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考研英语阅读理解仿真试题(五)

2005-11-8 14:28 肖克 

  三、了解常见的句际关系及语篇标识词

  句际关系主要是考察空白处与前后句子之间的逻辑关系。句子与句子之间的关系可能是显性的,也可能是隐性的。显性的句际关系有明显的标志词出现,这会给考生理解文章的发展脉络带来很大方便。句际关系主要有以下几种:

  1.顺接关系(顺承关系或并列关系):后句是前句的延续或补充,标识词主要有then, after that, furthermore, also, when(this happens)等。

  2.转折关系:前后两句意思相反,标识词通常有but, however, nevertheless, (al)though, in fact等。

  3.例证关系:即论据对于论点的论证关系。典型标识词是for example, for instance, take……as an example等。  

  4.因果关系:前因后果,或前果后因。可能出现的标识词有for, as a result, as a consequence, consequently, therefore, accordingly等。

  5.对比、对照关系:对比关系说明前后内容的相同之处,可能出现similarly, like等标志词;对照关系则说明前后内容的不同之处,标识词通常有as a contrast, on the contrary, on the one hand……on the other hand等。

  四、理解文章中词汇的语义特征上文提到了从整体把握文章的命脉。另外,文章中的某些关键词也能为考生提供线索。在选择时,尽量往这些关键词上"靠",可以避免离题太远。

  以下三类词的作用不容忽视:

  (一)名词表主题 When it comes to the slowing economy, Ellen Spero isn't biting her nails just yet. But the 47-year-old manicurist isn't cutting, filing or polishing as many nails as she'd like to, either. Most of her clients spend $12 to $50 weekly, but last month two longtime customers suddenly stopped showing up. Spero blames the softening economy. "I'm a good economic indicator", she says. "I provide a service that people can do without when they're concerned about saving some dollars." So Spero is downscaling, shopping at middle-brow Dillard's department store near her suburban Cleveland home, instead of Neiman Marcus. "I don't know if other clients are going to abandon me, too,"she says.文中的这些名词为考生提供了一条主线,即使没完全读懂,但通过这些名词考生也可以确定这是一篇与经济有关的文章,每句话都没离开这个主题。可以设想一下,如果把其中的任何一句删去,然后让考生选择后补上,在遵循以"经济"为线索的前提下都是很容易解决的。也就是说这些名词表明了这篇文章的主题。

  (二)动词表变化All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. They began to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. The mid 1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of America's industrial decline. Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas.动词是各种变化最明显的体现,它可以表明文中所述情况的变化、作者态度的变化以及情感的变化等。本段文字中,先不看其它文字,只看这些关键的动词"caused"、"stopped"、"began to believe"、"begin to fall"、"decline"就可以表明这是一种由好到坏或由坏到好的变化,再结合其他部分可以更加肯定这一点,因为文中所述正是关于美国经济引发的一场信任危机,以及这场危机给人们带来的情感及经济方面的变化。

  (三)形容词表态度Even before Alan Greenspan's admission that America's red hot economy is cooling, lots of working folks had already seen signs of the slowdown themselves. From car dealerships to Gap outlets, sales have been lagging for months as shoppers temper their spending. For retailers, who last year took in 24 percent of their revenue between Thanksgiving and Christmas, the cautious approach is coming at a crucial time. Already, experts say, holiday sales are off 7 percent from last year's pace. But don't sound any alarms just yet. Consumers seem only mildly concerned, not panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economy's long-term prospects even as they do some modest belt tightening.在阅读理解Part A部分经常会遇到表明作者态度的题,同样,在Part B部分如果能明确把握作者的态度对解题也是很关键的,而形容词是最能体现作者态度的关键词。以此段为例,前半部分都是关于美国经济不景气的描述,如果只看到这些,一定会认为下文也应该是一些消极方面的描述。但其实本段的关键在后面,消费者的"only mildly concerned"和"not panicked"以及最明显的一个形容词"optimistic"都与前面的情况形成鲜明的对比,表明了作者的态度。如果在此段后设题进行选择,考生就不得不考虑这些因素了。

  五、掌握词汇和语法的衔接

  词汇或语法衔接(cohesion)指篇章中通过语法手段或不同的词汇形式以达到语义上的衔接连贯,这种联系表现为以下几种:

  (一)重复(reiteration)1.原词的重复,又叫原词复现,指同一主题词或关键词的重复出现。2.同义或近义词的衔接,又叫同义复现,指同义词、近义词重复出现在语篇中,语篇中的句子通过这种关系达到了相互衔接。坐标词与下义词的衔接,上坐标词是指那些意义较概括的词,它们的词义包括了下义词的词义,如bird就是swallow的上坐标词。上坐标词与下义词在语篇中相互衔接。

  (二)共现(co-occurrence):又叫搭配性衔接(collocation cohesion),意指一系列相关的词项在篇章中的经常共现。搭配性衔接对语言信息的生成和解释均有一定的指导作用,有助于对篇章的潜在的语义演进(semantic evolution)做出预测和推测(anticipation and prediction)。

  (三)替代(substitution):语篇中的代词构成了替代衔接关系,一般而言,one指代前面的单数可数名词;that指代前面的不可数名词或句子;this指代前面的单数名词或句子;it指代前面的单数名词或整个句子;they或them指代前面的复数名词。

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