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GMAT语法改错方法总结(一)

2005-11-30 00:00

  Logical Fallacies

  I.(logical perfection is superior to grammatical imperfection, the first and foremost issue of GMAT grammar is logic)

  (i)"Shanghai is bigger than any cities in China." is mistaken because Shanghai cannot be larger than any cities that inclusive of itself. So it should be "Shanghai is bigger than any other cities in China."

  (ii)Blind eyesight; visible wavelength are logically flawed arrangement; it should be "blind people", "visible radiation" instead.

  (iii)Price cannot cause inflation but Price Increase can.

  (iv)前后转折关系(by transitional words as "but" etc.)是否成立要看前后的分类标

  (v)准是否统一:big measurement→small measurement

  II.主谓搭配和代词指代(七大类型)

  (vi)出现句首名(vii)词+长串修饰考主谓搭配的可能性很大;

  (viii)在英文中永远只有主谓搭配,同(ix)位语对谓语动词单复(x)数没有影响

  Five hundred students each have a computer.

  Each of five hundred students have a computer.

  Leaf and *** material, the most *** parts, Vt.s

  Five hundred students, groups each have a computer.

  (xi)倒装句(搞清主语在哪)

  a、介词在句首

  b、状语+句子谓语动词+主语(完全倒装)

  c、极端形容词或So放在句首

  (xii)Never, Whether, What, Should在一个完整句子做整个句子的主语,(xiii)谓语动作用单数。

  (xiv)代词指(xv)代,同(xvi)样一句话中相同(xvii)的代词指(xviii)代相同(xix)的事物:they, them, their在一句话中必须指(xx)代同(xxi)主体。

  推论:It在句首做形式主语,后面it不能指代同一主体。如果出现这样的选项,一定错!

  (xxii)Exoneration and his freedom例题:泛指(xxiii)和特指(xxiv)不(xxv)能对称;代词是个特指(xxvi)概念,(xxvii)不(xxviii)能随意丢失,(xxix)否则句子意思发生变化。

  8GMAT中所有代词都不用来指代整个句子,只能是特定的名词或主体。但是当it在句首做形式主语时,可以指代:

  1、后面的不定式

  2、后面的that从句

  3、如:It is you who is my friend that……

  III.固定搭配的错误

  (xxx)require somebody to do something that +虚拟语气省略should of somebody that +虚拟语气省略should (xxxi)as的固定搭配begin as, depict as, regard as, perceive as, represent as, see as, be prizeless as, be acclaimed as, think of as, be seem as (xxxii)to be: consider something (省略to be) something [正确答案的出现方式] (xxxiii)help

  a)help somebody to do something

  b)help (to do) something

  c)helpful in doing

  (xxxiv)at point; at pole; at equator; aim at doing something

  (xxxv)forbid somebody to do something; forbid something

  (xxxvi)prohibit somebody from doing something; prohibit something

  (xxxvii)compare A to B (把A比作B)

  (xxxviii)compare A with B (相同(xxxix)事物比较)

  (xl)in that标(xli)准书面英语,(xlii)汉译为"原因体现在"

  (xliii)more ancient标(xliv)准书面英语

  IV.连接词连接两个部分的对称性问题

  and在画线部分中或画线部分的前面,and是一个解题点。

  (xlv)形式上对称:名(xlvi)词对名(xlvii)词;分词对分词(现在分词不(xlviii)一定要对现在分词,(xlix)要检验动作的发出者和承受者)

  (l)强调含义上的对称:duty assignment对应the staffing of people

  (li)平行对称结构:多个小分句之间要平行对称,(lii)在最后一个分句前补出and难点:A)在肯定句时,补and;在否定时,补nor英语否定句的定义:句子出现no, not时"Never……"是肯定句,表示否定的含义

  B)非平行结构的误导题(如补充材料5:三个句子不能构成平行对称结构)

  (liii)当前后两个问题对称时,

  (liv)后半句的be动词可能被省略,

  (lv)如to do and do something, to可以省略

  如果发现一个选项有意省略'to'或被动词时,则很有可能是正确答案对称结构的常考连词:but……or

  either……or……not only……but also……(also有时省略)

  neither……nor……not……but……(优选结构)

  from……to……as well as……

  as……as……rather than……(如果前面有不定式的话,后面不定式往往被省略)

  V. 虽然违反了Effectiveness有效性原则,但ETS把它当成Correctness来处理(lvi)违反了"忠实原文的意思"

  a)极端性修饰词的位置改变了: first, last, typical, typically, only you, you only;

  b)强烈语气表达要保持,如:

  I don't know any……

  Not unlike = like it very much

  Whatever = no matter what……

  Whenever = no matter when

  c)句子的强调重心发生改变一定错!

  d)把倒装句变成正常语序一定错!

  (lvii)简洁原则:语义重复(lviii)一定错!注意(rise, raise, grow, roaring, increase的使用而(lix)使语义重复(lx)的情况)

  from……to……当中不能加up or down

  opposition = against orbit = around annually = a year

  by the name of = be known as with = include

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