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新GRE阅读完全剖析(二)

2005-12-01 00:00马焱俊

  Questions 9 and 10 are based on the following reading passage.

  Scholarship on political newspapers and their editors is dominated by the view that as the United States grew, the increasing influence of the press led, ultimately, to the neutral reporting from which we benefit today. Pasley considers this view oversimplified, because neutrality was not a goal of early national newspaper editing, even when editors disingenuously stated that they aimed to tell all sides of a story. Rather, the intensely partisan ideologies represented in newspapers of the early republic led to a clear demarcation between traditional and republican values. The editors responsible for the papers' content - especially those with republican agendas - began to see themselves as central figures in the development of political consciousness in the United States.

  本文为符合现行GRE考试部分文章套路分类中的广义新老观点对比型。文首观点说报纸最后的政治取向将会趋于neutral。而之后Pasley提出的观点否认了这种看法(oversimplified)。具体从早期国家报纸的党派差异论证自己观点。文章首句符合一贯GRE阅读的品味:长度达到35词的复杂难句子,为理解上的一个难点。

  9. Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

  The passage suggests that Pasley would agree with which of the following statements about the political role of newspapers?

  A. Newspapers today are in many cases much less neutral in their political reporting than is commonly held by scholars.

  B. Newspapers in the early United States normally declared quite openly their refusal to tell all sides of most political stories.

  C. The editorial policies of some early United States newspapers became a counterweight to proponents of traditional values.

  仍然是多项选择题,要求考生自主列出ABC正确的组合。正确答案为C。A选项极具干扰度,文首谈到的一种报纸变化乃是一种未来的趋势。而A项做出了GRE阅读中很敏感的比较(than),原文没有明确的关于现在报纸的风格比较。B项为文中让步层面内容:even when editors disingenuously stated that they aimed to tell all sides of a story,体会该叙述,与公开声明的程度不符。C项counterweight解释为平衡物,表达了文末关于一些支持republican编辑的态度。

  10. In the context in which it appears, "disingenuously" most nearly means

  A. insincerely  B. guilelessly  C. obliquely  D. resolutely  E. pertinaciously

  此题即为新GRE在取消词汇部分后,做出的相应调整。把部分词汇转移到阅读部分来考察,取代之前单纯的词之间的逻辑关系,这种做法也是吸收了TOEFL阅读考察中的部分经验。disingenuously作为GRE重点词汇,为ingenuous反义(和ingenious形近)。即使考生现场不认识该单词,也可以从上下文逻辑关系得到提示。前半句because neutrality was not a goal of early national newspaper editing基本意群表达非单纯目的, 后半句even when editors disingenuously stated that they aimed to tell all sides of a story声明事务的方方面面。从之间相反关系推理,state动词的修饰可以缩小到AC选项的范围。句子本身goal与aimed to为上下句平行结构的标志。(考察的该词在文中也被加亮)

  Questions 16 through 18 are based on the following reading passage.

  In Raisin in the Sun, Lorraine Hansberry does not reject integration or the economic and moral promise of the American dream; rather, she remains loyal to this dream while looking, realistically, at its incomplete realization. Once we recognize this dual vision, we can accept the play's ironic nuances as deliberate social commentaries by Hansberry rather than as the "unintentional" irony that Bigsby attributes to the work. Indeed, a curiously persistent refusal to credit Hansberry with a capacity for intentional irony has led some critics to interpret the play's thematic conflicts as mere confusion, contradiction, or eclecticism. Isaacs, for example, cannot easily reconcile Hansberry's intense concern for her race with her ideal of human reconciliation. But the play's complex view of Black self-esteem and human solidarity as compatible is no more "contradictory" than Du Bois's famous, well-considered ideal of ethnic self-awareness coexisting with human unity, or Fanon's emphasis on an ideal internationalism that also accommodates national identities and roles.

  笔者发现本文本身就是现行GRE考试阅读部分曾经考过的真题文章,全文不做一字修改。从这个意义上说,考生对于新GRE部分不用抱任何恐惧感。所有现在成熟的训练体系和阅读方法仍然是有效的,本质上的阅读文章风格没有任何变化。

  16. The author's primary purpose in the passage is to

  A. explain some critics' refusal to consider Raisin in the Sun a deliberately ironic play

  B. suggest that ironic nuances ally Raisin in the Sun with Du Bois's and Fanon's writings

  C. analyze the fundamental dramatic conflicts in Raisin in the Sun

  D. emphasize the inclusion of contradictory elements in Raisin in the Sun

  E. affirm the thematic coherence underlying Raisin in the Sun

  正确答案E,全文逻辑关系理解有点难度。文章为了说明LH的讽刺的才能,而不像对批评意见所说的那样some critics interpret the play's thematic conflicts as mere confusion, contradiction, or eclecticism。所以全文论证作用上应该为affirm coherence。

  17. The author of the passage would probably consider which of the following judgments to be most similar to the reasoning of the critics described in the highlighted sentence?

  A. The world is certainly flat; therefore, the person proposing to sail around it is unquestionably foolhardy.

  B. Radioactivity cannot be directly perceived; therefore, a scientist could not possibly control it in a laboratory.

  C. The painter of this picture could not intend it to be funny; therefore, its humor must result from a lack of skill.

  D. Traditional social mores are beneficial to culture; therefore, anyone who deviates from them acts destructively.

  E. Filmmakers who produce documentaries deal exclusively with facts; therefore, a filmmaker who reinterprets particular events is misleading us.

  此题在原来老题中也相同出现。唯一的变化在于老题给出具体行号定位,而新GRE借助机考形式,方便考生,直接在原文highlight所需定位的句子。此题选C选项。逻辑上都是缺乏能力导致的结果而不是故意产生的预期结果。

  18. Click on the sentence in the passage in which the author provides examples that reinforce an argument against a critical response cited earlier in the passage.

  这种新的考题形式将在新GRE阅读中普遍出现,笔者称其为选择句子题。其实该题仍然是老题在机考形式下稍做改动而成,免去了考生按照A-E选项依次定位文章寻找的时间,而直接要求考生自主选择。答案为句子But the play's complex view of Black self-esteem and human solidarity as compatible is no more "contradictory" than Du Bois's famous, well-considered ideal of ethnic self-awareness coexisting with human unity, or Fanon's emphasis on an ideal internationalism that also accommodates national identities and roles.该题难度比原题,由于其开放型,有一定提高。离开来考虑;

  Rain-soaked soil contains less oxygen than does drier soil. The roots of melon plants perform less efficiently under the low-oxygen conditions present in rain-soaked soil. When the efficiency of melon roots is impaired, the roots do not supply sufficient amounts of the proper nutrients for the plants to perform photosynthesis at their usual levels. It follows that melon plants have a lower-than-usual rate of photosynthesis when their roots are in rain-soaked soil. When the photosynthesis of the plants slows, sugar stored in the fruits is drawn off to supply the plants with energy. Therefore, ripe melons harvested after a prolonged period of heavy rain should be less sweet than other ripe melons.

  19. In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

  A. The first states the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the second provides support for that conclusion.

  B. The first provides support for the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the second provides evidence that supports an objection to that conclusion.

  C. The first provides support for an intermediate conclusion that supports a further conclusion stated in the argument; the second states that intermediate conclusion.

  D. The first serves as an intermediate conclusion that supports a further conclusion stated in the argument; the second states the position that the argument as a whole opposes.

  E. The first states the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second supports the conclusion of the argument.

  此题形式为曾经笔考中逻辑部分的考察重点:逻辑单题,即全文对应了一道涉及直接逻辑推理的问题。此题正确答案为C选项。两个黑体部分都不是直接结论,而是中间的支持型结论(前提和推理过程)。全文逻辑:oxygen->root efficiency->nutrient for photosynthesis-> sugar reserve-> sweet。对于这种题型,考生可能比较陌生,逻辑作用上的抽象和把握成为新GRE的特色。

  For the past two years at FasCorp, there has been a policy to advertise any job opening to current employees and to give no job to an applicant from outside the company if a FasCorp employee applies who is qualified for the job. This policy has been strictly followed, yet even though numerous employees of FasCorp have been qualified for any given entry-level position, some entry-level jobs have been filled with people from outside the company.

  24. If the information provided is true, which of the following must on the basis of it also be true about FasCorp during the past two years?

  A. There have been some open jobs for which no qualified FasCorp employee applied.

  B. Some entry-level job openings have not been advertised to FasCorp employees.

  C. The total number of employees has increased.

  D. FasCorp has hired some people for jobs for which they were not qualified.

  E. All the job openings have been for entry-level jobs.

  仍然是逻辑单题的类型。原文说如果在F公司内部有任何职位空缺并且内部员工有资格,则该职位一定给予内部员工。在这个条件约束下,结果现状是很多员工对任何entry-level职位都合适,任有部分来自公司外的员工。理解文章基础上,为了解释这些信息,可以推出有些职位空缺因为没有合适的本公司内部员工申请,才会有外人成功应聘。所以答案选A。

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