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2001年英语专业八级试题及答案

2005-12-21 00:00

  PART Ⅰ LISTENING COMPREHENSION

  SECTION A TALK

  The World Bank is one of the major channels through which development aid is passed from industrial west to the poor and developing nations of the world. Its scale of operations is vast, which is why its lending program exceeds 7 billion a year, and its work force numbers about 4500. In the last decade important changes have taken place in the size of the bank's operations and in the emphasis of its lending policies. What immediately strikes anyone looking at the lending figures over the last 10 years is the tremendous expansion in the bank's loan program. This has increased from 1 billion to nearly 7 billion. The figure includes hard loans, which are made at the current rate of interest, and soft loans, which are allocated to poor countries at concessionary rates, and usually channel led through the bank's affiliate-the International Development Association.

  In deciding the emphasis of its lending policy, the bank has had to take into account the population explosion which is occurring in many poor countries of the world. It is a fact that the fertility rate of the poor countries is often very high. This is one of the main reasons for these countries remaining poor. Unfortunately, wide-ranging country section programs do not usually reduce this r ate because this was a strong and deeply rooted tradition among people in these countries to have big families. What the bank discovered was that there was a link between economic and social development on the one hand, and reduction of fertility rate on the other. Thus by improving basic health services, by introducing better nutrition, by increasing literacy, and by promoting more even income distribution in a poor country, a lower and more acceptable fertility rate will be achieved. This advanced thinking persuaded the bank to change its overall lend ing strategy, where previously it concentrated on the big infrastructure project s, such as dams, roads and bridges. It begun to switch to projects which directly improve the basic services of the country. There was a shift, if you like, from building dams to digging water holes to provide clear water.

  A second reason for the change of approach was that the bank has learned a big lesson from projects financed in the 1960s. Many of its major capital investment had scarcely touched the lives of urban and rural poor, nor have they created much employment. The project did not have the trigger-down effect they have in industrialized countries. Instead the huge dams, steel-mills, and so on were left as monuments to themselves. This redirection of its lending has meant that the bank has tended to support labour intensive activities, rather than capita l intensive ones. Both rural and urban areas, there is a better chance in the first case, that its funds will benefit the bottom 40% of the country's population. 

  The bank is also looking for ways of stimulating the growth of the small businesses in many developing countries since this would create employment opportunities for people with lower incomes. Being such a big, obvious target, the bank has often come under fire. For example, its officials have been taken to task for u sing Concord supersonic aircraft so frequently, about 500 times in one year. Also, the large growth of the organization's personnel has not pleased some critic s . A more substantial criticism has concerned the bank's policy of setting annual target for lending to specified countries. This could lead to the deterioration in quality of loans, some say. One former bank official has said, rather than encourage growth for its own sake, the bank should begin to think of itself less as a foreign aid agency and more of a financial deal-maker, combining official wit h the private resources for specific purposes.

  Finally, some people maintain that the impact of the projects funded by the bank has been modest.  When one looks around the world at regions or countries that have successfully transformed to industrial status, it seems that one should be aware of over-estimating the bank's impact. Take Hong Kong for example. Its changes have come about as a result of trade offensive. The purpose has been to flood western market with low price goods made by capitalist methods of production. The example seems to indicate that some regions can prosper without the bank's aid as well.

  SECTION B CONVERSATION

  W: Well, it seems quite common actually. A lot of people in Australia no w are travelling and taking time off. And when I was actually travelling, I met so many people doing the same thing.

  M: Yeah, yeah, so where did you start off?

  W: Well, I went to New Zealand first. Eh, and got a job in a computer company as  a secretary. And I worked there for 4 months.

  M: Really? You can do that, can you? I mean it's possible for anyone to get a j ob in New Zealand, without being a New Zealander?

  W: No, not everybody, only Australians and New Zealanders can exchange either. Y ou know you can work in either country.'

  M: Right, yeah.

  W: So that was easy. So I worked there for 4 months and raised enough money for the rest of travels really. So from there I went to Indonesia, and travelled around the different islands around Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, China , Nepal and India. 

  M: What about Indonesia? What did you do? Did you fly mostly between the Islands?

  W: Eh, I did a bit of that, and boats, mainly local boats between the Islands.

  M: What about Singapore? People said it's very very modern. But because it is s o modern, it's      rather boring. Did you find that?

  W: Well, it's difficult to say really. It has different attractions. You know t h e Chinese, Malay, and Hindu communities are there. Each has his own culture and custom, very different from the others. And it's a great big shopping center an d I really enjoy it from that point of view. And it was very clean.

  M: And after, you said you went what, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and then China? That's a great country to travel in, isn't it?

  W: Eh, it was. Yeah, it was fabulous. It really was. You have been there then?

  M: No, I haven't. No, I mean it's very big. What did you do?

  W: Yeah. Well, I had only one month to travel in China, and that was too short f or such a vast country as China. I felt I didn't have enough time, so I sacrifced a lot of places and did the main tourist throughout really. I went to Beijing, the capital, Kaifeng, Yinchuan, and Tibet.

  M: Well, how exciting! You said after Beijing, you went to?

  W: That was Kaifeng in central China's Henan province. It's a charming city, and has got a lot to look around, like temples and pagodas, very traditional.

  M: Eh, eh.

  W: What fascinated me when I was there was that some Jews went to live in Kaifen g many years ago. As early as 16th century, there were Jewish families there. They have their synagogue and five books of Masses. Even today several hundred descendants of the original Jews still live in Kaifeng.

  M: Really, I've never heard of that. And where did you go after Kaifeng?

  W: I went to northwest to Yinchuan, the provincial city of Ningxia Hui autonomous region.

  M: Is this the place where there always is a shortage of water?

  W: No, no, on the contrary, it has got abundant supply of water, because it is n ear the Yellow River. In this sense, Yinchuan has a favorable geographical posit on in otherwise harsh surroundings.

  M: What did you see there then?

  W: Ningxia was once the capital of Western Xia during the 11th century. So outside Yinchuan,  you can still see the Western Xia mausoleum, where the Kings and t heir Kingdoms were buried. The tombs were scattered in a pretty big area at the foot of the Henan Mountain, and inside the city there are famous mosques in the architectural style of Middle East. It's really a place worth visiting. You got to know something about Chinese Moslems.

  M: And that sounds really interesting. Where did you travel after that?

  W: I was lucky enough to get into Tibet, and that was brilliant.

  M: Yeah. What was the most interesting place you visited, do you think?

  W: Well, I think actually Tibet is the most fascinating and exciting. I've never been anywhere so different. The people there are wonderful, the clothes .they w ear, the food they eat.

  M: And you said you went to Nepal as well?

  W: Yeah, eh, that's a sort of easier passion of Tibetans really and there are a  lot of Tibetans——there as well as other tribes and Nepalese, so that was good because I went trekking in Nepal, you should do that.

  M: How long did you trek for?

  W: Oh, I only did a short one, only for a week. I was lazy.

  M: Was it very tiring?

  W: No, it wasn't actually. I mean you just set your own pace, and don't pace y ourselves too hard, that was a stupid thing to do. Eh, you don't have to walk very far, so that was great.

  M: So how did you feel after all this travelling? How did you feel to stop travelling? I mean you were on the move alone for months and months ,and suddenly you're here ,and not traveling any more. How does it feel?

  W: I was ready to stop anyway. You get pretty sick, wearing the same clothes, and washing them in the different hotels. I never stay in the same place for longer than two days. And since I was ready to stop, I don't think I could keep doing it. I mean I've met people who've been travelling for 2 or 3 years. I couldn't do it.

  M: Yeah, yeah. Maybe it's something I should try after this.

  W: I think you really should.

  SECTION C    NEWS BROADCAST

  News Item 1(For Questions 11-12)

  Mike Tyson could sign a deal by Friday to face either Germany's Axo Shos or Denmark's Brian Nielsen here on August 21 in the heavy weight's first fight since his release from jail. The former World Heavy Weight champion was released on Monday after 4 months behind bars for an assault in the wake of a traffic accident last August. His deal with Showtime makes an August come back likely. "August 21st is certainly a day we're looking at," Showtime board director, James Lock en s said, "Hopefully in the next few days we'll have something concrete". Nevada boxing officials revoked Tyson's license for more than a year after he bit Evander Holyfield's ear off in June 1997. But they plan no action on Tyson because the license they granted him to fight doesn't expire until the end of the year. That came before the assault charge had been heard, and with the victim's support.

  News Item 2(For Question 13)

  The United States has begun to review Russians documents about the life and death of former president John F. Kennedy, and is expected to release them once the review is complete, the White House said on Monday. The documents which the Russians gave the United States on Sunday would be of particular interest because Kennedy's assassin Lee Harvey Oswald lived in the former Soviet Union for several years before he returned to the United States, and was arrested for killing t he former president on November 22, 1963. Russian President Boris Yeltsin surprised US president Bill Clinton on Sunday when he turned over what was described a s the result of exhaustive search of Russian government, military and private archives for papers about Kennedy and his assassination.

  News Item 3(For Questions 14-15)

  Hong Kong's unemployment rate has remained stable at 6.3% in the past 3 months, as business conditions have improved in the last month Figures indicate that from March to May this year, the size of the labor force was provisionally at 3,469,000, while the number of the unemployed people stood at 216,000. The number of cases of insolvency, sensational businesses and retrenchment, and numbers of workers affected these cases as recorded by the Labor Department have shown a declining trend in recent months. From March to May 1999, 78 such cases involving 3,882 workers were recorded as compared 93 cases affecting 5,220 workers for the 3 months from December 1998 to February 1999. Figures for the period from March to May 1999 when compared with those from February to April 1999 show an increase in the unemployment rate, mainly in renovation, maintenance, whole sale, and retail and transport sectors, which offset the decrease in construction, import and export and financing sectors 

  SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

  The Press Conference

  Press conferences are an all too familiar phenomena around us. However, when people start thinking about its advantages, it sometimes seems difficult to think of any that press conference provides for the competent news reporter. Use of the press conference by public officials and private entrepreneurs help give rise to the phrase "pseudo-event", and the event contrived to create news cove rage, where none has considered wanted. 

  However, having said that, one value of news conference by a public official is the symbolic nature of the event. And perhaps this is reasoned enough to continue the practice. At a press conference, a public official supposedly submits to examination by responding to unsolicited and perhaps hostile questions. A related advantage to the reporter is that press conference offers an opportunity to get the public official on the record, with regard to the government policies. Statements from the press conference can serve as criteria against subsequent statements and policies are measured. In that regard, press conference information may be used as reference point, more so than comments reported by single news medium. Also, when there is a single issue or topic to address, such as a new government program, an earthquake, or the nomination of a new government minister, the press conference offers benefits of efficiency in that officials can speak to a number of reporters at once on the issue of public concern and interest. The press conference may be at its best in this almost one-way format.

  Now let's move on to the disadvantages. And there are serious ones. Generally speaking, the press conference format, as it stands, makes it difficult for t he reporters to get worthwhile information. At press conference, particularly a large one, the well-prepared reporter may never get asked question and certainly is unlikely to have chance to ask follow-up questions. Another disadvantage in the press conference comes from the news source, that is, the news provider. The  news source generally decides who asks the questions, determines the length of the answers, and can avoid any follow-up question and rephrase tough questions t o his or her liking, and sets the time, place and duration of the interview. Press conferences televise live for the news audience, sometimes only highlights the disadvantages for the news reporters since there is little or no time to challenge, clarify or place context materials provided by the news source. Despite these disadvantages and others inherent how reporters get information, t he dews reporter can help assure the worthwhile information from a news source in share with the news audience. One way to reduce the likely heard of errors is to use multiple forms of interviewing by telephone, in person, and press conferences as well as multiple sources, common to the success of these approaches, how ever, are such interrelated ingredient as the preparation of the news reporter, the component of the news source and nature of the questions asked.

  Let's look at the preparation first.  The nature of much news coverage requires news reporters to be well-read on contemporary events. Like other professionals and craftsmen, the reporter must keep up to date on journalistic subject matter, that is the human condition. Although the subject is broad, it offers the advantages that there is a little a reporter can read or witness. That will not help in covering the news at one time or another. Next, being prepared for an interview includes giving some thought to the competence of the news source. The relationships between news reporters and news sources would benefit the news audience more, if reporters would frequently ask themselves: What is this news resource competent to talk about? What can this person tell the news audience that few others can? Towards the caution regarding the issue of competence, first, the reporter should not take for granted that, because of position or experience, the news source should know, does know, and can provide information. Second, the competence of t he news source needs to be linked with the news-gathering-methods. Let's just spend a few minutes on the first point. There are generally 4 conditions under which the reporter should not give prints to the news source information. One, the source may not know the information the reporter wants. Two, the source may have the information and want to share it, but may lack the verbal skills or concepts to do so. Three, the source may have the desired information but not to want to share it, or worse, may lie to avoid sharing information. Last, t he source may be willing to share this information but unable to recall it.

  Now in addition to preparation of the reporter and competence of the news source, there is one more important ingredient in successful news coverage, that is, he nature of questions asked. It is generally agreed that the nature of the question can shape the nature of the answer. General questions like "Are you for market economy" may lead to the respondent saying virtually anything, and s till being rather vague. On the other hand, a too narrow question may limit the respondent to one particular answer only. In order to gather information from news sources as accurately as possible, reporters can improve the question in the following 5 ways. Firstly, avoid words wit h double meanings. Secondly, avoid long questions. Thirdly, specify the time, pl ace and context you want the respondent to assume, and number 4, it is often helpful to ask questions in terms of the respondent's own immediate and recent experience rather than in generalities. Finally, either make explicit all the alternative the respondent should have in mind when answering the question or make non e of them explicit. Do not leave the news resource by suggesting a desired answer and not mentioning other alternatives.

  OK, to sum up, today's lecture has covered some of the advantages and disadvantages of the press conference, and three important factors and successful news coverage. In our next lecture, we will continue to discuss how to become a competent news reporter.

  答案与详解

  PAPER ONE

  PART Ⅰ LISTENING COMPREHENSION

  SECTION A TALK

  1.答案:A

  【问句译文】世界银行运行系统变大系统的变化指的是什么?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】解答本题的关键句是"What immediately strikes anyone looking at the lending figures over the last 10 years is the tremendous expansion in the bank's loan program."由此可知,选项A为正确答案。

  2.答案:C

  【问句译文】是什么使得银行改变其借贷政策?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】录音在提及银行借贷政策的改变时说"Thus by improving basic health services, by introducing better nutrition, by increasing literacy, and by promoting m ore even income distribution in a poor country, a lower and more acceptable fertility rate will be achieved. This advancing thinking persuaded the bank to change its overall lending strategy."这里提到了一些改变贫穷国家现状的措施,由"a lower and more acceptable"可知,从根本上促使政策改革的原因应为选项C。

  3.答案:D

  【问句译文】银行借贷政策重点的变化意味者银行将会怎样?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】在提到投资对象时,谈话者说"Many of its major capital investment had scarcely touched the lives of urban and rural poor, nor have they created much employment."因此银行决定加大对劳动密集型活动的援助,故答案选D。

  4.答案:D

  【问句译文】下列哪一项不是对银行的批评?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】谈话者说"…the bank should begin to think of itself less as a foreign aid agency and more of financial deal-maker,…"即世界银行应该作为财政的决策者 ,这一点应得到肯定,而不是批评,故选项D为正确答案。

  5.答案:C

  【问句译文】在整个谈话中,作者在介绍世界银行时是什么态度?

  【试题分析】本题为推理题。

  【详细解答】谈话者对世界银行的职能、现状、改进作了客观评论,并未表达出自己的个人感 情。因此选项C"客观的"为正确答案。

  SECTION B CONVERSATION

  6.答案:B

  【问句译文】男士对什么事实感到吃惊?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】当女士说她在新西兰找了一份在计算机公司做秘书的工作时,男士说"Really? You can do that, can you? I mean it's possible for anyone to get a job in New Zealand, without being a New Zealander?"不是新西兰本土人也可以找到一份工作,因此 他感到惊奇,故选项B为正确答案。

  7.答案:D

  【问句译文】那位女土喜欢新加坡的主要原因是什么?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】当男士提出由于新加坡过于的现代化,所以人们觉得它很乏味,接着他问女士的 感受。女士回答说:"And it's a great big shopping center and I really enjoy it from that point of view."由此可知吸引女士的是购物机遇,故答案选D。

  8.答案:B

  【问句译文】从对话中我们可得知开封和银川留给这位女士的怎样印象?

  【试题分析】本题为概括题。

  【详细解答】对话中提到了开封和银川的地理位置,犹太人的后代,古老的宝塔,归纳起来便 是历史情趣吸引了她,答案选B。

  9.答案:C

  【问句译文】下列哪一项最能形容女士对西藏的感受?

  【试题分析】本题为推理题。

  【详细解答】当男士问到她游历过的最有趣的地方时,女士回答说"I think actually Tibet is the most fascinating and exciting. I've never been anywhere so different." ,由此可知,选项C"狂喜"最能体现她的感受。

  10.答案:A

  【问句译文】根据谈话内容,是什么使得她暂停了旅行?

  【试题分析】本题为概括题。

  【详细解答】在谈到准备暂停旅行时,女士说"You get pretty sick, wearing the same clothes, and washing them in the different hotels. I never stay in the same place for longer than two days."穿着同样的衣服,在不同的旅馆里去洗它们使她感到厌烦, 在同一个地方呆的时间从没有超过两天,由此可推知:她想停下居无定所的生活,故答案选 A。

  SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST

  News Item 1

  11.答案:C

  【问句译文】泰森为何于去年八月被关入监狱?

  【试题分析】本题为主旨题。

  【详细解答】新闻中提到"…for an assault in the wake of traffic accident last August."由此可知,泰森是因为在一次交通事故中动手打人而被捕入狱。

  12.答案:A

  【问句译文】泰森在什么日期前得不到拳击比赛的许可证?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】解答本题的关键句是"But they plan no action on Tyson because the license they granted him to fight doesn't expire until the end of the year."由此可知,答案选A。

  News Item 2

  13.答案:B

  【问句译文】为何俄罗斯的档案应受到重视?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】新闻第二句说"The documents which the Russian gave the United States o n Sunday would be of particular interest because Kennedy's assassin Lee Harvey Oswald lived in the former Soviet Union for several years …",由于刺杀肯尼迪的 凶手逃至前苏联生活了好几年,因此俄罗斯的档案应受到重视。

  News Item 3

  14.答案:C

  【问句译文】在近三个月里,香港的失业率情况如何?

  【试题分析】本题为主旨题。

  【详细解答】新闻开头就说"Hong Kong's unemployment rate has remained stable at 6.3 % in the past 3 months,…"由此可知,在过去的三个月里,香港失业率稳定在6.3%,因 此答案选C。

  15.答案:C

  【问句译文】根据该新闻,下列哪一选项是正确的?

  【试题分析】本题为推理题。

  【详细解答】新闻中提到各部门失业率有不同幅度地上涨或下降,但新闻首句就告诉我们说失 业率保持在6.3%不变。由此可推断出一些部门失业率上升,另外一些部门失业率下降,从 而保持总的失业率稳定不变,故答案选C。

  SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

  1.答案:symbolic  

  【详细解答】在提到新闻发布会的第一个优点时说"…one value of news conference by a public official is the symbolic nature of the event."由此可直接填写"symbolic"。

  2.答案:reference  

  【详细解答】在提到新闻发布会的另一个优点时说"In that regard, press conference information may be used as reference point,…" 由此可直接填写"reference"。

  3.答案:reporters  

  【详细解答】由录音"…the press conference offers benefits of efficiency in that officials can speak to a number of reporters at once on the issue of public concern and interest."可知,这里说的是从"记者们"(reporters)的观点来看问题。

  4.答案:format  

  【详细解答】本段录音的最后一句说"The press conference may be at its best in this almost one-way format." 由此可直接填写"format"。

  5.答案:disadvantage

  【详细解答】前面讲的是新闻发布会的优点(advantage),下面接着就要转入谈它的缺点了 (disadvantage)。

  6.答案:component  

  【详细解答】由录音"…the component of the news source and nature of the questions asked."可直接填写"component"。

  7.答案:competence  

  【详细解答】由关键句"…the competence of the news source needs to be linked with the news-gathering-methods."可知,此处应填写"competence"。

  8.答案:verbal    

  【详细解答】由关键句"…but may lack the verbal skills or concepts to do so."可知 ,这里说的是"口头表达"(verbal)技能。

  9.答案:nature    

  【详细解答】由录音"…that is, the nature of questions asked." 可知,此处应填写" nature"。

  10.答案:asking

  【详细解答】这里提到了五条改进提问的方法,第四条是"it is often helpful to ask questions in terms of the respondent's own immediate",根据上下文,此处应该用它的 动名词形式,故填写"asking"。

  改错

  PART Ⅱ PROOFREADING AND ERROR CORRECTION

  1.答案: as→so 

  【详细解答】由于本句中的 much修饰的是名词 feeling,应改用so来修饰。

  2.答案:increasing→increasingly 

  【详细解答】 increasing可用来修饰名词,表示"正在增加",修饰名词topic不合题意。本 句中应该用副词作状语修饰形容词favorite,所以应该改用副词increasingly。

  3.答案:so→but 

  【详细解答】根据上下文判断,小麦价格在秋天不断下降,但是农民不能等着市场提升价格。 这里应该是转折关系,而不是因果关系。

  4.答案:soon或shortly 

  【详细解答】要表达"不久以后",要么用soon after,要么用shortly after,就是没有soon shortly after这种搭配。

  5.答案:rich→richer 

  【详细解答】根据上下文,这里是说由于价格上涨,投机商们变得更加富有,故应该改用形容 词的比较级形式。

  6.答案:asked∧→for 

  【详细解答】ask for为固定搭配,意为"要求,请求"。

  7.答案:involving→involved 

  【详细解答】be involved in为一固定搭配,意为"被卷入…",这里的be为连系动词,可用 become替换。

  8.答案:1ife→living 

  【详细解答】根据上下文,这里要表达的意思是"生活费用",应为living costs。life则意 为"生命",不能修饰costs。

  9.答案:handle→deal或with

  【详细解答】handle为及物动词,应直接带宾语。而固定搭配deal with与handle同义,都 表示 "处理(某事)"。

  10.答案:total→full

  【详细解答】total意为"总体的,全体的",指一种整体的概念。而这里要表达的是"全部 的权威",英语中常用full authority。

  阅读理解 A

  SECTION A 

  TEXT A  

  短文大意:本文介绍的是一个叫做Blackpool的地方。在二十年前是一片繁荣景象,如今 却是一片荒凉。当地政府正在采取措施。

  16.答案:D

  【参考译文】文章开头似乎在暗示Blackpool怎样?

  【试题分析】本题为推理题。

  【详细解答】文章的开头引用一位当地官员的话说"Twenty years ago, Blackpool turned its back on the sea and tried to make itself into an entertainment centre." 然后 又谈到了现在的情况"Now the thinking is that we should try, to refocus on the se a and make Blackpool a family destination again."通过前后对比可知,选项D "Blackpool打算恢复它以前的面貌"为正确答案。

  17.答案:B

  【参考译文】由该短文可知,Blackpool以前的状况怎样?

  【试题分析】本题为细节推理题。

  【详细解答】短文第三段最后一句说"For the first time since the industrial revolution Blackpool's waters are safe to swim in."由此可知,该处以前的水源同样是受到污染的,故答案选B。   

  18.答案:A

  【参考译文】Blackpool海滩给参观者印象最深的是什么?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】 短文第五段首句说"The most striking thing about Blackpool these days compared with 20 years ago is how empty its beaches are."由此可知选项A为正确答 案。

  

  TEXT B  

  短文大意:本文主要论述的是1997年的亚洲金融危机的危害及其爆发的原因。

  19.答案:D

  【参考译文】根据该短文,下列哪一项不是作者的观点?

  【试题分析】本题为排除题。

  【详细解答】短文第二段最后几句说"In the face of the stampede, governments had no good options. If they let their currencies plunge inflation would soar and companies that had borrowed in dollars would go bankrupt; if they tried to support their currencies by pushing up interest rates, the same firms would probably go bust from the combination of debt burden and recession. In practice, countries' sp lit the difference- and paid a heavy price regardless."由此可知,亚洲经济危机时 期各国均陷入经济两难境地,既不能任由本国货币猛跌,也不能提高存款利率。选项D与该 说法相矛盾, 故不是作者的观点。

  20.答案:C

  【参考译文】作者认为那些亚洲国家如何?

  【试题分析】本题为细节推理题。

  【详细解答】短文第三段最后一句说"But the punishment was surely disproportionate t o the crime,…"由此可知,作者认为那些亚洲国家遭受的惩罚过度了,故答案选C。

  21.答案:A

  【参考译文】从该短文可以推知IMF的经济复苏政策如何?

  【试题分析】本题为推理题。

  【详细解答】虽然IMF对韩国的经济复苏起了一定作用,短文第四段却说"Never mind that other IMF clients have done far worse,…"接着以马来西亚为例,说明IMF的政策不是万能的,故答案选A。 

  22.答案:B

  【参考译文】在短文的末尾,作者认为亚洲国家经济全面复苏是怎样的?

  【试题分析】本题为推理题。

  【详细解答】短文最后一段的最后一句说"…they have a long way to go."即这些国家( 的经济全面复苏)有很长的路要走。故选项B"遥远的"为正确答案。

  TEXT C  

  短文大意:本文主要论述的是人类为何迁居以及迁居所带来的影响。

  23.答案:D

  【参考译文】下列哪一种说法是错误的?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题,可用排除法解答。

  【详细解答】短文第三段首句说"Migration is the dynamic undertow of population change: everyone's solution, everyone's conflict."由此可知,人口迁移对社会人口变化 有影响,故可排除选项A;短文第四段最后一句说"Migration helped create humans, dro ve us to conquer the planet, shaped our societies, and promises to reshape them again." 由此可知,人口迁移影响着社会政治经济的变化,同时也促进了社会的发展变化 ,故可排除选项B和C;而全文没有提及选项D的意思,故为正确答案。

  24.答案:B

  【参考译文】根据Kingsley Davis的观点,下列哪一项不是造成人类迁移的原因?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题,可用排除法解答。

  【详细解答】短文第八段分析了造成人类迁移的两个方面的原因。第一点是人类的适应性(ad apt to different conditions);第二点是人类文化的差异性及群体之间的不平等性(cultures began to differ, and inequalities developed between groups),故可排除选项 A、C、D。

  25.答案:A

  【参考译文】下列哪一项不是短文中提到的移居者?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题,可用排除法解答。

  【详细解答】 短文倒数第二段讲述了几起重大事件引起的人口迁移:宗教运动引起了早期移 民(religions spawned pilgrims or settlers);战争为殖民者提供了场所(wars drove refugees);经济技术革新吸引了大批工人与企业家(economic innovations drew workers and entrepreneurs)。因此可排除D(殖民者)、B(工人)和C(移居者)。

  26.答案:C

  【参考译文】重大事件与人类迁移之间是怎样的关系?

  【试题分析】本题为推理题。

  【详细解答】短文倒数第二段首句说"It is difficult to think of any great events that did not involve migration."该否定句强调说明了重大事件与人类迁移之间因果相承关 系,故答案选C。

  TEXT D  

  短文大意:本文论述的是科学家和艺术家们如何表达思想,进行社会交流的。

  27.答案:B

  【参考译文】富有创造力的艺术家与思想家是如何进行交流的?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】 短文第一段第三句指出,富有创造力的艺术家与思想家是"… in one way tha t of creating a language, or creating a convention, or at least of developing th e language and conventions to the point where they are capable of bearing his pr ecise meaning."选项B与此意一致,故为正确答案。

  28.答案:D

  【参考译文】从事创造性工作的艺术家和科学家们共同的特征是什么?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】 短文第一段最后几句说"Many artists and scientists share this fundamental unconcern about the ways in which their work will be received. They may be glad if it is understood and appreciated, hurt if it is not, but while the work is being done there can be no argument."由此可知,他们只看重作品本身,而不在意人 们对他们创作的反应,故答案选D。

  29.答案:C

  【参考译文】根据该短文,下列哪一种说法是不正确的?

  【试题分析】本题为排除题。

  【详细解答】从短文第二段中可找出选项A、B和D的意思。由"For it is not only a communication system outside him; it is also, however original he may be, a communication system which is in fact part of himself. "可知,无论任何人在创作过程中都必 将会受到社会的影响,故答案选C。

  30.答案:A

  【参考译文】文章结尾处暗示了那些具有创造力的人们感到孤独,其原因是他们怎样?

  【试题分析】本题为推理题。

  【详细解答】短文最后一句话"The society and the communication are there, but it is difficult to recognize them, difficult to be sure."这里是说,他们其实与当时的 社会以及同时代其他人之间都存在着许多共同点,但他们自己不承认。因此他们感到孤独的 真正原因是没有找到合适的表达方式。故答案选A。

  阅读理解 B

  TEXT E  

  短文大意:这是一篇关于几本新书的评论文章。

  31.答案:A

  【参考译文】本文的写作目的是什么?

  【试题分析】本题为主旨题。

  【详细解答】文章第一段第五句说"What you need is a good interior-design book."作 者于是分别介绍了几本有关室内设计的书刊。由此可见,作者是在建议人们看一些有关室内 设计的书。故答案选A。

  TEXT F  

  短文大意:本文主要介绍的是德国税收制度改革情况。

  32.答案:D

  【参考译文】本文作者的主要写作目的是什么?

  【试题分析】本题为主旨题。

  【详细解答】通过扫读文中的黑体字"One major reason","A reform","How do"," An approach"和"Comprehensive tax reform"可知本文作者主要是讲述税收制度改革措 施,故答案选D。

  TEXT G  

  短文大意:本文主要论述的是政府在保护大众健康方面应起的作用。

  33.答案:C

  【参考译文】本文主要强调了下列哪一项在健康话题中的角色?

  【试题分析】本题为主旨题。

  【详细解答】短文第一段最后一句提出问题"How can governments help people conserve t heir health and avoid premature death? "下文便开始讲述政府应在烟草、酒精、垃圾 广告各方面多作工作。由此可知,全文主要是谈论政府在健康问题上的角色。故答案选C。


  TEXT H  

  短文大意:本文主要阐述的是人类反叛的本性。

  34.答案:A

  【参考译文】随着文章论点的展开,文章的写作特点是什么?

  【试题分析】本题为推理题。

  【详细解答】分析文章段落内容从提出问题(must we conform?),然后对该问题进行分析, 最后回答解决问题的方法,由此可见,作者论述了"人类具有反叛的本性"这一论点,据有 一定的说服力。故答案选A"阐述性"。

  TEXT I  

  短文大意:本文是对美国未来的一些社会情况进行的预测。

  35.答案:B

  【参考译文】根据人口调查预计,到2050年美国男性平均寿命能达到多少岁?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】短文第三段最后一句说"And by the year 2050, women will have a life exp ectancy of 83.6 years and men of at least 75.1."由此可直接得出正确答案为B。

  36.答案:D

  【参考译文】犯罪专家估计在不久的将来犯罪率将首先在哪些地区降低?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。 【详细解答】短文最后一段最后一句指出"Crime expert Alfred Blumstein, who foresees a drop in crime over the coming decade, predicts that the Northeast and Midwest, …" 由此可直接得出正确答案为D。

  TEXT J 

  短文大意:本文是从1972到1998有关中美交往的记事表。

  37.答案:D

  【参考译文】中美何时建立正式的外交关系?

  【试题分析】本题为时间题。

  【详细解答】快速查看全文,在记事表第五段说"January 1, 1979: China and the US form ally established diplomatic ties."故答案选D。

  38.答案:B

  【参考译文】建立新型中美关系的五项基本原则是江泽民在何什么地方提出来的?

  【试题分析】本题为地点题。

  【详细解答】快速查看全文,在记事表第十二段说"November 14, 1994: Chinese President Jiang Zemin, on the sidelines of attending an informal APEC leadership meeting in Bogor, met US President Bill Clinton in Jakarta and put forward the Five Principles for the establishment of a new type of Sino-US relationship."这里记录的 是江泽民和克林顿在雅加达(Jakarta)会面签订了五项基本原则。故答案选B。

  TEXT K  

  短文大意:本文介绍的是五位作家及其主要作品。

  39.答案:A

  【参考译文】如果你对讽刺小说感兴趣,你很可能选择谁的作品阅读?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】短文第四段第一句说"Alexander Pope, poet and satirist,…"由此可知,Al exander Pope是一位诗人和讽刺作家,故答案选A。

  40.答案:B

  【参考译文】下列哪一位作家是诺贝尔奖获得者?

  【试题分析】本题为细节题。

  【详细解答】文章第一段最后一句说"Galsworthy was awarded the Nobel Prize for Liter ature in l932。"由此可知,Galsworthy于1932年获得诺贝尔文学奖,故答案选B。

  翻译

  SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH

  参考译文

  Qiao Yu took to fishing in his old age. He said: "Where there is fish and water, there is good environment, and good environment fills one's heart with joy (makes one feel delighted, delights everyone, gives delight to everyone). I think the best place for fishing is not a comfortable man-made fish-pond where hungry fish are ready (provided) for you, but an enchanting place in the wild where everything is natural. "Fishing (Angling) is a game that can help improve one's temperament (character). It is good for mental and bodily health. Qiao Yu said: "Fishing falls into three stages. The first stage is just for eating fish. The second stage is for eating fish and for enjoying the pleasure of fishing as well. (The second stage is for enjoying the pleasure of fishing as well as eating fish. ) The third stage is mainly for the pleasure of fishing facing a pool of green water, one casts (throws) aside all anxieties and worries and enjoys (takes) a good rest, both mental and physical."

  SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

  参考译文

  梭罗所理解的"低层次",即为了拥有而去拥有,或与所有的邻居明争暗斗而致拥有。他心目中的"高层次",则是这样一种积极的人生戒律,即要使自己对自然界永恒之物的感悟臻于完美。对于他从低层次上节省下来的时间和精力,他可将其致力于对高层次的追求。勿庸置疑,梭罗不赞成忍饥挨饿,但他在膳食方面所投入的精力仅果腹而已,只要可确保他能去从事更为重要的事务,他便别无所求。

  付出努力才是其本质所在,除非我们终生与困难为伴,否则就无幸福可谈。正如济慈所 言,除去不可能做的事,我们一生获得的满足有多大,取决于我们选择的困难有多强。罗伯 特·福剂罗斯特谈到"苦中求乐"时,也有异曲同工之理。就通常宣传的幸福而言,其致命弱 点在于声称不用付出努力即可获得幸福。

  我们甚至在竞赛中寻求困难。我们需要困难,因为没有困难也就无所谓竞赛,竞赛是制 造困难以求得乐趣之道。竞赛规则就是任意强加的困难。违犯竞赛规则就是破坏乐趣。下棋 时,随心所欲,肆意更改强制之规更易获胜。然而乐趣源于获胜而又遵守规则。没有困难就 没有乐趣。

  写作

  【参考范文】

  The Impact of the Internet on Education

  The Internet is making the world smaller and is changing every aspect of our life. There can be no doubt that the Internet will have greater impact on our society and economy. The impact, in my opinion, will be strongly felt in the aspect of education. 

  First, the Internet provides equal opportunities for all students, as long as they can get access to the Internet. In the traditional form of education, students who get higher marks in examination may enter a better school, and those who do not have to enter a relatively less good one. With the Internet, every student is provided with the same sources of education, so they can get equal opportunities to improve themselves. In that case, the general quality of education will be highly improved in our country.

  Second, the Internet poses a challenge, not a danger really to teacher. Traditionally, teachers are the dominator of education, and students are fixed to t he instruction of several specific teachers. This, in fact, may result in the laziness of teachers, since there is no competition. With the Internet, a student may choose any teacher's instruction as far as he likes it, which is an incentive to the faculty of teachers. Faced with this, a teacher is likely to try his best to improve his instruction and this will in turn improve the educational quality of our country.

  Last but not least, the internet makes education more convenient for the students. A student can learn at any time he likes and, at the same time, save the money spent on tuition and board. All of these may head to a revolution of education. 

  After ail, I am not exaggerating the influence of the Internet on education. It is true that the Internet may still remain out of the reach of some one and may be less amicable than human teachers. But the point is that, the Internet is sure to accelerate the development of education.

  With the Internet, let us make the education of our country into a better existence!

  本套真题测试的语言重点:

  重点单词:

  prevail   流行,盛行

  preposterous  荒谬的

  tumultuous  喧嚣的

  demographer  人口统计学家

  niche  【生】小生境

  bedraggled  衰败的,破旧的

  cirrhosis   【医】硬化

  annihilation  灭绝

  重点词组:

  bottom out  降至最低点

  average out  达到平均数

  sweep up  扫除,清除

  in a way   在某种程度上,稍微

  fall off  下降,跌落,减少,衰退

  strive for  为……奋斗,争取

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