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考研英语选考题型之语段论据匹配题

2005-12-12 14:46 索玉柱 

  一、大纲解读

  语段论据匹配题主要考查考生区分论点、论据,把握论点论据一致性的能力。如样题所示,该

  题型要求考生根据文章的内容,从多个选项中找到能支持相应论点的论据。

  这就要求考生理解各个论点/观点的重点和含义,并能找出与论点一致的论据。

  二、基础知识必备

  在某一标题或主题的限定下面展开论述,一般情况下可以采用的方法如下:

  1分类法:这种方法常用于阐述某一概念。它通过对概念中所包括的事物进行分门别类,分别加以叙述,使考生对于这一概念获得更为清晰的认识。如:标题中有"various forms of communication"等词,那么,作者就可能将其分为oral speech, sign language, body language 或other forms of nonlinguistic language来加以阐述。

  2例证法:即举例法,指用典型、具体而生动的事例来说明、阐述一个观点,支持文章标题。此种方法通常用于主题比较抽象的文章中,通过使抽象意义具体化而使文章通俗易懂并有说服力。如:讲如何学习,就可能举几个类似于如何记单词的例子来使文章更加生动、具体。

  3列举法:就是在文章中用一个细节来对标题所体现的主题思想进行说明的方法。列举法的使用会使文章显得思路清晰,有条有理。

  4因果法:即通过分析事物发展的原因和结果将文章标题阐述清楚的一种方法。因果法有两种;先因后果法和先果后因法。顾名思义,就是原因和结果在段落中出现的顺序不同。

  5比较、对比法:即在文章中找出两个或两个以上不同种类的事物之间的共同点或不同点进行阐述的方法 。比较对比法有两种具体写作方法:一是进行整体的比较和对比,二是进行逐项的比较和对比。

  三、 解题思路指引

  考生阅读时可按照卷面排列的自然顺序先看六个试题选项后读短文,因为试题选项中的六分之五是正确答案,可以通过试题选项迅速理解文章大意,从而准确建立宏观主旨观念,进而有效的做到"抓大放小"。考生读后可以首先了解试题的内容,这样在

  阅读时可以做到目标明确,有的放矢,尽量减少盲目阅读对时间的耗费。具体做法可

  分为以下几步进行:

  1仔细阅读六个试题选项,正确理解每个选项的意思。对于谈论相似主体的选项,需区别内容的相同处和不同处,并牢记体现不同处的关键词语。

  2快速浏览短文,依靠标题迅速抓住每篇短文的主题。浏览过程中若发现答题所需的

  具体信息,在词语或句子下面划线并标上所答的题号,以初步敲定。对那些暂时无法肯

  定的可暂且放置一边,留待第二次阅读时解决。

  提示:在快速浏览短文时,要特别注意所给的标题或黑体字,这无疑是把握各篇短文主题的最佳途径,它们犹如门牌号码,可使我们在查找信息时直入大门,避免走弯路。最

  后,阅读问题部分的六个选项时,要抓住每选项的核心意义,这样有利于我们在查阅时迅速对号入座,减少误差。

  3第二次阅读短文时必须有针对性,主要为了解决两个问题:一是仔细检查已初步认定的内容与单句是否匹配;二是找到第一遍浏览时尚未找到的信息。

  4为确保准确无误,若有时间可再次将选项从短文中已选择的内容进行比较,检查有无谬误或疏漏之处。

  四、 大纲样题解析

  Directions:

  You are going to read a text about the tips on resume writing, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45).There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  The main purpose of a resume is to convince an employer to grant you an interview. There are two kinds. One is the familiar"tombstone"that lists where you went to school and where you've worked in chronological order. The other is what I call the"functional"resume-descriptive, fun to read, unique to you and much more likely to land you an interview.

  It's handy to have a "tombstone"for certain occasions. But prospective employers throw away most of those unrequested "tombstone"lists, preferring to interview the quick rather than the dead.

  What follows are tips on writing a functional resume that will get read-a resume that makes you come alive and look interesting to employers.

  41Put yourself first:

  In order to write a resume others will read with enthusiasm, you have to feel important about yourself.

  42Sell what you can do, not who you are:

  Practice translating your personality traits, character, accomplishments and achievements into skill areas. There are at least five thousand skill areas in the world of work.

  Toot your own horn!

  Many people clutch when asked to think about their abilities. Some think they have none at all! But everyone does, and one of yours may just be the ticket an employer would be glad to punch-if only you show it.

  43Be specific, be concrete, and be brief!

  Remember that "brevity is the best policy."

  44Turn bad news into good:

  Everybody has had disappointments in work. If you have to mention yours, look for the positive side.

  45Never apologize:

  If you've returning to the work force after fifteen years as a parent, simply write a short paragraph(summary of background)in place of a chronology of experience. Don't apologize for working at being a mother; it's the hardest job of all. If you have no special training or higher education, just don't mention education.

  The secret is to think about the self before you start writing about yourself. Take four or five hours off, not necessarily consecutive, and simply write down every accomplishment in your life, on or off the job, that made you feel effective. Don't worry at first about what it all means. Study the list and try to spot patterns. As you study your list, you will come closer to the meaning: identifying your marketable skills. Once you discover patterns, give names to your cluster of accomplishments(leadership skills,

  budget management skills, child development skills etc.)Try to list at least three accomplishments under the same skills heading. Now start writing your resume as if you mattered. It may take four drafts or more, and several weeks, before you're ready to show it to a stranger(friends are usually too kind)for a reaction. When you've satisfied, send it to a printer; a printed resume is far superior to photocopies. It shows an employer that you regard job hunting as serious work, worth doing right.

  Isn't that the kind of person you'd want working for you?

  [A] A woman who lost her job as a teacher's aide due to a cutback in government funding wrote:"Principal of elementary school cited me as the only teacher's aide she would rehire if government funds became available."

  [B] One resume I received included the following:"invited by my superior to straighten out our organization's accounts receivable. Set up orderly repayment schedule, reconciled accounts weekly, and improved cash flow 100 per cent. Rewarded with raise and promotion."Notice how this woman focuses on results, specifies how she accomplished them, and mentions her reward-all in 34 words.

  [C] For example, if you have a flair for saving, managing and investing money, you have money management skills.

  [D] An acquaintance complained of being biased when losing an opportunity due to the statement"Ready to learn though not so well educated".

  [E] One of my former colleagues, for example, wrote three resumes in three different styles in order to find out which was more preferred. The result is, of course, the one that highlights skills and education background.

  [F] A woman once told me about a cash-flow crisis her employer had faced. She'd agreed to work without pay for three months until business improved. Her reward was her back pay plus a 20 percent bonus. I asked why that marvelous story wasn't in her resume. She answered,"It wasn't important."What she was really saying of course was"I'm not important."

  文章导读

  这篇文章就如何写好个人简历提出了自己的看法。文章用黑体小标题给出了具体的建议,要求考生选出相应的例子。

  首先,我们要通读全文,了解大意。作者在文中强调的简历应该是"functional",应该是读起来有趣,具有个性的。在文章中,作者给出了具体的招数。每个招数都有小标题,解释和举例。在这儿,考生应该明白的是,英语文章中的小标题不一定等同于论点或段落总结句。小标题一般都较短,较简洁,有些小标题为了吸引读者的注意力,用词较夸张,或者只突出文章的一方面。所以考生在做题时,不能慌慌张张地看了小标题就去找答案。应该结合正文理解观点的含义。

  答案与解析

  41【答案】F

  【解析】"Put yourself first"。字面意思是把自己往前放。什么意思呢?下面的句子进行了解释,"要想让自己的简历使读的人充满热情,那么你首先就要觉得自己是个

  人物"。选项中哪个能进一步说明这一点呢?论证方法是这样的。作者举例说明时,可

  能从正面角度,也可能从反面角度。F就是从反面说明了第一个观点。作者通过例

  子说明,不要认为自己做过的事情不值一提,瞧不起自己的人别人又怎么会重视呢?

  42【答案】C

  【解析】"Sell what you can do, not who you are"。要强调能力而不是性格。下面的文字进一步说明了。"要学会把自己的个性和成就诠释成具体的技能,世界上有至

  少5000种技能"(意思是,你总能找出一种自己拥有的技能)。文后的例子中只有C项最贴切,"例如,如果你有节约、投资、管理钱财的天分,那么你拥有理财的能力。"

  43【答案】B

  【解析】"Be specific, be concrete, and briefly!"一言以蔽之:简洁。哪个选项说明了这一点呢?B项这一个成功的例子说明了这点,一位女士仅用了34个词就把重点说明白了。

  44【答案】A

  【解析】"Turn bad news into good"(将坏消息变成好消息)。这不是要让人颠倒黑白,下面解释道:"每个人在工作中总有不尽如人意的地方。如果要提到这些事,那么

  从积极、正面的角度去看。"A选项就是一个正面的例子。一个女助教因为政府缩减资金而被解雇了。这似乎不大光彩,但是这位女士谈起此事时却用了另一个角度,

  "校长说了,如果政府的资金够的话,她第一个重聘的就是我",字里行间洋溢着自信。

  45【答案】D

  【解析】"Never apologize"(不要道歉)。下面的文字举例说明了,要扬长避短。每

  个人都有短处,没有必要为自己的短处羞愧。求职就是要让雇主看到自己的闪光点,个

  人简历不是进行道歉的地方。D项以一个失败的例子说明了这一点:作者的一位朋友说他求职时遭到了歧视,因为他的简历中写了"好学,但教育程度不高"。

  五、 语段论据匹配题专项突破练习

  Exercise 1

  Part B

  Directions :

  You are going to read a text about money, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45). There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points)

  Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, summed up four chief qualities of money some 2,000 year ago. It must be lasting and easy to recognize, to divide, and to carry about. In other words it must be, durable, distinct, divisible and portable. When we think of money today, we picture it either as round, fiat pieces of metal which we call coins, or as printed paper notes.

  41But there are still parts of the world, today where coins and notes are of no use.

  42Among isolated peoples, who are not often reached by traders from outside, commerce usually meant barter.

  This is a direct exchange of goods. Perhaps it is fish for vegetables, meat for grain, or various kinds of food in exchange for pots, baskets, or other manufactured goods.

  43.Salt may seem rather a strange substance to use as money, but in countries where the food of the people is mainly vegetable, it is often an absolute necessity.

  44.Cowrie sea shells have been used as money at some time or another over the greater part of the Old World. These were collected mainly from the beaches of the Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean, and were traded to India and China.

  45.Metal, valued by weight, preceded coins in many parts of the world.

  Iron, in lumps, bars or rings is still used in many countries instead of money. It can either be exchanged for goods, or made into tools, weapons or ornaments. The early money of China, apart from shells, was of bronze, often in fiat, round pieces with a hole in the middle, called "cash".

  Nowadays, coins and notes have supplanted nearly all the more picturesque forms of money, and although in one or two of the more remote countries people still hoard it for future use on ceremonial occasions such as weddings and funerals, examples of primitive money will soon be found only in museums.

  [A] For this kind of simple trading, money is not needed, but there is often some-tiling that everyone wants and everybody can use, such as salt to flavor, food, shell for ornaments, or iron and copper to make into tools and vessels. These things-salt, shells or metals-are still used as money in out-of-the-way parts of the world today.

  [B] They will buy nothing, and a traveler might starve if he had none of the particular local- money to exchange for food.

  [C] Cakes of salt, stamped to show their value, were used as money in Tibet until recent times, and cakes of salt will still buy goods in Borneo and parts of Africa.

  [D] The earliest evolution of these paper notes and coins made of copper had developed rapidly in the western Mediterranean.

  [E] In Africa, cowries were traded right across the continent from East to West Four or five thousand went for one Maria Theresa dollar, an Austrian silver coin which was once accepted as currency in many parts of Africa.

  [F] The earliest of these are between three thousand and four thousand years old-older than the earliest coins of the eastern Mediterranean.

  答案与解析

  41【答案】B

  【解析】文章中指出当今世界的局部地方,硬币和纸币毫无用处了,选项B举例如果旅游者没有当地特殊的"货币"换取食物,就有可能饿死,为上文的很好例证,故选择B。

  42【答案】A

  【解析】原文指出"there is a direct exchange of goods"即直接用货物交换,选项A"for this kind simple trading"承接上文,指出交易不用货币,进一步解释,故A为正确答案。

  43【答案】C

  【解析】标题指出食盐作为货币使用,唯有选项C提到食盐在一部分地区的重要作用,为正确答案。

  44【答案】E

  【解析】这个题目很容易选出正确答案,选项E中"cowries"与文章中"cowrie sea shells"相照应,为正确答案。

  45【答案】F

  【解析】本题选项D有很强的迷惑性,它仔细分析了金属货币的悠久历史而没有谈到纸币,故选F更符合文意,为正确答案。

  Exercise 2

  Part B

  Directions:

  You are going to read a text about stupidity for dummies, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45). There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Sternberg, an expert in intelligence testing, contends that, contrary to public belief, stupidness is not the opposite of smartness. He points out that many of the singularly idiotic acts that come to public attention are the work of people who are, in fact, highly intelligent. He argues instead that stupidity is more properly viewed as the opposite of wisdom-which he sees as the ability to apply knowledge to achieve a common good.His "imbalance theory of foolishness" suggests that there are aspects of life as a smart person that actually foster stupidity. Which is to say, it sometimes takes a really smart person to do something truly stupid. Sternberg recently took the time to answer some of our stupid questions.

  41What attracted you to the study of stupidity?

  The roots of the book were in my wondering about what's up with people who have very high intelligence in the traditional sense, but seem to be out to lunch in another sense.

  42The difference between stupidity, foolishness, dumbness and, say, plain boneheadedness

  The book is really about foolishness, which is the opposite of wisdom. There are many smart people who are unwise.

  43Do you see stupidity as an objective behavior or, as one of your contributors does, a subjective judgment that reflects more on the observer?

  Stupidity is not in the behavior, nor in the eyes of the observer. It is in the interaction between the person and the situation. Different kinds of situations elicit different behavior from people.

  44"The best way to avoid stupidity is not to be afraid of looking stupid"

  People often fail to learn because they do not want to look stupid. As a result, hey make or repeat mistakes they could have avoided.

  45 Of course, some would suggest that certain stupid behaviors are categorizable as something else. Some would say philandering or shoplifting, for example, are products of something other than stupidity.

  I think it is a combination of the fallacies I mentioned: Egocentrism, omniscience, omnipotence and invulnerability. Many smart people are philanderers.

  Everyone has weaknesses. The issue in terms of the book is what they do about these weaknesses-whether they find ways to make up for them or whether they allow them to destroy their lives.

  [A] The foolish part is in the belief that one need only consider one's own feelings about the matter and not the feelings of others, especially the partner (egocentrism);that it is not okay for others but that one knows all about these things so it is all right for oneself (omniscience);that one can basically do whatever one wants because of who one is (omnipotence);and that, unlike others suckers, one never will get caught (invulnerability).

  [B] How did Richard Nixon ever get involved in Watergate and the subsequent cover up? What was Bill Clinton thinking when he kept repeating the same mistakes in his personal life? More recently, how did the intelligent people who ran Enron think they would get away with a shell game? There are lots of examples. And the truth is, some of them are in my own life, too. None of us is immune.

  [C] For example, Clinton was very smart in most domains of his life, but in some kinds of interpersonal situations with women, he appears not to have been. The Enron bloodsuckers may have been perfectly fine in their home lives, but given the chance to rip off a corporation, they went for it. Problem is, we may see how sensibly we behave, on average, so that we are not alert for the kinds of situations where we act foolishly.

  [D] Unfortunately, no. It usually takes others to point it out to us. Or, looking back, we often marvel at how we could have been oblivious to our stupidity. But the problem is that smart people often use their intelligence to find ways to immunize themselves or isolate themselves from feedback. For example, they may hire toadies who just tell them what they want to hear.

  [E] Also, sometimes when they make mistakes, people try to cover them up so as not to appear to have been stupid and then look even stupider when the cover up comes to light. That, of course, is what happened to Nixon and Clinton, and to many, many others, such as currency traders who have tried to cover up losses or high-level executives at soft-ware companies who have tried to cover up improprieties.

  [F] The book is not about stupidity in the classical sense, which is usually thought of as a very low IQ. So I would distinguish the "mental retardation"kind of stupidity from the kind of foolishness this book discusses. The problem is that smart people often do not realize how susceptible they are to being foolish, as any number of world leaders have gone out of their way to show.

  答案与解析

  41【答案】B

  【解析】该段指出一些人智力很高,但从另一种意义上看却似乎在发疯,这到底是什么原因。选项B列举了尼克松、克林顿、安然公司的那些智力很高的但不明智的人来说明研究愚蠢的原因,为正确答案。

  42【答案】F

  【解析】选项F指出本书不是讨论传说意义上的愚钝,很好地解释本书所讨论纸的愚钝的含义及愚钝、愚蠢、愚笨和傻之间的区别,为正确答案。

  43【答案】C

  【解析】文章指出愚钝在于人与客观形势之间的相互作用,选项C应用上文例子着重强调不同形势下克林顿、安然的盘剥者们的聪明与愚钝行为的对比,故答案选C。

  44【答案】E

  【解析】小标题指出避免干蠢事的最好方法是不要害怕显得愚蠢。选项D指出一些聪明者利用自己的智慧或听取他人意见来避免显得愚蠢 ,看似正确,有很强的干扰性。选项E指出一些人犯错误后为了显得没干过蠢事而千方百计加以掩盖,并再次提到尼克松、克林顿等因掩盖错误而显得更愚蠢,很好地解释了上文。所以E更符合题意。

  45【答案】A

  【解析】选项A对应文中"Egolentnim omniscience, omnipotene invulnerability"并分别加以解释。为正确答案。

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