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职称英语考试语法详解篇:现在分词

2005-11-22 00:00   来源:       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  现在分词和过去分词主要差别在于:现在分词表示“主动和进行”,过去分词表示“被动和完成”(不及物动词的过去分词不表示被动,只表示完成)。分词可以有自己的状语、宾语或逻辑主语等。

  1、分词作状语分词在句子中作状语,可以表示时间、条件、原因、结果、让步、伴随等。分词做状语时,它的逻辑主语与句子的主语一致。作状语的分词相当于一个状语从句。

  [例如]

  Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy. Using what you know of word stems and word formations, you can make a guess at the meaning of a new word. The students went out of the classroom,  laughing and talking. Accompanied by his friend, he went to the railway station.Given better attention, the plants could grow better. He looked tired and depressed, visibly disturbed by the news of his mother‘s illness.

  分词在句子中作状语,使用何种分词,要取决于分词与句子主语的关系:主谓关系用现在分词,动宾或被动关系用过去分词。

  [例如]

  Taught by mistakes and setbacks, we have become wiser and handled our affairs better. (we are taught/teach us) .Inspired by the International, the working people of all countries have been fighting for their final liberation. (the working people were inspired/ inspire the working people)____the earth to be flat, many feared that Columbus would fall off the edge.

  A)shavingsbelieved B) Believing C) Believed D) Being believed

  本句意思为:相信地球是平的,许多人担心哥伦布会从边上掉下去。许多人与相信之间是主谓关系,及分词与主语之间为主谓关系。因此,应用现在分词,答案为B.

  No matter how frequently ____, the works of Beethoven always attract large audiences.

  A) performing B) performed C) to be performed D) being performed

  本句中贝多芬的作品被反复表演,可见分词与句子的主语之间是被动关系,应该用过去分词,故答案为B.

  ____as it was at such a time, his work attracted much attention.

  A) Being published B) Published C) Publishing D) To be published

  本句中as引导的是让步状语从句,意思为:他的作品尽管在被这样的时候出版,还是引起了关注,可见分词与句子的主语之间是被动关系,应该用过去分词,故答案为B.

  2、“while ( when, once, until, if , though等连词)+分词”结构现在分词或过去分词作状语时,有时可以在分词前加while,when, once, although, until, if等连词。

  [例如]

  When leaving the airport, she waved again and again to us.While waiting for the train, I had a long talk with my sister about her work……

  Once recovered, he threw himselfsintoshis work and made every effort to do it well.

  Although working very hard, he failed to pass the final exam.If translated word by word, the passage will be difficult to understand.

  3、分词作定语分词作定语时,单个的分词通常放在被修饰的名词之前,分词短语一般置于所修饰的中心词后面。现在分词修饰的是发出该动作的名词(即与名词有主谓关系),过去分词修饰承受该动作的名词(即与名词是动宾关系)。

  [例如]

  We will go on with our experiment as soon as we get the added fund.

  This is really an exhausting day to all of us!

  We can see the part of the moon lighted by sunlight.

  After a night spent in excitement and sleeplessness, I forced myself to take a long walk along the beach the next day.

  More and more developing countries established strategic partnership with developed countries.

  The young sitting between my sister and my brother is my cousin Jack……

  As early as 1649 Ohio made a decision that free, tax-supported schools must be established in every town ____50 households or more.

  A)shavingsB) to have C) to have had D)shavingshad Town

  后面由分词做定语,而且town本身有50或以上人家,故town与分词间为主谓关系,应该用现在分词,答案为A.

  4、分词作宾语补足语现在分词在see, watch, hear, observe, notice, feel, find, glimpse,  glance等感官动词和look at, listen to等短语动词以及have, keep, get, catch, leave,  set, start, send等使役动词后面与名词或代词构成复合宾语,作宾语补语的成分。

  5、分词作表语分词作表语通常看作形容词来用。现在分词表示主语的性质,而且主语多为物;过去分词表示主语的感受或状态,主语多为人。

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