Consumers are being confused and misled by the hodge-podge (大杂烩) of environmental claims made by household products, according to a "green labeling" study published by Consumers International Friday .
Among the report's more outrageous (令人无法容忍的) findings-a German fertilizer described itself as " earthworm friendly" a brand of flour said it was "non-polluting" and a British toilet paper claimed to be "environmentally friendlier"
The study was written and researched by Britain's National Consumer Council (NCC) for lobby group Consumer International. It was funded by the German and Dutch governments and the European Commission.
" While many good and useful claims are being made , it is clear there is a long way to go in ensuring shoppers are adequately informed about the environmental impact of products they buy," said Consumers International director Anna Fielder .
The 10-country study surveyed product packaging in Britain. Western Europe, Scandinavia and the United States. It found that products sold in Germany and the United Kingdom made the most environmental claims on average.
The report focused on claims made by specific products , such as detergent (洗涤剂) insect sprays and by some garden products . It did not test the claims, but compared them to labeling guidelines set by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in September ,1999.
Researchers documented claims of environmental friendliness made by about 2,000 products and found many too vague or too misleading to meet ISO standards.
"Many products had specially-designed labels to make them seem environmentally friendly , but in fact many of these symbols mean nothing ," said report researcher Philip Page .
"Laundry detergents made the most number of claims with 158. Household cleaners were second with 145 separate claims . while paints were third on our list with 73 .The high numbers show how very confusing it must be for consumers to sort the true from the misleading ." he said .
The ISO labeling standards ban vague or misleading claims on product packaging , because terms such as "environmentally friendly" and "non-polluting" cannot be verified . " what we are now pushing for is to have multinational corporations meet the standards set by the ISO ." said Page.
31. According to the passage, the NCC found it outrageous that ______
A) all the products surveyed claim to meet ISO standards
B) the claims made by products are often unclear or deceiving
C) consumers would believe many of the manufactures' claim
D) few products actually prove to be environment friendly
32. As indicated in this passage , with so many good claims , the consumers _____
A) are becoming more cautious about the products they are going to buy
B) are still not willing to pay more for products with green labeling
C) are becoming more aware of the effects different products have on the environment
D) still do not know the exact impact of different products on the environment
33. A study was carried out by Britain's NCC to _______
A) find out how many claims made by products fail to meet environmental standards
B) inform the consumers of the environmental impact of the products they buy
C) examine claims made by products against ISO standards
D) revise the guidelines set by the International Standards Organization
34. What is one of the consequences caused by the many claims of household products?
A) They are likely to lead to serious environmental problems
B) Consumers find it difficult to tell the true from the false
C) They could arouse widespread anger among consumer
D) Consumers will be tempted to buy products they don't need
35. It can be inferred from the passage that the lobby group Consumer International wants to _______.
A) make product labeling satisfy ISO requirements
B) see all household products meet environmental standards
C) warn consumers of the danger of so-called green products
D) verify the efforts of non-polluting products
Two hours from the tall buildings of Manhattan and Philadelphia live some of the world's largest black bears . They are in northern Pennsylvania's Pocono Mountains, a home they share with an abundance of other wildlife .
The streams , lakes , meadows (草地) , mountain ridges and forests that make the Poconos an ideal place for black bears have also attracted more people to the region . Open spaces are threatened by plans for housing estates and important habitats (栖息地) are endangered by highway construction . To protect the Poconos' natural beauty from irresponsible development. The Nature Conservancy (大自然保护协会) named the area one of America's "Last Great Places"
Operating out of a century-old schoolhouse in the village of Long Pond, Pennsylvania, the conservancy's bud Cook is working with local people and business leaders to balance economic growth with environmental protection. By forging partnerships with people like Francis Altemose, the Conservancy has been able to protect more than 14,000 acres of environmentally important land in the area.
Altemose's family has farmed in the Pocono area for generations. Two years ago Francis worked with the Conservancy to include his farm in a county farmland protection program. As a result, his family's land can be protected from development and the Altemoses will be better able to provide a secure financial future for their 7-year-old grandson .
Cook attributes the Conservancy's success in the Poconos to having a local presence and a commitment to working with local residents
"The key to protecting these remarkable lands is connecting with the local community," Cook said. "The people who live there respect the land. They value quite forests, clear streams and abundant wildlife. They are eager to help with conservation effort.
For more information on how you can help The Nature Conservancy protect the Poconos and the world's other "Last Great Places," please call 1-888-564 6864. or visit us on the World Wide Web at www.tnc.org.
36. The purpose in naming the Poconos as one of America's " Last Great Places " is to ________
A) gain support from the local community
B) protect it from irresponsible development
C) make it a better home for black bears
D) provide financial security for future generations
37. We learn from the passage that _______
A) the population in the Pocono area is growing
B) wildlife in the Pocono area is dying out rapidly
C) the security of the Pocono residents is being threatened
D) farmlands in the Pocono area are shrinking fast
38. What is important in protecting the Poconos according to Cook?
A) The setting up of an environmental protection website
B) Support from organizations like The Nature Conservancy
C) Cooperation with the local residents and business leaders
D) Inclusion of farmlands in the region's protection program
39. What does Bud Cook mean by "having a local presence " (Line 1, Para. 5)?
A) Financial contributions from local business leaders
B) Consideration of the interests of the local residents
C) The establishment of a wildlife protection foundation in the area
D) The setting up of a local Nature Conservancy branch in the Pocono area
40. The passage most probably is ________
A) an official document
B) a news story
C) an advertisement
D) a research report
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