1分类法：这种方法常用于阐述某一概念。它通过对概念中所包括的事物进行分门别类，分别加以叙述，使考生对于这一概念获得更为清晰的认识。如：标题中有"various forms of communication"等词，那么，作者就可能将其分为oral speech, sign language, body language 或other forms of nonlinguistic language来加以阐述。
You are going to read a text about the tips on resume writing, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45).There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)
The main purpose of a resume is to convince an employer to grant you an interview. There are two kinds. One is the familiar"tombstone"that lists where you went to school and where you've worked in chronological order. The other is what I call the"functional"resume－descriptive, fun to read, unique to you and much more likely to land you an interview.
It's handy to have a "tombstone"for certain occasions. But prospective employers throw away most of those unrequested "tombstone"lists, preferring to interview the quick rather than the dead.
What follows are tips on writing a functional resume that will get read－a resume that makes you come alive and look interesting to employers.
41Put yourself first:
In order to write a resume others will read with enthusiasm, you have to feel important about yourself.
42Sell what you can do, not who you are:
Practice translating your personality traits, character, accomplishments and achievements into skill areas. There are at least five thousand skill areas in the world of work.
Toot your own horn!
Many people clutch when asked to think about their abilities. Some think they have none at all! But everyone does, and one of yours may just be the ticket an employer would be glad to punch－if only you show it.
43Be specific, be concrete, and be brief!
Remember that "brevity is the best policy."
44Turn bad news into good:
Everybody has had disappointments in work. If you have to mention yours, look for the positive side.
If you've returning to the work force after fifteen years as a parent, simply write a short paragraph(summary of background)in place of a chronology of experience. Don't apologize for working at being a mother; it's the hardest job of all. If you have no special training or higher education, just don't mention education.
The secret is to think about the self before you start writing about yourself. Take four or five hours off, not necessarily consecutive, and simply write down every accomplishment in your life, on or off the job, that made you feel effective. Don't worry at first about what it all means. Study the list and try to spot patterns. As you study your list, you will come closer to the meaning: identifying your marketable skills. Once you discover patterns, give names to your cluster of accomplishments(leadership skills,
budget management skills, child development skills etc.)Try to list at least three accomplishments under the same skills heading. Now start writing your resume as if you mattered. It may take four drafts or more, and several weeks, before you're ready to show it to a stranger(friends are usually too kind)for a reaction. When you've satisfied, send it to a printer; a printed resume is far superior to photocopies. It shows an employer that you regard job hunting as serious work, worth doing right.
Isn't that the kind of person you'd want working for you?
[A] A woman who lost her job as a teacher's aide due to a cutback in government funding wrote:"Principal of elementary school cited me as the only teacher's aide she would rehire if government funds became available."
[B] One resume I received included the following:"invited by my superior to straighten out our organization's accounts receivable. Set up orderly repayment schedule, reconciled accounts weekly, and improved cash flow 100 per cent. Rewarded with raise and promotion."Notice how this woman focuses on results, specifies how she accomplished them, and mentions her reward－all in 34 words.
[C] For example, if you have a flair for saving, managing and investing money, you have money management skills.
[D] An acquaintance complained of being biased when losing an opportunity due to the statement"Ready to learn though not so well educated".
[E] One of my former colleagues, for example, wrote three resumes in three different styles in order to find out which was more preferred. The result is, of course, the one that highlights skills and education background.
[F] A woman once told me about a cash-flow crisis her employer had faced. She'd agreed to work without pay for three months until business improved. Her reward was her back pay plus a 20 percent bonus. I asked why that marvelous story wasn't in her resume. She answered,"It wasn't important."What she was really saying of course was"I'm not important."
【解析】"Put yourself first"。字面意思是把自己往前放。什么意思呢？下面的句子进行了解释，"要想让自己的简历使读的人充满热情，那么你首先就要觉得自己是个
【解析】"Sell what you can do, not who you are"。要强调能力而不是性格。下面的文字进一步说明了。"要学会把自己的个性和成就诠释成具体的技能，世界上有至
【解析】"Be specific, be concrete, and briefly!"一言以蔽之：简洁。哪个选项说明了这一点呢？B项这一个成功的例子说明了这点，一位女士仅用了34个词就把重点说明白了。
【解析】"Turn bad news into good"(将坏消息变成好消息)。这不是要让人颠倒黑白，下面解释道："每个人在工作中总有不尽如人意的地方。如果要提到这些事，那么
You are going to read a text about money, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45). There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points)
Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, summed up four chief qualities of money some 2,000 year ago. It must be lasting and easy to recognize, to divide, and to carry about. In other words it must be, durable, distinct, divisible and portable. When we think of money today, we picture it either as round, fiat pieces of metal which we call coins, or as printed paper notes.
41But there are still parts of the world, today where coins and notes are of no use.
42Among isolated peoples, who are not often reached by traders from outside, commerce usually meant barter.
This is a direct exchange of goods. Perhaps it is fish for vegetables, meat for grain, or various kinds of food in exchange for pots, baskets, or other manufactured goods.
43.Salt may seem rather a strange substance to use as money, but in countries where the food of the people is mainly vegetable, it is often an absolute necessity.
44.Cowrie sea shells have been used as money at some time or another over the greater part of the Old World. These were collected mainly from the beaches of the Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean, and were traded to India and China.
45.Metal, valued by weight, preceded coins in many parts of the world.
Iron, in lumps, bars or rings is still used in many countries instead of money. It can either be exchanged for goods, or made into tools, weapons or ornaments. The early money of China, apart from shells, was of bronze, often in fiat, round pieces with a hole in the middle, called "cash".
Nowadays, coins and notes have supplanted nearly all the more picturesque forms of money, and although in one or two of the more remote countries people still hoard it for future use on ceremonial occasions such as weddings and funerals, examples of primitive money will soon be found only in museums.
[A] For this kind of simple trading, money is not needed, but there is often some-tiling that everyone wants and everybody can use, such as salt to flavor, food, shell for ornaments, or iron and copper to make into tools and vessels. These things-salt, shells or metals-are still used as money in out-of-the-way parts of the world today.
[B] They will buy nothing, and a traveler might starve if he had none of the particular local- money to exchange for food.
[C] Cakes of salt, stamped to show their value, were used as money in Tibet until recent times, and cakes of salt will still buy goods in Borneo and parts of Africa.
[D] The earliest evolution of these paper notes and coins made of copper had developed rapidly in the western Mediterranean.
[E] In Africa, cowries were traded right across the continent from East to West Four or five thousand went for one Maria Theresa dollar, an Austrian silver coin which was once accepted as currency in many parts of Africa.
[F] The earliest of these are between three thousand and four thousand years old-older than the earliest coins of the eastern Mediterranean.
【解析】原文指出"there is a direct exchange of goods"即直接用货物交换，选项A"for this kind simple trading"承接上文，指出交易不用货币，进一步解释，故A为正确答案。
【解析】这个题目很容易选出正确答案，选项E中"cowries"与文章中"cowrie sea shells"相照应，为正确答案。
You are going to read a text about stupidity for dummies, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45). There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Sternberg, an expert in intelligence testing, contends that, contrary to public belief, stupidness is not the opposite of smartness. He points out that many of the singularly idiotic acts that come to public attention are the work of people who are, in fact, highly intelligent. He argues instead that stupidity is more properly viewed as the opposite of wisdom-which he sees as the ability to apply knowledge to achieve a common good.His "imbalance theory of foolishness" suggests that there are aspects of life as a smart person that actually foster stupidity. Which is to say, it sometimes takes a really smart person to do something truly stupid. Sternberg recently took the time to answer some of our stupid questions.
41What attracted you to the study of stupidity?
The roots of the book were in my wondering about what's up with people who have very high intelligence in the traditional sense, but seem to be out to lunch in another sense.
42The difference between stupidity, foolishness, dumbness and, say, plain boneheadedness
The book is really about foolishness, which is the opposite of wisdom. There are many smart people who are unwise.
43Do you see stupidity as an objective behavior or, as one of your contributors does, a subjective judgment that reflects more on the observer?
Stupidity is not in the behavior, nor in the eyes of the observer. It is in the interaction between the person and the situation. Different kinds of situations elicit different behavior from people.
44"The best way to avoid stupidity is not to be afraid of looking stupid"
People often fail to learn because they do not want to look stupid. As a result, hey make or repeat mistakes they could have avoided.
45 Of course, some would suggest that certain stupid behaviors are categorizable as something else. Some would say philandering or shoplifting, for example, are products of something other than stupidity.
I think it is a combination of the fallacies I mentioned: Egocentrism, omniscience, omnipotence and invulnerability. Many smart people are philanderers.
Everyone has weaknesses. The issue in terms of the book is what they do about these weaknesses-whether they find ways to make up for them or whether they allow them to destroy their lives.
[A] The foolish part is in the belief that one need only consider one's own feelings about the matter and not the feelings of others, especially the partner (egocentrism);that it is not okay for others but that one knows all about these things so it is all right for oneself (omniscience);that one can basically do whatever one wants because of who one is (omnipotence);and that, unlike others suckers, one never will get caught (invulnerability).
[B] How did Richard Nixon ever get involved in Watergate and the subsequent cover up? What was Bill Clinton thinking when he kept repeating the same mistakes in his personal life? More recently, how did the intelligent people who ran Enron think they would get away with a shell game? There are lots of examples. And the truth is, some of them are in my own life, too. None of us is immune.
[C] For example, Clinton was very smart in most domains of his life, but in some kinds of interpersonal situations with women, he appears not to have been. The Enron bloodsuckers may have been perfectly fine in their home lives, but given the chance to rip off a corporation, they went for it. Problem is, we may see how sensibly we behave, on average, so that we are not alert for the kinds of situations where we act foolishly.
[D] Unfortunately, no. It usually takes others to point it out to us. Or, looking back, we often marvel at how we could have been oblivious to our stupidity. But the problem is that smart people often use their intelligence to find ways to immunize themselves or isolate themselves from feedback. For example, they may hire toadies who just tell them what they want to hear.
[E] Also, sometimes when they make mistakes, people try to cover them up so as not to appear to have been stupid and then look even stupider when the cover up comes to light. That, of course, is what happened to Nixon and Clinton, and to many, many others, such as currency traders who have tried to cover up losses or high-level executives at soft-ware companies who have tried to cover up improprieties.
[F] The book is not about stupidity in the classical sense, which is usually thought of as a very low IQ. So I would distinguish the "mental retardation"kind of stupidity from the kind of foolishness this book discusses. The problem is that smart people often do not realize how susceptible they are to being foolish, as any number of world leaders have gone out of their way to show.
【解析】选项A对应文中"Egolentnim omniscience, omnipotene invulnerability"并分别加以解释。为正确答案。