Greek mythology is largely made up of stories about gods and goddesses, but it must not be read as a kind of Greek Bible, an account of the Greek religion.
According to the most modern idea, a real myth has nothing to do with religion. It is an explanation of something in nature; how, for instance, any and everything in the universe came into existence: men, animals, this or that tree or flower, the sun, the moon, the stars, storms, eruptions, earthquakes, all that is and all that happens. Thunder and lightning are caused when Zeus hurls his thunderbolt. A volcano erupts because a terrible creature is imprisoned in the mountain and every now and then struggles to get free. The Dipper ( 大熊星座) , the constellation ( 星座) called also the Great Bear, does not set below the horizon because a goddess once was angry at it and decreed (命令 ) that it should never sink into the sea. Myths are early science, the result of men ' s first trying to explain what they saw around them.
But there are many so-called myths which explain nothing at all. These tales are pure entertainment, the sort of thing people would tell each other on a long winter' s evening. The story of Pygmalion (皮格马利翁) and Galatea is an example; it has no conceivable connection with any event in nature. Neither has the Quest of the Golden Fleece (寻找金羊毛) , nor Orpheus (奥菲士，竖琴圣手) and Eurydice, nor many another. This fact is now generally accepted; and we do not have to try to find in every mythological heroine the moon or the dawn and in every hero' s life a sun myth. The stories are early literature as well as early science. But religion is there, too. In the background, to be sure, but nevertheless plain to see. From Homer through the tragedians and even later, there is a deepening realization of what human beings need and what they must have in their gods.
56. The author believes that myths __________.
[ A ] have nothing to do with religion
[ B ] contain very modern ideas
[ C ] are pure entertainment with no religious content
[ D ] have to do with science, religion and entertainment
57. In every myth, _________.
[ A ] there is a connection with some natural event
[ B ] there is not necessarily an attempt to explain an event in nature
[ C ] there are angry gods and goddesses
[ D ] there exists some religious teaching
58. According to the passage, the story of Pygmalion and Galatea _________.
[A] has something to do with the explanation of nature
[B] is pure entertainment
[ C ] has something to do with science
[D] is closely related to religion
59. Myths are early science because they __________.
[ A ] explain the natural events
[ B ] teach about the history
[ C ] have nothing to do with religion
[ D ] reflect people ' s expectations
60. The author, in regard to modern ideas on myth _________.
[A] is impressed and agrees with them
[ B ] refuses to accept any of them
[ C ] adds to them new points of view
[ D ] none of the above
Read the following article in which five people talk about their ideas of education. For questions 61 to 65, match name of each speaker to one of the statements (A to G) given below. Mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
I think it's a great shame people don't learn anything today. I mean, good heavens, when you think of all the millions of pounds the Government have spent on education－new schools, more teachers, new equipment. And yet still you find people who can't read properly, can't even write their names and don't know what two and two is without a calculator. I think it's downright disgraceful. I remember when I was young you went to school to learn. You did as you were told and respected your teachers. Nowadays you get long-haired kids who aren't interested in anything. No wonder they don ' t learn anything.
Well, there are a lot of different views on this, but I think it is probably wrong to imagine that there was some golden age in the past when everything was perfect. It all depends, of course, on what you measure and how you measure it. It may surprise some people that there has not been an obvious and dramatic increase in the standard of education, given the vast amounts of money spent in this area by successive governments in recent years. But unfortunately, most improvements in education are intangible.
Well, if you asked me, it's all these modern methods that is the problem. In the old days you sat in rows at desks and you did as you were told. You knew that you had to do and you did it－and you kept quiet. Nowadays, my god, the noise in most schools is deafening especially primary schools. The children wander around－do more or less what they want to as far as I can see. The teacher just sits there or wanders around with them, talking to them. Informal teaching they call it. Discovery methods. Sounds more like a recipe for discovering disaster to me.
Many people talk about how to improve education and a lot suggest raising the salaries of teachers and professors. Of course, this is very important to education. However, increasing the salary of teachers is just one way to improve education. It will not work without the cooperation of the other determinants, such as student ' s love of knowledge and reading. Even if the teachers are devoted, it will make no sense if the students are not willing to learn.
The criticism that what students learn today is not adapted to present-day society is utterly wrong because education can never be seen only in terms of how useful the subjects are when students leave school. We ought to evaluate education in terms of how much the students enjoy those subjects and how much they mean to those students. Instead of being trained to be utilitarian, students should be encouraged to do things for their own sake, and study what they are interested in.
Now match each of the persons to the appropriate statement.
Note: there are two extra statements.
61. Alien [A] Education is a gradual extension of oneself.
[B] Students should get satisfaction out of education.
62. Martha [C] Education standards are higher than in the past.
[ D ] Education involves learning as well as teaching.
63. Pritt [E] Many students are spoilt by our present-day educational system.
64. Symons [F] Schools should emphasize practical skills.
65. Wilbert [G] Educational standards are declining.
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