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06考研完形填空语法:非谓语动词

2005-12-30 14:56 搜狐教育 

  (一)不定式和动名词作主语的区别

  (1)动名词作主语通常表示抽象动作;而不定式作主语表示具体动作。

  例如:Smoking is prohibited(禁止)here.这里禁止抽烟。(抽象)

  It is not very good for you to smoke so much.你抽这么多烟对你身体很不好。(具体)

  (2)动名词作主语时,通常用以表示一件已知的事或经验。

  不定式短语通常用来表示一件未完成的事或目的。

  例如:Climbing mountains is interesting.爬山很有趣。(经验)

  Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰时刻开车令人厌烦。(经验)

  (二)不定式、动名词和分词作表语的区别

  (1)不定式作表语一般表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作。

  A.不定式作表语。

  例如 :To do two things at a time is to do neither.一次做两件事等于未做。

  What I would suggest is to start work at once.我的建议是立刻开始干。

  B.如果主语是不定式(表示条件),表语也是不定式(表示结果)。

  例如:To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。

  To work means to earn a living.工作就是为了生活。

  C.如果主语是以aim,duty,hope,idea,happiness,job,plan,problem,purpose,thing,wish等为中心的名词,或以what引导的名词性从句,不定式作表语是对主语起补充说明作用。

  例如:His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future.他的希望是在不远的将来买一辆豪华轿车。

  (2)动名词作表语:表示抽象的一般性的行为。

  例如:Our work is serving the people.我们的工作是为人民服务。

  His hobby is collecting stamps.他的爱好是集邮。

  〈注〉 动名词作表语时,与进行时态中的现在分词形式相同,但其所属结构迥异,进行时态说明动作是由主语完成的。动名词做表语,说明主语的性质或情况。

  (3)分词作表语。

  表示心理状态的动词如excite,interest等都是及物动词,汉语注解不是“激动”、“高兴 ”,而是“使得激动”、“使高兴”,因而现在分词应该是“令人激动的”、“令

  人高兴的“,过去分词则是”感到激动的“和”感到高兴的“。所以,凡表示”令人……的“都是ing形式,凡是表示”感到……“都用ed形式。换句话说,若人对

  ……感兴趣,就是somebody is interested in……,若人/物本身有趣时,就是sb./sth. is interesting。这类词常见的有:

  interesting使人感到高兴——interested感到高兴的

  exciting令人激动的——excited感到激动的

  delighting令人高兴的——delighted感到高兴的

  disappointing令人失望的——disappointed感到失望的

  encouraging令人鼓舞的——encouraged感到鼓舞的

  pleasing令人愉快的——pleased感到愉快的

  puzzling令人费解的——puzzled感到费解的

  satisfying令人满意的——satisfied感到满意的

  surprising令人惊异的——surprised感到惊异的

  worrying令人担心的——worried感到担心的

  例如:My tutor is satisfied with my satisfying behaviour.导师对我的良好表现很满意。

  I'm interested in the interesting psychology.我对有趣的心理学很感兴趣。

  They were very excited about the exiting news.听到这个鼓舞人心的消息,他们非常激动。

  Her convincing argument convinced me to vote for her.她极具雄辩性的陈辞让我情愿投她的票。

  (三)不定式和动名词作宾语

  英语中大多数动词既可跟不定式,也可跟动名词作直接宾语,但有些动词要求:

  (1)不定式做宾语和宾语补足语。

  A.下面的动词要求不定式做宾语:

  afford负担得起 aim针对 agree同意

  appear似乎,显得 arrange安排 ask问

  attempt企图 bear承受 begin开始

  beg请求 bother扰乱,烦恼 care关心,喜欢

  cease停止 choose选择 claim要求

  contrive设法,图谋 consent同意,赞同 decide决定

  decline推却 demand要求 design设计,预定

  desire愿望 determine决定 destine注定

  dread害怕 enable能够 endeavor努力

  expect期望 fail不能 forget忘记

  happen碰巧 hate憎恨,厌恶 hesitate犹豫

  hope希望 incline有……倾向 intend想要

  learn学习 like喜欢 loathe不喜欢,讨厌

  long渴望 love爱 manage设法

  mean意欲,打算 need需要 neglect忽视

  offer提供 omit忽略,漏 plan计划

  prefer喜欢,宁愿 prepare准备 pretend假装

  profess表明 promise承诺,允许 propose提议

  refuse拒绝 regret抱歉,遗憾 scorn忽视

  seek找,寻觅 start开始 swear宣誓

  try试图 undertake承接 volunteer志愿

  vow起誓 want想要 wish希望

  B. 下面的动词要求不定式作宾补。(动词+宾语+动词不定式)

  advise劝告 allow允许 announce宣布

  ask要求,邀请 assist协助 authorize授权,委托

  bear容忍 beg请求 bribe收买

  cause引起 command命令 compel强迫

  condemn指责,谴责 deserve应受 direct指导

  drive驱赶 enable使能够 encourage鼓励

  entitle使有资格 entreat恳求 exhort告诫,勉励

  forbid禁止 force强迫 get请,得到

  hate憎恶 help帮助 implore恳求

  induce引诱 inspire鼓舞 instruct指示

  intend想要,企图 invite吸引,邀请 lead引起,使得

  leave使,让 like喜欢 mean意欲,打算

  need需要 oblige不得不 order命令

  permit允许 persuade劝导 pray请求

  prefer喜欢,宁愿 press迫使 prompt促使

  pronounce断定,表示 recommend劝告,推荐 remind提醒

  report报告 request请求 require要求

  summon传唤 teach教 tell告诉

  tempt劝诱 train训练 urge激励,推荐

  want 想要 warn告诫 wish希望

  例如:They are training these dogs to sniff out drugs.他们训练狗嗅出毒品来。

  I'll get somebody to repair the machine.我去找人修理机器。

  I recommend you to do what he says.我劝你照他说的去做。

  The radio urged people to contribute to the Red Cross. 电台要求人们向红十字会捐助。

  (2)有少数动词只能用动名词作宾语,

  例如:I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.

  我很感激两年前给我出国学习的机会。

  You're going to England next year.You should now practise speaking English as much as possible.

  你明年到英国去的话,应该现在就尽可能多说英语。

  If we don't start out now,we must risk missing the train.

  如果我们现在不出发,就可能赶不上火车。

  acknowledge承认,自认 admit承认 advocate提倡,主张

  appreciate感激,欣赏 avoid避免 bear忍受

  can't help不禁 can‘t stand受不了 consider考虑

  cease停止 commence开始 complete完成

  confess坦白 contemplate细想 defer拖延

  delay延迟 deny否认 detest嫌恶

  dislike不喜欢,讨厌 discourage使沮丧 dread可怕

  endure忍受 enjoy享有,喜爱 envy嫉妒

  escape逃跑,逃避 excuse借口 fancy幻想,爱好

  favor造成,偏爱 figure描绘,计算 finish完成,结束

  forgive原谅 imagine设想 involve卷入,包含

  hate讨厌 keep保持 loathe 不喜欢,讨厌

  mention说到,讲到 mind介意,留意 miss错过

  pardon原谅,饶恕 permit允许 postpone延迟,延期

  practise实行,实践 prevent阻止 quit放弃,停止

  recall回想 report报道,发表 repent悔悟

  resent怨恨 resist抵抗,阻止 resume恢复

  risk冒险 suggest建议 save营救,储蓄

  stand坚持,忍受 tolerate忍受;宽容 understand明白,理解

  (3)动名词作介词的宾语。

  几乎所有介词,不管是单个介词还是介词词组,不管它们是谓语动词的组成部分与否,都可用动名词作其宾语。主要有以下搭配关系:

  A.动词+介词+动名词。

  例如:We insist on your leaving the place before any further disturbances take place.

  我们坚持让你在进一步的骚乱发生前离开这个地方。

  B.名词(形容词,不及物动词)+介词to(不要把它视为动词不定式的标志)。

  下面是大纲中所列短语中的“to”为介词:(be)contrary to(与……相反),object(objection)to(反对), with a view to(为……起见),(be) opposed to (反对),in contrast

  to(与……成对比), be used to (习惯于),be exposed to,be dedicated to(致力于),resort to(诉诸于),as to (关于),be accustomed to(习惯于),be devoted to (

  献身于),be committed to(委身于),react to(对……反应),with regard to(关于),look forward to(期待),contribute to (贡献等)。

  例如:Mr.Brown often wore a heavy coat because he was no t used to living in such a cold climate.

  布朗先生经常穿着一个厚重的大衣,因为他不习惯生活在这么冷的气候中。

  C.动词+副词+介词+动名词。

  例如:I look forward to her coming soon.我盼望她的早日到来。

  D.形容词(或具有形容词性质的ed分词)+介词+动名词。

  例如:He is greatly honored of shaking hands with the President.和总统握手他感到无上的光荣。

  It is impossible for him finishing the task in such a short time.他不可能在这样短的时间内完成这项任务。

  E.表示征求意见的“How about …?”,“What about…?”。

  例如:How about going there?去那里怎么样?

  What about having a concert?举行一场音乐会怎么样?

  (4)有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别。

  A. forget to do忘记要去做某事(此事未做)。

  forget doing忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生)。

  B. stop to do停止、中断(某件事),目的是去做另一件事。

  stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事。

  C. remember to do记住去做某事(未做)。

  remember doing记得做过某事(已做)。

  D. regret to do对要做的事遗憾。

  regret doing对做过的事遗憾、后悔。

  E. try to do努力、企图做某事。

  try doing试验、试一试某种办法。

  F. mean to do打算,有意要……。

  mean doing意味着。

  例如:Don't you remember seeing the man before?你不记得以前见过那个人吗?

  You must remember to leave tomorrow.你可要记着是明天动身。

  I don't regret telling her what I thought.我不后悔给她讲过我的想法。(已讲过)

  I regret to have to do this,but I have no choice.我很遗憾必须这样去做,我实在没办法。(未做,但要做)

  You must try to be more careful.你可要多加小心。

  Let's try doing the work some other way.让我们试一试用另外一种办法来做这工作。

  I didn't mean to hurt your feeling.我没想要伤害你的感情。

  This illness will mean(your)going to hospital.得了这种病(你)就要进医院。

  (四)不定式、现在分词和过去分词作定语。

  (1)不定式作定语。

  A. 不定式与其所修饰的名词可能是主谓关系。

  例如:He was the last one to leave school yesterday.昨天他是最后一个离开学校的。

  The train to arrive was from London.将要到站的火车是从伦敦开来的。

  B. 不定式与其所修饰的名词可能是动宾关系。

  例如:Get him something to eat.给他拿点儿东西吃。

  She has a lot of work to do in the morning.早上她有很多工作要做。

  C. 不及物动词构成的不定式做定语,要加上适当的介词和被修饰的名词形成逻辑上的动宾关系,这里的介词不能省去。

  例如 :I need a pen to write with.我需要一支笔写字。

  There is nothing to worry about.没有

  什么好担心的。

  D. 不定式修饰一些抽象名词。

  ability能力,本领 ambition抱负,野心 campaign战役,运动

  chance机会 courage勇气 decision决定

  determination决心,决定 drive赶,驾驶 effort努力,尝试

  failure失败,不及格 force力,压力 intention意向,意图

  method方法,方式 motive动机,目的 movement运动,活动

  need需要,需求 opportunity机会 promise许诺,希望

  reason理由,原因 light光,光线,亮光 struggle奋斗,努力,斗争

  tendency倾向,趋势 wish 希望,愿望,祝愿

  (2)分词作定语。

  分词作定语时有下面几个特点:

  A.现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词一般表示被动含意。

  B.现在分词表示正在进行,过去分词表示状态,或己做完(完成)的事。

  例如:He rushed into the burning house.他冲进了正在燃烧着的房子。

  The child standing over there is my brother.站在那儿的男孩子是我弟弟。

  The room facing south is our classroom.朝南的房间是我们的教室。

  Have you got your watch repaired?你拿到那个修好的表了吗?

  He is an advanced teacher.他是个先进教师。

  (3)不定式和分词作定语时的时间关系。

  一般来说,不定式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之后;现在分词所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生;过去分词表示的动作发

  生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。

  例如:Do you want to see the doctor to be sent for from Beijing?你要见那位将从北京请来的医生吗?

  Do you want to see the doctor working on the case report in the office?你要见那位正在办公室里写病历的医生吗?

  (五)不定式和分词作状语

  (1)不定式作结果状语

  A.动词+to…。

  例如: He lived to be a very old man.他活得很长。

  In 1935 he left home never to return.1935年,他离开家再没有回来。

  B. so+形容词(或副词)+as to……。

  例如:The house is so high and narrow as to resemble a tower.这房子又高又窄,像一座塔。

  C. such+名词短语+as to……。

  例如:His indifference is such as to make one despair .他如此冷冰冰的,令人感到绝望。

  D. only to……竟然……(表示与预料相反的结果)。

  例如:He lifted a rock only to drop it on his own feet.他搬起石头砸了自己的脚。

  E. 形容词(或副词)+enough(副词)to……,够,足以。

  例如:The room is big enough to hold one hundred people.这房间大得足以容纳一百人。

  (2)分词作状语

  分词和分词短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、条件、让步、方式和伴随情况。在表示时间、原因、条件、让步和方式时,通常可转换为相应的状语

  从句,表示方式和伴随情况时,可以转换为一个并列的谓语成分。

  例如:Seeing the teacher entering the room,the students stood up.(=When the students saw the teacher entering the room,they stood up.)学生们看见老师走进房间,

  都站了起来。

  Heated,ice will be changed into water.(=When it is heated……)当冰加热时,它就会变成水。(条件、时间)

  Being excited,I couldn't go to sleep.(=As I was excited,I couldn‘t go to sleep.)我兴奋得睡不着觉。(原因)

  I stood there,listening to the broadcast.(=I stood there and listened to the broadcast.)我站在那儿听广播。(伴随)

  The children went away laughing.(=The children went away.They laughed as they went.)孩子们笑着走开了。(行为方式)

  Knowing all this,they made me pay for the damage.(=Although they know all this……)他们尽管了解这一切,还是要我赔偿损失。

  (3)分词作状语与主语的关系。

  A. 现在分词作状语时,现在分词的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间的关系是主动关系。

  例如:He went out shutting the door behind him.他出去后将门随手关上。

  Not knowing what to do,he went to his parents for help.由于不知如何办是好,他去找父母帮忙。

  B. 过去分词作状语时,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语承受的动作,它们之间的关系是被动关系。

  例如:Given more attention,the trees could have grown better.如果对这些树多关心一些,它们本来会长得更好。

  Faced with difficulties,we must try to overcome them.在遇到困难的时候,我们必须设法克服。

  (4)分词作状语时前面可用连词。

  when,while,once,if,unless,though等引导的状语从句,若其主语与主句主语相同时,可保留该副词连接词,其余部分则化简为分词短语。

  例如:When (being) free,I'll fetch you.有空时,我会来接你。

  While walking along the street early in the morning,he saw her.一早在街上散步时,他看到了她。

  If falling ill,I'll see my doctor.如果生病我会去看医生。

  Once completed,this power station supplies the nearby towns and villages with electricity.这个电站一旦建成,将向附近的城乡供电。

  Even though given every opportunity,they would not try.即使给他们一切机会,他们也不肯试一试。

  Though knowing the truth,he remained silent.虽然他知道实情,却保持沉默。

  Unless (being) rich,I am not going abroad.除非有钱,要不然我是不会出国的。

  (5)分词作状语时,要特别注意其逻辑主语须和谓语动词的主语一致,否则分词必须有自己的主语。这种带主语的分词结构称作分词的独立结构,或独立

  主格。

  例如:The rain having stopped,the soldiers continued their match.雨停后,战士们又继续行军了。

  The boys returned,their face covered with sweat.孩子们回来了,满脸是汗。

  〈注〉有时也可用“with(或without)+名词(或代词宾格)+分词”的结构,表示伴随情况。

  例如:He fell asleep with the lamp burning.他亮着灯睡着了。

  The ey stood up.)学生们看见老师走进房间,都站了起来。

  Heated,ice will be changed into water.(=When it is heated……)当冰加热时,它就会变成水。(条件、时间)

  Being excited,I couldn't go to sleep.(=As I was excited,I couldn‘t go to sleep.)我兴奋得睡不着觉。(原因)

  I stood there,listening to the broadcast.(=I stood there and listened to the broadcast.)我站在那儿听广播。(伴随)

  The children went away laughing.(=The children went away.They laughed as they went.)孩子们笑着走开了。(行为方式)

  Knowing all this,they made me pay for the damage.(=Although they know all this……)他们尽管了解这一切,还是要我赔偿损失。

  (6)分词作连词引导状语从句。

  这些分词有:provided (or provided that),providing that, supposing,seeing (that), considering等。

  例如:You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting provided you don't mind taking the night train. 如果你不介意搭夜班火车,你就能早点儿到北京开会。

  I'll go,providing you go too. 如果你去的话我就去。

  Supposing it rains,what shall we do?假如要下雨的话,我们怎么办?

  Seeing (that) she is old enough to get married,I don't think you can stop her. 鉴于她已到结婚年龄,我看你阻止不了她。

  Considering he has been learning English only for a year,he speaks it quite well.考虑到他学习英语才一年,他讲得相当不错。

  (7)动词不定式和分词作状语的区别。

  A. 分词作状语一般表示伴随,而不定式常常表示目的。

  例如:They stood by the roadside talking about the plan.他们站在路边谈论着这个计划。(伴随)

  They stood by the roadside to talk about the plan.他们站在路边,为的是谈论这个计划。(目的)

  B. 分词作状语放在句子开头,除表示原因之外,有时表示时间或条件。动词不定式作状语时,除了表示目的以外,还表示结果或原因。

  例如:Reading attentively,he forgot the time for lunch.由于在专心读书,他忘了吃午饭的时间。(原因)

  Reading carefully,he found something he had not known before.他仔细读书时,发现了一些从前不知道的东西。(时间)

  Reading carefully,you'll learn something new. 只要你仔细阅读,你会学到一些新的东西。(条件)

  His family was too poor to support him.他的家庭太穷,不能维持他的生活。(结果)

  The boy is not tall enough to reach the book shelf. 这男孩个子不够高,手伸不到书架。(结果)

  We are glad to hear the news.我们很高兴听到这消息。(原因)

  (六)非谓语动词常考的其他结构

  (1)疑问词+不定式结构。

  疑问词who,what,which,when,where,和how后加不定式可构成一种特殊的不定式短语。它在句中可以用作主语、宾语、表语和双重宾语。

  例如:When to start has not been decided.何时动身尚未决定。(主语)

  I don't know what to do.我不知道该怎么办。(宾语)

  The difficulty was how to cross the river.困难在于如何过河。(表语)

  I can tell you where to get this book.我可以告诉你哪里可以买到此书。(双重宾语)

  〈注〉 a. 有时疑问词前可用介词。

  例如:I have no idea of how to do it.我不知道如何做此事。

  b. 动词know后面不能直接跟不定式作宾语,只能跟疑问词(如:how,what)+不定式。

  例如:While still a young boy,Bizet knew how to play the piano well and as he grew older, he wrote operas,the most famous of which is Carmen.

  (2)动词不定式的几个重要时态。

  A. 不定式的完成时。

  动词不定式的完成式常在动词appear,happen,pretend,seem等之后,体现它所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。但在be,wish,intend,mean,plan,ho

  pe,expect,should或would like等动词之后,则表示没有实现的行为。

  例如:I am sorry to have kept you waiting.对不起让你久等了。

  She seemed to have forgotten her promise.她似乎把她所答应的事给忘了。

  He pretended to have read the book.他假装读过这本书。

  He planned to have gone abroad.他原计划出国(但他没有去)。

  I hoped to have seen her.我原希望会见到她的(可是我没见到她)。

  I would like to have had your help.我本想得到你的帮助(实际上我却没有得到)。

  The enemy expected to have found him.敌人本来指望找到他(实际上却没有找到)。

  I intended to have finished my work last night.我本想昨晚完成作业。

  We were to have sailed next morning.我们本定于第二天早上启航。

  而在acknowledge,believe,consider,find,know,report,say,suppose,think,understand等动词之后跟不定式的完成时时,这些谓语动词用被动语态形式。

  例如:The bank is reported in the local newspaper to have been robbed in broad daylight yesterday.

  Byron is said to have lived on vinegar and potatoes.


  B. 不定式进行时和完成进行时。

  不定式进行式表示其主要谓语动词所代表的动作(情况)发生时,不定式所表示的动作正在发生;不定式完成进行式表示其动词所代表的动作,在主要谓

  语动词所代表的动作之前一直在进行。

  例如:When he came in,I happened to be doing my experiment in the lab.当他进来时,我刚好正在实验室做实验。

  Why do you stand here?you are supposed to be working in the lab.为什么你站在这儿?现在你应该正在实验室工作。

  The students are said to have been investigating the possibility of producing the new product.据说学生们一直在调查生产新产品的可能性。

  They are quite happy to have been cooperating harmoniously with us till now.他们非常高兴一直和我们愉快地合作到现在。

  (3)不带to的不定式。

  A. 在表示生理感觉的动词后的不定式不带to。这类词有:feel觉得〖〗observe注意到,看到〖〗overhear听到〖〗watch注视〖〗notice注意〖〗listen to听〖

  〗see看见〖〗 hear听〖〗perceive察觉,感知〖〗look at看 B. 另一类是某些使役动词,如make,let,have等。

  例如:Let him do it.让他做吧。

  I would have you know that I am ill.我想要你知道我病了。

  〈注〉:

  ① 上述感觉动词与使役动词转换为被动结构时,其后的不定式一般需带to。

  例如:He was seen to come. 别人看到他来了。

  The boy was made to go to bed early. 男孩早早被打发上床睡觉。

  ② 在动词find与help之后,不定式可带to亦可不带to。

  例如:He was surprised to find the sheep(to) break fence at this season.他发现羊在此季节越出栅栏,感到惊讶。

  C. 在do nothing/anything/everything but (except)结构中。

  例如:Last night I did nothing but watch TV. 昨天晚上,我除了看电视,别的什么也没有干。

  John will do anything but work on a farm.除了农活,约翰什么都愿意干。

  但是,如果谓语动词不是“do nothing,anything,everything”,那么but (except)所跟的不定式则仍须带“to”。

  例如:The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.医生除了让他戒烟,其他什么都没有说。

  There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.除了保持沉默以外,他们没有别的办法。

  (4)不定式与动名词的逻辑主语和分词独立结构

  A. 不定式的逻辑主语为:for+名词(或代词宾格)+不定式。

  例如:I found it impossible for him to do the job alone.我发现他一个人干这活是不可能的。

  B. 动名词的逻辑主语为:①人称代词的所有格+动名词;②名词's+动名词。

  例如: Tom insisted on my going with them.汤姆坚持要我和他们一起去。

  He dislikes his wife's working late.他不喜欢他妻子工作到很晚。

  C. 某些形容词,如:careless,clever,considerate,foolish,good,impolite,kind, naughty,nice,silly,stupid等不定式后可以加of来引导出其逻辑主语。

  例如:It is very kind of you to help me.你帮助我太好了。

  〈注〉在表示人物性格、特性等的形容词后面,常用of引出不定式的逻辑主语。

  例如:It was wise of him to do that.他那样做是明智的。

  间或也可用for+there to be表示(而且there后面的不定式只能是to be)。

  例如:It's a great pity for there to be much trouble in the company.太遗憾了,公司里有这么多的麻烦。

  (七)非谓语动词中的有关句型

  (1)动名词作主语的句型。

  A. Doing……+v. 。

  例如:Reading is an art.阅读是门艺术。

  Seeing is believing.眼见为实。

  B. It is+no use,no good(fun,a great pleasure,a waste of time,a bore……)等名词+doing sth.。

  例如:It is no use crying.哭没有用。

  It is no good objecting.反对也没有用。

  It is a great fun playing football.踢足球很有趣。

  It is a waste of time trying to explain.设法解释是浪费时间。

  C. It is+useless(nice,good,interesting,expensive等形容词)+doing sth.。

  例如:It is useless speaking.光说没用。

  It is nice seeing you again.真高兴又遇到了你。

  It is good playing chess after supper.晚饭后弈棋挺好。

  It is expensive running this car.开这种小车是浪费。

  D. There is no+doing……(there is no表示“不可能”)。

  例如:There is no telling what he is going to do.说出他要干什么是不可能的。

  There is no saying what may happen.说出将要发生什么是不可能的。

  E. There is no use (good)+doing sth.做某事没用(不好)。

  例如:There is no use crying over spilt milk.牛奶洒了,哭也无用。

  F. have difficulty+(in)+doing。

  have作“有”解时,后接情感名词(in可省略),再接动名词。这类词还有trouble,fun,a hard time,a good time.

  例如:We had difficulty (in) carrying out the plan.我们执行计划有困难。

  G. feel like+名词 “感觉像”。

  feel like+动名词“想要”=would like to+原形动词。

  例如:I feel like a newborn baby.我感觉像一个新生的婴儿。

  Do you feel like going to a movie?你想看电影吗?

  I don't feel like studying tonight.今晚我不想读书。

  H. They spent a lot of time (in) making preparations.他们花了许多时间作准备。

  I. 在require后只能用动名词,不能用不定式,尽管表示被动的意思,也要用动名词的主动形式。

  例如:This problem requires studying with great care.这个问题需要仔细研究。

  (2)有关分词句型。

  A. 在表示感觉和心理状态的动词see, hear, feel, listen(to), notice,observe, watch这类表示感觉的动词之后常跟“宾语+现在分词”的复合结构,这种动词与分词

  之间的宾语可以是普通名词或专有名词(人名等),也可以是代词宾格(him,us等)。

  例如:She smelt something burning and saw smoke rising.她闻到有东西在燃烧,并看到有烟升起来了。

  I watched them rehearsing the play.我看他们排演戏。

  I could feel the wind blowing on my face.我能感觉到风在我脸上吹过。

  B. 表示“致使”等意义的动词,如:catch,find,leave,give,have,get,set后也可跟上述(A)的结构,有时也可跟过去分词结构。

  例如:I caught them stealing my apples. 他们偷我的苹果,被我当场抓获。

  If she catches me reading her diary,she'll be furious.如果她抓住我偷看她的日记,她会很生气的。

  We found him waiting to receive us.我们发现他正等着接待我们。

  C.

  go+现在分词表示“从事……”之意,这时现在分词做主语补语。go之后所接现在分词,均表示短暂而又愉快的户外活动。如:jogging慢跑,fishing钓鱼,dan

  cing跳舞,skating溜冰,bowling打保龄球,shopping购物,sightseeing游览,camping露营。

  例如:I'll go camping tomorrow.我明天去露营。

  I'll go shopping.我去商店。

  Would you like to go skating with me?你想和我去溜冰吗?

  D. be busy+v.ing(现在分词)忙着做……。

  例如:I am busy writing my thesis.我正忙着写论文。

  His assistant is busy (in) correcting papers.他的助教忙于批阅考卷。

  或者be busy with+n.忙着做某事。

  例如:He is busy with his work.他忙着工作。

  E. What do you say to+ing分词?(……怎么样?)

  例如:What do you say to joining us for dinner?和我们一起进餐,你看怎么样?

  (3)there be的非谓语形式。

  there be非谓语形式可在句中作主语、宾语、状语和定语。

  A. 作动词宾语时,通常用there to be结构,而不用there being。能这样用的及物动词为:

  expect,like,mean,intend,want,prefer,hate等。

  例如:We don't want there to be any comrades lagging behind. 我们不希望有任何同志掉队。

  They hate there to be long queues everywhere.他们不愿意处处都要排长队。

  B. 作状语多用there being结构,但若置于介词之后,for+there to be 整个介词短语作程度状语,其他多半用there being。

  例如:There being nobody else at hand,I had to do it by myself.由于附近没有人,我只得独自干了。(原因状语)

  It's too early for there to be anybody up.太早了,还不会有人起床。(作程度状语)

  There having been no rain for a long time,the ground was very dry.因为好长时间没下雨了,地面非常干燥。(原因状语)

  C. 作主语时两种结构都可以,但如果用for引导则要用there to be。

  例如: It is not uncommon for there to be problems of communication between old and young.老人与年轻人之间存在着沟通问题是很常见的。

  There being a kindergarten on campus is a great convenience to female teachers. 幼儿园在校园内对女教师十分方便。

  D. 作定语。there be 结构作定语时,定语从句中谓语为there be,there之前的关系代词常常省略。

  例如:This is the fastest train (that) there is to Nanking.这是到南京的最快一班车。

  I must make full use of the time there is left to me and do as much as I can for the people.我要充分利用我剩下的岁月尽量为人民多做些事。

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