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倒装句的种类

2005-11-14 00:00

  当主语在谓语前出现时叫顺序(the natural order)。在某些情况下,我们可以把谓语成分放在主语前面,这种词序叫做倒装( the inverted order)。

  倒装分两种:配合语法条例的倒装,叫“grammatical inversion”;配合强调语势的叫“emphatic inversion”。

  语法上的倒装句是强制性的,包括下列 7 种:

  ⒈疑问句,如:

  Can you do it?

  How old are you?

  When did you know him?

  Why did you elect him as captain?

  Which of these apples do you prefer?

  但疑问代词做主语时,不必倒置,如:

  Who is your English teacher?

  What happened last night?

  ⒉表示“愿望”的句子,如:

  May God bless you.

  Long live the king!

  ⒊“There”引导的句子,如:

  There are many cars on the road.

  There stand some big trees near the river.

  There is a security guard outside the bank.

  ⒋感叹句,如:

  How beautiful the flower is!

  What a smart boy you are!

  ⒌有连接词“so, neither, nor”的句子,如:

  Tom can ride a bicycle; so can I.

  She can't sing; neither can he.

  John has never been late; nor have I.

  ⒍省略连词“if”的条件副词分句,如:

  Were I you, I would not do such a thing.

  Should the machine break down again, send it back to us.

  Had you worked harder, you would have passed.

  ⒎“as, however”连接的让步副词分句,如:

  Small as the pen is, it is a powerful weapon.

  However busy you are, you should spend some time reading Zaobao weekly.

  谈过了语法上的倒装句,现在谈强调的倒装句。

  Never have I seen such a wicked man.

  On no account must this employee be removed.

  Not until he told me had I heard anything of it.

  No sooner had I left than the rain came.

  Up jumped the puppy.

  In came John.

  Down fell the rotten branches from the tree.

  Out came a woman and her maid.

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