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1990年研究生入学考试英语试题

2005-12-20 14:50  

  1990年全国硕士研究生考试英语试卷及答案

  I . In each question, decide which of the four choices given will most suitably complete the sentence if inserted at the place marked. Put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET, ( 15 points)

  EXAMPLE:

  I was caught_the rain yesterday.

  A. in B. by C.with D. at

  ANSWER: (A)

  l . Those two families have been quarrelling __ each other for many years.

  A. to B. between C. against D. with

  2. There are many things whose misuse is dangerous, bur it is hard to think of anything that can be compared ___

  A. in B. with C. among D. by

  3. "How often have you seen cases like this?" one surgeon asked another. "Oh,__ times, I guess,"was the reply.

  A. hundred of B . hundreds C. hundreds of D. hundred

  4. Give me your telephone number __ I need your help.

  A. whether B.unless C. so that D. in case

  5. You sang well last night. We hope you'll sing __.

  A. more better B. still better C. nicely D. best

  6. Those people __a general understanding of the present situation.

  A. lack of B. are lacking of C. lack D. are in lack

  7. Alone in a desert house,he was so busy with his research work that he felt __lonely.

  A. nothing but B. anything but C. all but D. everything but

  8. Grace __tears when she heard the sad news.

  A. broke in B.broke into C. broke off D.broke through

  9. She refused to __the car keys to her husband until he had promised to wear his safety belt .

  A. hand in B. hand out C.hand down D. down

  10. Michael found it difficult to get his British jokes __to American audiences.

  A. around B. over C.across D. down

  11. The book contained a large__ of information.

  A. deal B. amount C. number D. sum

  12 . Nowadays advertising costs are no longer in reasonable_ to the total cost of the prod- uct .

  A. proportion B. correlation C. connection D. correspondence

  13. When she saw the clouds she went back to the house to _ her umbrella.

  A. carry B. fetch C. bring D. reach

  14. We must _ that the experiment is controlled as rigidly as possible.

  A. assure . B. secure C. ensure D. issue

  15. He was knocked down by a car and badly _

  A. injured B. damaged C. harmed D. ruined

  Ⅱ. Each of the three passages below is followed by some questions.For each question there are four answer. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the ques- tions. Put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

  1

  In May l989, space shuttle "Atlantis" released in outer space the space probe "Megallan", which is now on her 15-month and one-billion-kilometer flight to Venus. A new phase in space exploration has begun .

  The planet Venus is only slightly smaller than Earth; it is the only other object in the solar system, in fact, that even comes close to earth' s size. Venus has a similar density, so it is proba- bly made of approximately the sanle stuff, and it has an atmosphere, complete with clouds. It is also the closest planet to earth, and thus the most similar in distance from the sun. In short, Venus seems to justify its long-held nickname of "earth' s twin. "

  The surface temperature of Venus reaches some 900F. Added to that is an atmospheric pres- sure about 90 times Earth' s: High overhead in the carbon dioxide that passes for air is a layer of clouds, perhaps IO to 20 miles thick, whose little drops consist mostly of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) . Water is all but nonexistent.

  Born with so many fundamental similarities to earth, how did Venus get to be so radically different : It is not just an academic matter. For all its extremes, Venus is a valuable laboratory for researchers studying the weather and climate of earth. It has no earth' s oceans, so the heat trans- port and other mechanisms are greatly simplified. In addition, the planet Venus takes 243 earth- days to turn once on its axis, so incoming heat from the sun is added and distributed at a more leisurely, observable pace.

  16. Venus is similar to Earth in __

  A. size and density B. distance from the sun

  C. having atmosphere D. all of the above

  17. The greatest value in studying Venus should be to__

  A. allow us to visit there B. understand Earth better

  C. find a new source of energy D. promote a new space program

  18. The main idea of this passage is about _

  A. problems of space travel B. scientific methods in space exploration

  C. the importance of Venus to Earth D. conditions on Venus

  2

  Tourists were surprised to see a woman driving a huge orange tractor down one of Rome' s main avenues. Italy' s political leaders and some of its male union chiefs are said to have been even more puzzled to see that the tractor was followed by about 200,OOO women in a parading proces- sion that took more than three hours to snake through central Rome.

  Shouting slogans, waving flags and dancing to drumbeats, the women had come to the capi- tal from all over Italy to demonstrate for "a job for each of us, a different type of job, and a soci- ety without violence" . So far, action to improve women' s opportunities in employment has been the province of collective industrtal bargaining. "But there is a growing awareness that this is not enough, " says a researcher on female labor at the govemment-funded Institute for the Develop- ment of Professional Training for Workers.

  Women, who constitute 52 per cent of Italy' s population, today represent only 35 per cent of Italy' s total workforce and 33 per cent of the total number of Italians with jobs. However, their presence in the workplace is growing. The employment of women is expanding considerably in services, next to the public administration and commerce as their principal workplace. Official statistics also show that women have also made significant strides in self-employment. More and more women are going into business for themselves. Many young women are turning to business because of the growing overall in employment. It is also a fact that today many prejudices have disappeared, so that banks and other financial institutes make judgements on purely business con- siderations without caring if it is a man or a woman.

  Such changes are occurring in the professions too. The number of women doctors, dentists, lawyers, engineers and university professors increased two to three fold. Some of the changes are immediately visible. For example, women have appeared on the scene for the first time as state police, railway workers and street cleaner.

  However, the present situation is far from satisfactoty though some progress has been made. A breakthrough in equal opportunities for women is now demanded.

  19 . The expression "snake through central Rome" probably means "to move_

  A. quietly through central Rome"

  B. violently through central Rome"

  C. in a long winding line through central Rome"

  D. at a leisurely pace through central Rome"

  20 . Which of the following statements is NOT true?

  A. There are more women than men in Italy.

  B. In Italy, women are chiefly employed in services.

  C. In Italy, women are still at a disadvantage in employment.

  D. In Italy, about two-thirds of the jobs are held by men.

  21.About 200,OOO women in Rome demonstrated for_

  A. more job opportunities B. a greater variety of jobs

  C. "equal job, equal pay" D. both A and B

  22.The best title for this passage would be_

  A. The Role of Women is Society

  B. Women Demonstrate for Equality in Employment

  C. Women as Self-enlployed Professionals

  D. Women and the Jobs Market

  3

  "The old idea that talanted children "burn themselves out" in the early years, and, therefore, are subjected to failure and at worst, mental illness if unfounded. As a matter of fact, the outstanding thing that happens to bright kids is that they are very likely to grow into bright adults.

  To find this out, l,500 gifted persons were followed up to their thirty-fifth year with these results.

  On adult intelligence tests, they scored as high as they had as children. They were, as a group, in good health, physically and mentally. 84 per cent of their group were married and seemed content with their lives.

  About 70 per cent had graduated from college, though only 30 per cent had graduated with honors. A few had even dropped out, but nearly half of these had returned to graduate.

  Of the men, 80 per cent were in one of the professions or in business management or semiprofessional jobs. The women who had remained single had office, business, or professional occupations .

  The group had published 90 books and 1, 500 articles in scientific, scholarly, and literary magazines and had collected more than 100 patents.

  In a material way they did not do badly either. Average income was considerably higher a- mong the gifted people, especially the men, than for the country as a whole, despite their com- parative youth .

  In fact, far from being strange, most of the gifted were turning their early promise into prac- tical reality.

  23. The old idea that talented children "bum themselves out" in the early years is_

  A. true in all senses B. refuted by the author

  C. medically proven D. a belief of the author

  24. The survey of bright children was made to

  A. find out what had happened to talented children when they became adults

  B. prove that talented children "burn themselves out" in the early years

  C. discover the percentage of those mentaUy ill among the gifted

  D. prove that talented children never bum themselves out

  25 . Intelligence tests showed that_

  A. bright children were unlikely to be mentally healthy

  B. between childhood and adulthood there was a considerable loss of intelligence

  C. talented children were most likeLy to become gifted adults

  D. when talented children grew into adults, they made low scores

  Ⅲ. For each numbered blank in the following passage there are four choices labelled A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and put your choice in the ANSWER SrmET. Read the whole passage before making your choice. ( 10 point)

  No one knows for sure what the world would be like in the year 2001 . Many books have been written _26__the future. But the 19th-century French novelist Jules Veme may be called a futurologist in the fullest _27__ of the word. In his fantastic novels "A Trip to the Moon" and "80 Days Around the World", he described' with detail the aeroplane and even the helicopter.

  These novels still have a great attraction _28__ young readers of today because of their bold imagination and scientific accuracy . Below is a description of what our life will be in the year 2001 as predicted by a _29___ writ- er .

  In 2001, in the home, cookers will be set so that you can cook a complete meal at the touch of a switch. Television will provide information on prices at the _30__ shops as well as news and enter- tainment. Videophones will bring pictures as well as _31____ to telephone conversations. Machines will control temperature, lighting, entertainment, security alarms, laundry and gardening . Lighting will provide decoration as well as wallpaper. At work, robots will take _32___ most jobs in the manufacturing industries. Working hours will fall to under 30 hours a week. Holidays will get longer; six weeks will be the normal annual holiday. Men and women will retire at the sarlle age. Our leisure will be different too. The home will become the center of entertainment through television and electronic games. More people will eat out in restaurants _33_ they do today; al- so they will have a much wider variety of food available. There will be a change of taste towards a more savoury-flavored menu. New synthetic foods will form a _34____ part of people' s diets. Foreign travel will _35__;winter holidays will become more popular than summer ones. Also non-stop flights from Britain to Australia and New Zealand will be easily available and much cheaper. Education will become increasingly more important than ever before.

  26. A. in B. of C. about D. for

  27. A. sense B. meaning C. detail D. implication

  28. A. for B. of C. on D. towards

  29. A. today B. nowadays C. present-day D. present

  30. A. near B. nearby C. nearly D. nearer

  31. A. noise B. sound C. tone D. tune

  32. A. to B. away C. off D. over

  33. A. than B. as C. when D. while

  34. A. usual B. popular C. daily D. regular

  35. A. add B. increase C. raise D. arise

  IV . Each of the follnwing sentence has four underlined parts. These parts are labelled A, B, C and D. Identify the part of sentence that is incomect and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. Then, without altering the meaning of the sentence, wite down your correction nn the line in the ANSWER SHEET. (IO points)

  EXAMPLE :

  You have to hurry up if you want to buy something because the_re's hardly something Jeft.

  A BCD

  ANSWER : ( C)anything

  36. Alice was having trouble to control the children because there were so many of them.

  A B C D

  37. We were very much surprised that the village was such long way from the road.

  A B C D

  38. John's chance of being elected chairman of the committee is far greater than Dick.

  A B C D

  39. "We have won a great victory on our enemy, " the captain said.

  A B C D

  40. There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which

  A B

  does not bring a return in money to the community.

  C D

  41 . The law I am .referring require that everyone who owns a car have accident insurance.

  A B C D

  42. "I considered it a honor to be invited to address the meeting of world-famous scientists, "

  A B C D

  said Professor Leacock .

  43. He was seeing somebody creeping into the house through the open window last night .

  A B C D

  44. The reason for all the changes being made has not explained to us yet.

  A B C D

  45 . Even though the children pretended asleep, the nurses were not deceived when they came in-

  A B C D

  to the room.

  V . Fill in the blanks with the appmpriate fnmts of the verbs given in the brackets. Put your answers in the ANSWER SHEET. ( IO point)

  EXAMPLE :

  It is highly desirable that a new president _ (appoint) for this college.

  ANSWER : (should) be_appointed

  46 . Buying clothes _(be) very time-consuming as you rarely find things that fit you nice- Iy .

  47. They keep telling us it is of utmast importance that our representative _ (send) to the conference on schedule .

  48. I must call your attention to the directions. Read them carefully and act as _ (in- struct) .

  49. Emma said in her letter that she would appreciate _ (hear) from you soon.

  50. I _(call) to make an airline reservation, but I didn' t.

  51 . If Greg had tried harder to reach the opposite shore, we _ _ _(not have) to pick him up in the boat.

  52 . After twenty years abroad, William came back only _ ( find) his hometown severely damaged in an earthquake.

  53. The lecture _ (begin), he left his seat so quietly that no one complained that his leav- ing disturbed the speaker.

  54. The children were surprised when the teacher had them _ (cloes) their books unex- pectedly .

  55. A new road will be built here, and therefore a number of existing houses _(have to destroy ) .

  Ⅵ.Translate the following into English(15points)

  56.你应该仔细核对全部资科,以避免严重错误。

  57.尽管这个实验复杂,他们决心按时把它完成。

  58.一切迹象表明这个人对这里发生的情况毫无所知。

  59.只有那些不怕困难的人,才有可能在工作中取得卓越的成果。

  60.这篇作品与其说是短篇小说,不如说更像是新闻报导。

  Ⅶ . Tanslate the following passage carefully and then translate the sentences underlined into Chinese. (20 point)

  People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behaviors are formed. It is not easy to explain why me person is intelligent and another is not, or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.

  Sociat scientists are, of course, extremely interested in these types of questions. (61 ) They want to explain why we poesess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear arlswers yet, but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed. As one might expect, the two approaches are very different from each other. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as "nature as nurture. " .

  (62 ) Those who suppqrt the "nature" side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological factors. (63 ) That our environment has lit- tle, if anything, to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory. Taken to an extreme, this theory maintains that our behavior is pre-determined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed bv our instincts.

  Those who support the "nurture" theory, that is, they advocate education, are often called behaviorists. They claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based in- stincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist, B. F. Skinner, sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings. ( 64 ) The behaviorists main- tain that, like machines, humans respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior.

  Let us examine the different explanations about one human characteristic, intelligence, of- fered by the two theories. (65 ) Supponers of the "nature" theory insist that we are born with a certain capacity for learning that is biologically determined. Needless to say. They don't believe that factors in the environment have much influence on what is basically a predetemlined charac- tedstic. On the other hand, behaviorists argue that our intelligence levels are the product of our experiences. (66) Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development .

  The social and political implications of these two theories are profound. (67 ) In the United States, blacks often score below whites on standardized intelligence tests. This leads some " na- ture" proponents to conclude that blacks are biologically inferior to whites. ( 68) Behaviorists, in contrast, say that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy. .

  Most people think neither of these theories can yet fully explain human behavior.

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