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1999年研究生入学考试英语试题

2005-12-20 14:50  

  1999年全国硕士研究生考试英语试卷及答案

  Part One:

  l . Anyone with half an eye on the unemployment figures knew that the assertion about economic recovery __ just around the corner was untrue.

  [A]wouLd be [B]to be [C]was [D]being

  2. Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills __ people each year than automo- bile accidents.

  [A]seven more times [B]seven times more [C]over seven times [D]seven times

  3. It' s easy to blame the decline of conversation on the pace of modern life and on the vague changes __ place in our ever-changing world.

  [A] taking [B]to take [C]take [D]taken

  4. This is an exciting area of study, and one __ which new applications are being discov- ered almost daily.

  [A] from [B]by [C] in [D] through

  5 . __ can be seen from the comparison of these figures, the principle involves the active participation of the patient in the modification of his condition.

  [A]As [B]What [C]That [D] It

  6. Although I had been invited to the opening ceremony, I was unable to attend __ such short notice.

  [A]to [B]in [C]with [D]on

  7. California has more light than it knows __ to do with but everything else is expensive.

  [A] how [ B] what [ C] which [D] where

  8. The solution works only for couples who are self-employed, don't have small children and get along __ to spend most of their time together.

  [A]so well [B]too well [C]well as [D]well enough

  9. Marlin is a young man of independent thinking who is not about __ compliments to his political leaders .

  [A]paying [B]having paid [C]to pay [D] to have paid

  10. These proposals sought to place greater restrictions on the use and copying of digital informa- tion than __ in traditional media.

  [A]exist [B]exists [ C]existing [D]to exist

  11. Your math instructor would have been happy to give you a makeup examination

  [A]

  had you gone and explained that your parents had been ill at the time.

  [B] [C] [D]

  12. As the children become financially independent of the family, the emphasis on family fi-

  [A] [B] [C]

  nancial security will shift from protection to save for the retirement years.

  [D]

  13. Were the Times Co. to purchase another major media company, there is no doubt that it

  [A]

  could dramatically transform a family-ran enterprise that still gets 90% of its revenues

  [B] [C] [D]

  from newspapers.

  14. Symposium talks will cover a wide range of subjects from overfishing to physical and

  [A] [B]

  environment factors that affect the populations of different species.

  [C] [D]

  15 . Convenation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with one of listener , and

  [A] [B] [C]

  it calls for occasional ' digestive pauses' by both.

  [D]

  16. If two theories are equal to their ability to account for a body of data, the theory that

  [A] [B]

  does so with the smaller nomber of assumptions is to be preferred.

  [c] [D]

  17. The Committee adopted a resolution requiring the seven automakers selling the most cars in

  [A] [B]

  the state making 2 percent of those vehicles emissions-free by 1998.

  [C] [D]

  18. As long as poor people, who in general are colored, are in conflict with richer people, who in

  [A] [B]

  general are lighter skin, there' s going to be a constant racial conflict in the world.

  [C] [D]

  19 . All those left undone may sound greatly in theory, but even the trust believer has great dif-

  [A] [B] [C]

  ficulty when it comes to specifics.

  [D]

  20 . Even if automakers modify commercially produced cars to run on alternative fuels, the cars

  [A] [B] [C]

  won' t catch on in a big way when drivers can fill them up at the gas station.

  [D]

  21 . An important property of a scientific theory is its ability to ___ further research and fur-

  ther thinking about a particular topic.

  [ A] stimulate [ B] renovate [ C] arouse [ D] advocate

  22 . Although architecture has artistic qualities, it must also satisfy a number of important practi-

  cal __.

  [ A] obligations [B] regulations [ C ] observations [ D] considerations

  23 . Life insurance is financial protection for dependents against loss __ the bread-winner' s

  death .

  [A]at the cost of [B]on the verge of [C]as a result of [D]for the sake of

  24. In education there should be a good __ among the branches of knowledge that con-

  tribute to effective thinking and wise judgment .

  [ A] distribution [ B] balance [ C] combination [ D] assignment

  25 . The American dream is most __ during the periods of productivity and wealth generat-

  ed by American capitalism.

  [A] plausible [B] patriotic [ C] primitive [D] partial

  26 . Poverty is not __ in most cities although, perhaps because of the crowded conditions in

  certain areas, it is more visible there.

  [ A] rare [ B] temporary [ C] prevalent [ D] segmental

  27. People who live in small towns often seem more friendly than those living in __ popu- lated areas.

  [A] densely [ B] intensely [ C] abundantly [D] highly

  28. As a way of __ the mails while they were away, the Johnsons asked the cleaning lady to send little printed slips asking the senders to write again later.

  [A]picking up [B]coping with [C]passing out [D]getting across

  29 . Tom' s mother tried hard to persuade him to __ from his intention to invest his savings in stock market .

  [A]pull out [B]give up [C]draw in [D]back down

  30. An increasing proportion of our population, unable to live without advanced medical __ , will become progressively more reliant on expensive technology.

  [ A] interference [ B] interruption [ C] intervention [ D] interaction

  31 . These causes produced the great change in the country that modernized the __ of high- er education from the mid-1860's to the mid-1880's.

  [ A] branch [ B]category t C] domain [D] scope

  32 . Nobody yet knows how long and how seriously the __ in the financial system will drag down the economy.

  [ A] shallowness [ B] shakiness [ C] scantiness [ D] stiffness

  33 . Crisis would be the right term to describe the __ in many animal species. .

  [ A] minimization [ B] restriction [ C] descent [ D] decline

  34 . The city is an important railroad __ and industrial and convention center.

  [A] conjunction [ B] network [ C]junction [D] link

  35. Prof. White, my respected tutor, frequently reminds me to __ myself of every chance to improve my English.

  [ A] assure [ B] inform [ C] avail [D] notify

  36. Researchers discovered that plants infected with a virus give off a gas that __ disease resistance in neighboring plants.

  [ A.] contracts [ B] activates [ C] maintains [ D] prescribe

  37 . Corporations and labor unions have __ great benefits upon their employees and mem- bers as well as upon the general pubtic.

  [A] conferred [ B]granted [ C] flung [D] submitted

  38. The movement of the moon conveniently provided the unit of month, which was __ from one new moon to the next.

  [ A] measured [ B] reckoned [ C]judged [ D] assessed

  39. The judge ruled that the evidence was inadmissible on the grounds that it was __ to the issue at hand.

  [ A] irrational [ B] unreasonable [ C] invalid [ D] irrelevant

  40. Fuel scarcities and price increases __ automobile designers to scale down the largest models and to develop completely new lines of small cars and trucks.

  [ A] persuaded [ B] prompted [ C] imposed [ D] enlightened

  Part two: Cloze Test

  Industrial safety does not just happen.Companies _41__ low accident rates plan their safety programs, work hard to organize them,and continue working to keep them 42 and active. When the work is well done, a 43 of accident-free operations is established _44__ time lost due to injuries

  is kept at a minimum.

  Successful safety programs may 45 greatly in the emphasis placed on certain aspects of the program.

  Some place great emphasis on mechanical guarding. Others stress safe work practices by _46__ rules or regulations._47_ others depend on an emotional appeal to the worker. But, there are certain basic ideas that must be used in every progr8m if maximum results are to be obtained.

  There can be no question about the value of a safety program. From a financial stand-point alone, safety _48__. The fewer the injury 49,the better the workman's insurance rate. This may mean the diff-erence between operating at _50__or at a loss.

  41. [A]at [B]in [C]on [D]with

  42. [A]alive [B]vivid [ C]mobile [D] diverse

  43. [A]regulation [B]climate [C]circumstance [D]requirement

  44. [A]where [B]how [ C]what [D]unless

  45. [A]alter [B]differ [ C] shift [D] distinguish

  46. [A] constituting [ B] aggravating [ C]observing [D]justifying

  47. [A]Some [B]Many [C]Even [D]Still

  48. [A]comes off [B]turns up [C]pays off [D]holds up

  49. [A]claims [B]reports [ C] declarations [ D] proclamations

  50. [A]an advantage [B]a benefit [C]an interest [D]a profit

  Part three:

  Passage l

  It's a rough world out there. Step outside and you could break a leg slipping on your door- mat. Light up the stove and you could burn down the house. Luckily, if the doormat or stove failed to warn of coming disaster, a successful lawsuit might compensate you for your troubles. Or

  so the thinking has gone since the early 1980s, when juries began holding more companies liable for their customers' misfortunes.

  Feeling threatened , companies responded by writing ever-longer warning labels, trying to anticipate every possibLe accident. Today, stepladders carry labels several inches long that warn , among other things, that you might-surprise! ——fall off. The label on a child ' s Batman cape

  cautions that the toy "does not enable user to fly. "

  While warnings are often appropriate and necessary——the dangers of drug interactions, for example——and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn't clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured. About 50 percent of

  the companies lose when injured customers take them to court.

  Now the tide appears to be turning. As personal injury claims continue as before, some courts are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label probably wouldn't have changed anything. In May , Julie Nimmons, president of Schutt Sports in Illinois,

  successfully fought a lawsuit involving a football player who was paralyzed in a game while wear- ing a Schutt helmet. "We' re really sorry he has become paralyzed , but helmets aren' t designed to prevent those kinds of injuries , " says Nimmons. The jury agreed that the nature of the game, not the helmet, was the reason for the athlete's injury. At the same time, the American Law Insti- tute——a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight-issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of ob-

  vious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones. " Important information can get buried in a sea of trivialities, " says a law professor at Cornell law School who helped draft the new guidelines. If the moderate end of the legal community has its way, the information on prod- ucts might actually be provided for the benefit of customers and not as protection against legal lia- bility. .

  51 . What were things like in 1980s when accidents happened?

  [A] Customers might be relieved of their disasters through lawsuits.

  [B] Injured customers could expect protection from the legal system.

  [C]Companies would avoid being sued by providing new warnings.

  [D]Juries tended to find fault with the compensations companies promised.

  52. Manufacturers as mentioned in the passage tend to__

  [A]satisfy customers by writing long warnings on products

  [B]become honest in describing the inadequacies of their products

  [C]make the best use of labels to avoid legal liability

  [D]feel obliged to view customers' safety as their first concern

  53. The case of Schutt helmet demonstrated that__

  [A]some injury claims were no longer supported by law

  [B]helmets were not designed to prevent injuries

  [C]product labels would eventually be discarded

  [D]some sports games might lose popularity with athletes

  54. The author' s attitude towards the issue seems to be__

  [A] biased [ B] indifferent [ C] puzzling [D]objective

  Passage 2

  In the first year or so of Web business, most of the action has revolved around efforts to tap the consumer market. More recently, as the Web proved to be more than a fashion, companies have started to buy and sell products and services with one another. Such business-to-business

  sales make sense because businesspeople typically know what product they're looking for.

  Nonetheless, many companies still hesitate to use the Web because of doubts about its relia- bility. "Businesses need to feel they can trust the pathway between them and the supplier, " says senior analyst Blane Erwin of Forrester Research. Some companies are limiting the risk by con-

  ducting online transactions only with established business partners who are given access to the company ' s private internet .

  Another major shift in the model for Internet commerce concerns the technology available for marketing. Until recently, Internet marketing activities have focused on strategies to "pull" cus- tomers into sites. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to "push" information directly out to consumers , transmitting marketing messages di- rectly to targeted customers. Most notably, the Pointcast Network uses a screen saver to deliver a continualiy updated stream of news and advertisements to subscribers' computer monitors. Sub- scribers can customize the information they want to receive and proceed directly to a company ' s Web site. Companies such as Virtual Vineyards are already starting to use similar technologies to push messages to customers about special sales, product offerings, or other events. But push tech- nology has earned the contempt of many Web users. Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request. Once commercial promotion begins to fill the screen uninvited, the distinction between the Web and television fades. That's a prospect that horrifies Net purists.

  But it is hardly inevitable that companies on the Web will need to resort to push strategies to make money. The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon.com, and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and se-

  curity will attract online customers. And the cost of computing power continues to free fall, which is a good sign for any enterprise setting up shop in silicon. People looking back 5 or 10 years from now may well wonder why so few companies took the online plunge.

  55 . We learn from the beginning of the passage that Web business__

  [A] has been striving to expand its market

  [B]intended to follow a fanciful fashion

  [C]tried but in vain to control the market

  [D]has been booming for one year or so

  56. Speaking of the online technology available for marketing, the author implies that__

  [A] the technology is popular with many Web users

  [B]businesses have faith in the reliability of online transactions

  [C]there is a radical change in strategy

  [D] it is accessible limitedly to established partners

  57. In the view of Net purists,__

  [A]there should be no marketing messages in online culture

  [ B]money making should be given priority to on the Web

  [C]the Web should be able to function as the television set

  [D] there should be no online commercial information without requests

  58. We learn from the last paragraph that __

  [A]pushing information on the Web is essential to Internet commerce

  [ B] interactivity , hospitality and security are important to online customers

  [ C]leading companies began to take the online plunge decades ago

  [D]setting up shops in silicon is independent of the cost of computing power

  Passage 3

  An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of stu- dents' career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical educational reform. Very few writers on the subject have explored this distinction-in-

  deed, contradiction——which goes to the heart of what is wrong with the campaign to put comput- ers in the classroom.

  An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education, jus- tified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law. It is not simply to raise everyone' s job prospects that all children are legally required to attend school into their teens. Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is in- complete if he cannot competently assess how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself. But this was not always the case; before it was legally required for all children to attend school until a certain age, It was widely accepted that some were just not equipped by nature to pursue this kind of education. With optimism characteristic of all industrialized coun- tries , we came to accept that everyone is fit to be educated. Computer-education advocates forsake this optimistic notion for a pessimism that betrays their otherwise cheery outlook. Banking on the

  confusion between educational and vocational reasons for bringing computers into schools, com- puter-ed advocates often emphasize the job prospects of graduates over their educational achieve- ment .

  There are some good arguments for a technical education given the right kind of student.

  Many European schools introduce the concept of professional training early on in order to make sure children are properly equipped for the professions they want to join. It is, however, pre- sumptuous to insist that there will only be so many jobs for so many scientists, so many business- men, so many accountants. Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations.

  But, for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well- developed skills, all other factors being equal , can be the difference between having a job and not.

  Of course, the basics of using any computer these days are very simple. It does not take a lifelong acquaintance to pick up various software programs. If one wanted to become a computer engineer , that is, of course, an entirely different story. Basic computer skills take——at the very longest-a couple of months to learn. In any case, basic computer skills are only complementary to the host of real skills that are necessary to becoming any kind of professional. It should be observed, of course, that no school, vocational or not, is helped by a confusion over its purpose.

  59. The author thinks the present rush to put computers in the classroom is__

  [ A] far-reaching [ B] dubiously oriented [ C] self-contradictory [ D] radically reformatory

  60. The belief that educalion is indispensable to all children__

  [A]is indicative of a pessimism in disguise

  [B]came into being along with the arrival of computers

  [C]is deeply rooted in the minds of computer-ed advocates

  [ D]originated from the optimistic attitude of industrialized countries

  61 . It could be inferred from the passage that in the author' s country the European model of pro-

  fessional training is__

  [A]dependent upon the starting age of candidates

  [B]worth trying in various social sections

  [C]of little practical value

  [D] attractive to every kind of professional

  62 . According to the author, basic computer skills should be__

  [A] included as an auxiliary course in school

  [ B] highlighted in acquisition of professional qualifications

  [ C]mastered through a life-long course

  [ D] equally emphasized by any school , vocational or otherwise

  Passage 4

  When a Scottish research team startled the world by revealing 3 months ago that it had cloned an adult sheep, President Clinton moved swiftly. Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans , he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment- although no one had proposed to do so——and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Prinoeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a na- tional policy on human cloning. That group——the National Bioethics Advisory Commission ( NBAC)-has been working feverishly to put its wisdom on paper, and at a meeting on 17 May, members agreed on a

  near-final draft of their recommendations.

  NBAC will ask that Clinton ' s 90-day ban on federal funds for human cloning be extended in- definitely , and possibly that it be made law. But NBAC members are planning to word the recom- mendation narrowly to avoid new restrictions on research that involves the cloning of human DNA

  or cells-routine in molecular biology. The panel has not yet reached agreement on a crucial ques- tion, however, whether to recommend legislation that would make it a crime for private funding to be used for human cloning.

  In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro sug- gested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be "morally unacceptable to at- tempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning. " Shapiro explained during the meeting that the moral doubt stems mainly from fears about the risk to the health of the child. The panel then informally accepted several general conclusions , although some details have not been settled.

  NBAC plans to call for a continued ban on federal government funding for any attempt to clone body cell nuclei to create a child. Because current federal law already forbids the use of fed-eral funds to create embryos ( the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to

  knowingly endanger an embryo' s life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research. NBAC members also indicated that they will appeal to privately funded researchers and clinics not to try to clone humans by body cell nuclear transfer. But they were divided on whether to go further by calling for a federal law that would impose a complete ban on human cloning. Shapiro and most members favored an appeal for such legislation , but in a phone interview, he said this is- sue was still "up in the air. "

  63. We can learn from the first paragraph that__

  [A]federal funds have been used in a project to clone humans

  [B] the White House responded strongly to the news of cloning

  [C]NBAC was authorized to control the misuse of cloning technique

  [D]the White House has got the panel's recommendations on cloning

  64. The panel agreed on all of the following except that__

  [A]the ban on federal funds for human cloning should be made a law

  [B]the cloning of human DNA is not to be put under more control

  [C]it is crimtnal to use private funding for human cloning

  [D]it would be against ethical values to clone a human being

  65 . NBAC will leave the issue of embryo research undiscussed because__

  [A]embryo research is just a current development of cloning

  [B]the health of the child is not the main concern of embryo research

  [C]an embryo' s life will not be endangered in embryo research

  [D]the issue is expLicitly stated and settled in the law

  66. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that__

  [A]some NBAC members hesitate to ban human cloning completely

  [B]a law banning human cloning is to be passed in no time

  [C] privately funded researchers will respond positively to NBAC' s appeal

  [D]the issue of human cloning will soon be settled

  Passage 5

  Science, in practice, depends far less on the experiments it prepares than on the preparedness of the minds of the men who watch the experiments. Sir Isaac Newton supposedly discovered gravity through the fall of an apple. Apples had been falling in many places for centuries and thousands of people had seen them fall. But Newton for years had been curious about the cause of the orbital motion of the moon and planets. What kept them in place? Why didn' t they fall out of the sky? The fact that the apple fell down toward the earth and not up into the tree answered the question he had been asking himself about those lalger fruits of the heavens, the moon and the planets.

  How many men would have considered the possibility of an apple falling up into the tree? Newton did because he was not trying to predict anything. He was just wondering.His mind was ready for the unpredictable. Unpredictabllity is part of the essential nature of research. If you don' t have unpredictable things, you don' t have research. Scienltists tend to forget this when writing their cut and dried reports for the technical journals, but history is filled with examples of it.

  In talking to some scienlists, particularly younger ones, you might gather the impression that they find the "scientific melhod" a substitute for imaginative thought . I've attended research conferences where a scientist has been asked what he thinks about the advisability of continuing a

  certain experiment. The scientist has frowned, looked at the graphs, and said "the data are still inconclusive." "We know that, " the men from the budget office have said, "but what do you think? Is it worthwhile going on? What do you think we might expect?" The scientist has been

  shocked at having even been asked to speculate.

  What this amounts to, of course, is that the scientist has become the victim of his own writ- ings. He has put forward unquestioned claims so consistently that he not only believes them him- self, but has convinced industrial and business management that they are true. If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indi- cate , then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents. It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know ex- actly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect , is management to be blamed for discriminating against the "odd balls a-

  mong researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who "work well with the team. "

  67. The author wants to prove with the example of Isaac Newton that __

  [A] inquiring minds are more important than scientific experiments

  [B] science advances when fruitful researches are conducted

  [C] scientists seldom forget the essential nature of research

  [D] unpredictability weighs less than prediction in scientific research

  68 . The author asserts that sclentists __

  [A] shouldn't replace "scientific method" with imaginative thought

  [ B] shouldn't neglect to speculate on unpredictable things

  [ C] should write more concise reports for technical journals

  [D]should be confident about their research findings

  69. It seems that some young scientists__

  [A]have a keen interest in prediction

  [B]often speculate on the future

  [C] think highly of creative thinking

  [D]stick to "scientific method"

  70. The author implies that the results of scientific research__

  [A]may not be as profitable as they are expected

  [B]can be measured in dollars and cents

  [C] rely on conformity to a standard pattern

  [D]are mostly underestimated by management

  Part IV: English-Chinese Translation

  71) While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians,modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past. Caught in the web of its own time and place, each generation of

  historians determines anew what is significant for it in the past. In thls search the evidence found is always incomplete and scattered; it is also frequently partial or partisan. The irony of the histo- rian' s craft is that its practitioners always know that their efforts are but contributions to an un- ending process .

  72) Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves.

  While history once revered its affinity to literature and philosophy, the emerging social sciences seemed to afford greater opportunities for asking new questtons and providing rewarding ap- proaches to an understanding of the past. Social science methodologies had to be adapted to a dis- cipline governed by the primacy of historical sources rather than the imperatives of the contempo- rary world. 73) During this transfer , traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study.

  Methodology is a term that remains inherently ambiguous in the historical profession. 74 ) There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry. His-

  torians, especially those so blinded by their research interests that they have been accused of "tun- nel method , " frequently fall victim to the "technicist fallacy. " Also common in the natural sci- ences , the technicist fallacy mistakenly identifies the discipline as a whole with certain parts of its technical implementation. 75 ) It applies equally to traditional historians who view history as only the external and intemal criticism of sources, and to social science historians who equate their ac- tivity with specific techniques.

  Part V Writing (15 points)

  76 . Directions:

  A. Study the following graphs carefully and write an essay in at least 150 words.

  B. Your essay must be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET Ⅱ.

  C. Your essay should cover these three points:

  l . effect of the country's growing human population on its wildlife

  2 . possible reason for the effect

  3 . your suggestion for wildlife protection

  参考答案:

  1. D 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. A

  6. D 7. B 8. D 9. C IO. A

  11. D, were 12. D, saving

  13. C, family-run 14. C, environmental

  15. B, that 16. A, in

  17. C, to make 18. D, skinned

  19. B, great 20. D, until

  21. A 22. D 23. C 24. B 25. A

  26. C 27. A 28. B 29. D 30. C

  31. C 32. B 33. D 34. C 35. C

  36. B 37. A 38. B 39. D 40. B

  41. D 42. A 43. B 44. A 45. B

  46. C 47. D 48. C 49. A 50. D

  51. B 52. C 53. A 54. D 55. A

  56. C 57. D 58. B 59. B 60. D

  61. C 62. A 63. B 64. C 65. D

  66. A 67. A 68. B 69. D 70. A

  71.几乎每个历史学家对史学都有自己的界定,但现代史学家的实践最趋向于认为历史学是试图重现过去的重大史实并对其做出解释。

  72.人们之所以关注历史研究的方法论,主要是因为史学界内部意见不一,其次是因为外界并不认为历史是一门学问。

  73.在这种转变中,历史学家研究历史时,那些解释新史料的新方法充实了传统的历史研究方法。

  74.所谓方法论是指一般的历史研究中的特有概念,还是指历史探究中各个具体领域适用的研究手段,人们对此意见不一。

  75.这种谬误同样存在于历史传统派和历史社科派;前者认为历史就是史学界内部和外部人士对各种史料来源的评论,后者认为历史的研究是具体方法的研究。

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