1870s, is an example.

  The final model is that of linguistic ……(31)…… In this model, a new language replaces the language spoken by the ……(32)……

  A   colonizers G   languages

  B   invaders H   waves

  C   proto-language I   replacement

  D   indigenous people J   convergence

  E   linguists K   development

  F   model L   divergence

[1][2][3][4]

  上一篇:  雅思模拟题(一)

  下一篇:  雅思模拟题(二)

相关资讯:
网站导航:
 四六级 指南 动态 经验 试题 资料  托福 指南 动态 经验 留学 备考
 雅思 指南 动态 机经 经验 辅导  公共英语 指南 动态 备考 试题 辅导
 日语 就业 辅导 留学 考试 报考  法语 资料 文化 考试 留学 辅导
 韩语 入门 口语 阅读 留学 文化  西语 辅导 资料 考试 留学 风采
冲刺班套餐
300元/门
系统讲解考点,轻松应对考试
课时数:40课时
口语冲刺班
100元/门
揭秘口语技巧,提升口语能力
课时数:10课时
听力冲刺班
100元/门
传授答题方法,把握考试动向
课时数:10课时
阅读冲刺班
100元/门
归纳解题技巧,攻克阅读难关
课时数:10课时
写作冲刺班
100元/门
讲解高分秘诀,提升写作水平
课时数:10课时
学员 32875sjdglsh:
外语教育网雅思课程很好,知识点剖析得很详细,浅显易懂,并结合了考题进行讲解,很适合冲刺备考学习。向大家极力推荐!
学员 ppoik:
这次雅思考试口语得到了6分,多亏了刘志良老师的帮助。考试的时候遇到了一个澳洲口音的考官,很不自在。但是在上外语教育网课程的时候,刘老师曾经讲过应对这类老师的办法。自己有些紧张,不过还是很好地应对了考题。虽然中途出了一些小错误,但最终老师给了我6分,我很开心。感谢网校!
学员 bvcji:
我的雅思居然考了7.1分,这是我原来想都不敢想的。感谢外语教育网的陪伴以及冉继军老师的细心讲解。
学员 tyunl:
雅思顺利通过,心情很激动,明年终于可以去加拿大留学了。感谢外语教育网的老师!
学员 erhjfalke:
外语教育网雅思辅导课程真的很棒,让我在这么短的时间内学会了很多,相信这次我一定可以顺利通过考试。希望越来越多的考生可以知道我们的网校,一起在这里学习。
学员 agnoirjg4703:
刘志良和冉继军老师讲得很好!通过学习你们的雅思辅导课程,我顺利地通过了考试。希望同学们也积极报名到外语教育网学习,共同进步。
学员 73648khaf:
我已经把外语教育网的雅思辅导课程学完了,只想说我的选择没有错。感谢刘志良老师和冉继军老师,感谢外语教育网!
学员 yasiyasi:
雅思得了7分!我是从4月中旬才开始复习的,白天工作很忙,只能利用晚上的时间。冉继军老师的讲解真的很棒,如果没有老师的帮助,我想我很难取得这样的成绩,谢谢!真诚地谢谢冉老师!祝您工作顺利!
学员 dgdxfv:
雅思真不好考啊!多亏外语教育网的复习资料,很全面,省了大量的时间!努力备考中……
版权声明
   1、凡本网注明 “来源:外语教育网”的所有作品,版权均属外语教育网所有,未经本网授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式使用;已经本网授权的,应在授权范围内使用,且必须注明“来源:外语教育网”。违反上述声明者,本网将追究其法律责任。
  2、本网部分资料为网上搜集转载,均尽力标明作者和出处。对于本网刊载作品涉及版权等问题的,请作者与本网站联系,本网站核实确认后会尽快予以处理。
  本网转载之作品,并不意味着认同该作品的观点或真实性。如其他媒体、网站或个人转载使用,请与著作权人联系,并自负法律责任。
  3、本网站欢迎积极投稿
  4、联系方式:
编辑信箱:for68@chinaacc.com
电话:010-82319999-2371