Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
The old adage of the title has a parallel in the scientific world "all research leads to biomedical advances". The fact that research in one discipline contributes to another is well understood by the scientific community. It is not, however, so clear to the public or to public policy-makers. (46) Because public support for funding of biomedical research is strong, the scientific community could build a more effective case for public support of all science by articulating how research in other disciplines benefits biological medicine.
The time is ripe to improve public appreciation of science. A recent National Science Foundation survey suggested that Americans continue to support research expenditures. In addition, public opinion polls indicate that scientists and science leaders enjoy enviably high public esteems. (47) Instead of lamenting the lack of public understanding of science, we can work to enhance public appreciation of scientific research by showing how investigations are in many areas close-knit and contribute to biomedical advances. A crucial task is to convey to the public, in easily understood terms, the specific benefits and the overall good that result from research in all areas of science.
Take, for example, agricultural research. (48) On the surface, it may appear to have made few significant contributions to biomedical advances, except those directly related to human nutrition. This view is incorrect, however. In the case of nutrition, the connections between agricultural and biomedical research are best exemplified by the vitamin discoveries. (49) At the turn of the century, when the concept of vitamins had not yet surfaced and nutrition as a scientific discipline did not exist, it was in a department of agricultural chemistry that the first true demonstration of vitamins was made. Single-grain feeding experiments documented the roles of vitamins A and B. The essential role of some minerals (iron and copper) was shown later, and these discoveries provided the basis of modern human nutrition research.
(50) Despite such direct links, however, it is the latest discoveries that have been made in agricultural research that reveal its true importance to biomedicine. Life-saving antibiotics such as streptomycin were discovered in soil microorganisms. The first embryo transplant was made in a dairy cow, and related research led to advances in the understanding of human reproduction.