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1991年研究生入学考试英语试题

2005-12-20 14:50  

  1991年全国硕士研究生考试英语试卷及答案

  Ⅰ. In each sentence, decide which of the four choices given will suitably complete the sentence if inserted at the place marked. Put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET(15 point)

  l . They lost their way in the forest, and _ made matters worse was that night began to fall .

  A. that B. it C. what D. which

  2._ my return, I learned that Professor Smith had been at the Museum and would not be back for several hours. '

  A. At B. On C. With D. During

  3. Anyone who has spent time with children is aware of the difference in the way boys and girls respond to _ situations.

  A. similar B. alike C. same D. likely

  4. There is not much time left; so I'll tell you about it _.

  A. in detail B. in brief C. in short D. in all

  5. In this factory, suggestion Often have to wait for months before they are fully _ .

  A. admitted B. acknowledged C. absorbed D. considered

  6. There is a real possibility that these animals could be frightened, _ a sudden loud noise .

  A. being there B. should there be C. there was D. there having been

  7. By the year 2000, scientists probably _ a cure for cancer.

  A. will be discovering B. are discovering

  C. will have discovered D. have discovered

  8. Jim isn't _, but he did badly in the final exams last semester.

  A. gloomy B. dull C. awkward D. tedious

  9. The boy slipped out of the room and headed for the swimming pool without his parents' _

  A. command B. conviction C. consent D. compromise

  IO. He had _ on the subject.

  A. a rather strong opinion B. rather strong opinion

  C. rather the strong opinion D. the rather strong opinion.

  Il . When Jane fell off the bike, the other children _

  A. were not able to help laughter B. could not help but laughing

  C. could not help laughing D. could not help to laugh

  12. It is better to die on one's feet than_ .

  A. living on one's knees B. live on one's knees

  C. on one's knees D. to live on one's knees

  13 . The most important _ _ of his speech was that we should all work wholeheartedly for the people.

  A. element B. spot C. sense D. point

  14. This watch is__ to all the other watches on the market.

  A. superior B. advantageous C. super D. beneficial

  15. In a typhoon, winds _ a speed greater than 120 kilometers per hour.

  A. assume B. accomplish C. attain D. assemble

  16.__ the English examination I would have gone to the concert last Sunday.

  A. In spite of B. But for C. Because of D. As for

  17 . Mary _ my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now.

  A. has received B.

  C. ought to have received D.

  E. couldn't have received F.

  G. shouldn't' t have received H.

  18. _ to speak when the audience interrupted him.

  A. Hardly had he begun B. No sooner had he begun

  C. Not until he began D. Scarcely did he begin

  19 . Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely _ to the outside world.

  A. being lost B. having lost C. losing D. lost

  20. The policemen went into action _ they heard the alarm.

  A. promptly B. presently C. quickly D. directly

  21 . The lost car of the Lees was found _ in the woods off the highway.

  A. vanished B. abandoned C. scattered D. rejected

  22. Dress warmly, _ _ you'll catch cold.

  A. on the contrary B. or rather C. or else D. in no way

  23. Our research has focused on a drug which is so _ as to be able to change brain chemistry .

  A. powerful B. influential C. monstrous D. vigorous

  24 . Bob was completely _ by the robber' s disguise.

  A. taken away B. taken down C. taken to D. taken in

  25 . Difficulties and hardships have _ _ the best qualities of the young geologist.

  A. brought out B. brought about C. brought forth D. brought up

  26. Our modem civilization must not be thought of as _ in a short period of time.

  A. being created B. to have been created

  C. having been created D. to be created

  27. Even if they are on sale, these refrigerators are equal in price to, if not more expensive than, __ at the other store.

  A. anyone B. the others C. that D. the ones

  28. The bank manager asked his assistant if it was possible for him to _ _ the investment plan within a week.

  A. work out B. put out C. make out D. set out

  29. He knows little of mathematics, and _ of chemistry.

  A. even more B. still less C. no less D. still more

  30 . The students expected there __ more reviewing classes before the final exam.

  A. is B. being C. have been D. to be

  Ⅱ. Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For ach question four answers are given. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (30 points)

  l

  A wise man once said that the only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing. So, as a police officer, I have some urgent things to say to good people.

  Day after day my men and I struggle to hold back a tidal wave of crime. Something has gone terribly wrong with our once-proud American way of life. It has happened in the area of values. A key ingredient is disappearing, and I think I know what it is: accountability.

  Accountability isn't hard to define. It means that every person is responsible for his or her actions and liable for their consequences.

  Of the many values that hold civilization together——honesty, kindness, and so on——account- ability may be the most important of all. Without it, there can be no respect, no trust, no law——and, ultimately, no society.

  My job as a police officer is to impose accountability on people who refuse, or have never learned, to impose it on themselves. But as every policeman knows, external controls on people's behavior are far less effective than internal restraints such as guilt, shame and embarrassment.

  Fortunately there are still communities——smaller towns, usually——where schools maintain discipline and where parents hold up standards that proclaim: "In this family certain things are not tolerated——they simply are not done! "

  Yet more and more, especially in our larger cities and suburbs, these inner restraints are loosening. Your typical robber has none. He considers your property his property; he takes what he wants, including your life if you enrage him.

  The main cause of this break-down is a radical shift in attitudes. Thirty years ago, if a crime was committed , society was considered the victim. Now, in a shocking reversal, it' s the criminal who is considered victimized : by his underprivileged upbringing, by the school that didn't ' t teach him to read, by the church that failed to reach him with moral guidance, by the parents who didn't provide a stable home.

  I don't believe it. Many others in equally disadvantaged circumstances choose not to engage in criminal activities. If we free the criminal, even partly, from accountability, we become a society of endless excuses where no one accepts responsibility for anything.

  We in America desperately need more people who believe that the person who commits a crime is the one responsible for it.

  31 . What the wise man said suggests that__.

  A. it's unnecessary for good people to do anything in face of evil

  B. it's certain that evil will prevail if good men do nothing about it

  C. it's only natural for venue to defeat evil

  D. it's desirable for good men to keep away from evil

  32. According to the author, if a person is found guilty of a crime,__.

  A. society is to be held responsible

  B. modern civilization is responsible for it

  C. the criminal himself should bear the blame

  D. the standards of living should be improved

  33. Compared with those in small towns, people in large cities have__.

  A. less self-discipline B. better sense of discipline

  C. more mutual respect . D. less effective government

  34. The writer is sorry to have noticed that __.

  A. people in large cities tend to excuse criminals

  B. people in small towns still stick to old discipline and standards

  C. today ' s society lacks sympathy for people in difficulty

  D. people in disadvantaged circumstances are engaged in criminal activities

  35. The key point of the passage is that__.

  A. stricter discipline should be maintained in schools and families

  B. more good examples should be set for people to follow

  C. more restrictions should be imposed on people' s behavior

  D. more people should accept the value of accountability

  2

  The period of adolescence, i. e. , the person between childhood and adulthood, may be long or short , depending on social expectations and on society' s definition as to what constitutes maturity and adulthood. In primitive societies adolescence is frequently a relatively short period of time , while in industrial societies with patters of prolonged education coupled with laws against child labor, the period of adolescence is much longer and may include most of the second decade of one 's life. Furthermore, the length of the adolescent period and the definition of adulthood status may change in a given society as social and economic conditions change. Examples of this type of change are the disappearance of the frontier in the latter part of the nineteenth century in the United States , and more universally , the industrialization of an agricultural society.

  In modern society, ceremonies for adolescence have lost their formal recognition and symbolic significance and there no longer is agreement as to what constitutes initiation ceremonies. Social ones have been replaced by a sequence of steps that lead to increased recognition and social status. For example, grade school graduation, high school graduation and college graduation constitute such a sequence, and while each step implies certain behavioral changes and social recognition , the significance of each depends on the socio-economic status and the educational ambition of the individual. Ceremonies for adolescence have also been replaced by legal definitions of status roles, right, privileges and responsibilitis. It is during the nine years from the twelfth birthday to the twenty-first that the protective and restrictive aspects of child-hood and minor status are removed and adult privileges and responsibilitis are granted. The twelve-year-old is no longer considered a child and has to pay full fare for train, airplane, theater and movie tickets. Basically, the individual at this age loses childhood privileges without gaining significant adult rights. At the age of sixteen the adolescent is granted certain adult rights which increases his social status by providing him with more freedom and choices. He now can obtain a driver' s license; he can leave public schools; and he can work without the restrictions of child labor laws. At the age of eighteen the law provides adult responsibilities as well as rights; the young man can now be a soldier, but he also can marry without parental permission. At the age of twenty-one the individual obtains his full legal rights as an adult. He now can wrote, he can buy liquor, he can enter into financial contracts, and he is entitled to run for public office. No additional basic rights are acquired as a function of age alter majority status has been attained. None of these legal provisions determine at what point adulthood has been reached but they do point to the prolonged period of adolescence .

  36 . The period of adolescence is much longer in industrial societies because__.

  A. the definition of maturity has changed

  B. the industrialized society is more developed

  C. more education is provided and laws against child labor are made

  D. ceremonies for adolescence have lost their formal recognition and symbolic significance

  37. Former social ceremonies that used to mark adolescence have given place to__.

  A. graduations from schools and colleges  B. social recognition

  C. socio-economic status D. certain behavioral changes

  38. No one can expect to fully enjoy the adulthood privileges until he is __.

  A. eleven years old B. sixteen years old

  C. twenty-one years old  D. between twelve and twenty-one years old

  39. Starting from 22,__.

  A. one will obtain more basic rights

  B. the older one becomes, the more basic rights he will have

  C. one won't get more basic rights than when he is 21

  D. one will enjoy more rights granted by society.

  40. According to the passage, it is true that

  A. in the late 19th century in the United States the dividing line between adolescence and adulthood no longer existed

  B. no one can marry without the permission of his parents until the age of twenty-one

  C. one is considered to have reached adulthood when he has a driver' s license

  D. one is not free from the restrictions of child labor laws until he can join the army

  3

  Most growing plants contain much more water than all other materials combined. C. R. Darnes has suggested that it is as proper to term the plant a water structure as to call a house com- posed mainly of brick a brick building. Certain it is that all essential processes of plant growth and development occur in water. The mineral elements from the soil that are usable by the plant must be dissolved in the soil solution before they can be taken into the root. They are carried to all parts of the growing plant and are built into essential plant materials while in a dissolved state. The car- bon dioxide from the air may enter the leaf as a gas but is dissolved in water in the leaf be- fore it is combined with a part of the water to form simple sugars——the base material from which the plant body is mainly built. Actively growing plant parts are generally 75 to 90 percent water.

  Stnlctural parts of plants, such as woody stems no longer actively growing, may have much less water than growing tissues.

  The actual amount of water in the plant at any one time, however, is only a very small part of what passes through it during its development. The processes of photosynthesis, by which car- bon dioxide and water are combined-in the presence of chlorophyll ( 叶绿素 ) and with energy derived from light-to form sugars, require that carbon dioxide from the air enter the plant. This occurs mainly in the leaves. The leaf surface is not solid but contains great numbers of minute openings, through which the carbon dioxide enters. The same structure that permits the one gas to enter the leaf, however, permits another gas-water vapor——to be lost from it. Since carbon dioxide is present in the air only in trace quantities (3 to 4 parts in 1O ,000 parts of air) and water vapor is near saturation in the air spaces within the leaf (at 80"F , saturated air would contain about 186 parts of water vapor in 1O, OOO parts of air) , the total amount of water vapor lost is many times the carbon dioxide intake. Actually, because of wind and other factors, the loss of water In proportion to carbon dioxide intake may be even greater than the relative concentrations of the two gases. Also, not all of the carbon dioxide that enters the leaf is synthesized into carbo- hydrates ( 碳水化合物) .

  41 . A growing plant needs water for all of the following except__.

  A. forming sugars B. sustaining woody stems

  C. keeping green D. producing carbon dioxide

  42 . The essential function of photosynthesis in terms of plant needs is__.

  A. to form sugars B. to derive energy from light

  C. to preserve water D. to combine carbon dioxide with water

  43 . The second paragraph uses facts to develop the essential idea that__.

  A. a plant efficiently utilizes most 0f the water it absorbs

  B. carbon dioxide is the essential substance needed for plant development

  C. a plant needs more water than is found in its composition

  D. the stronger the wind, the more the water vapor loss

  44 . According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE?

  A. The mineral elements will not be absorbed by the plant unless they are dissolved in its root .

  B. The woody stems contain more water than the leaves.

  C. Air existing around the leaf is found to be saturated.

  D. Only part of the carbon dioxide in the plants is synthesized.

  45 . This passage is mainly about__.

  A. the functions of carbon dioxide and water

  B. the role of water in a growing plant

  C. the process of simple sugar formation

  D. the synthesis of water with carbon dioxide

  Ⅲ . For each numbered blank in the following passage there are four choices labeled A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (15 point)

  When television first began to expand, very few of the people who had become famous as ra- dio commentators were able to be equally effective on television. Some of the difficulties they experienced when they were trying to _46___ themselves to the new medium were technical. When working _47_ radio, for example, they had become _48____ to seeing on behalf of the listener.

  This _49_ of seeing for others means that the commentator has to be very good at talking. _50_ all, he has to be able to _51____ a continuous sequence of visual images which _52_ meaning -to the sounds which the listener hears. In the _53_ of television, however, the commentator sees everything with the viewer. His role, therefore, is _54_____ different. He is there to make _ 55_ that the viewer does not miss some point of interest, to help him _56_ on particular -things, and to _57____ the images on the television screen._58_ his radio colleague, he must know the _59_ of silence and how to use it at those moments _60_ the pictures speak for themselves .

  46. A. turn B. adapt C. alter D. modify

  47. A. on B. at C. with D. behind

  48 . A. experienced B. determined C. established D. accustomed

  49. A. efficiency B. technology C. art D. performance

  50. A. Of B. For C. Above D. In

  51. A. inspire B. create C. cause D. perceive

  52. A. add B. apply C. affect D. reflect

  53. A. occasion B. event C. fact D. case

  54. A. equally B. completely .C. initially D. hardly

  55. A. definite B. possible C. sure D. clear

  56. A. focus B. attend C. follow D. insist

  57. A. exhibit B. demonstrate C. expose D. interpret

  58. A. Like B. Unlike C. As D. For .

  59. A. purpose B. goal C. value D. intention

  60. A. if B. when C. which D. as

  Ⅳ . Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts. These parts are labeled A, B , C and D. Identify the part of sentence that is incorrect and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET.

  Then , without altering the meaning of the sentence , write down your correction on the line in the ANSWER SHEET. ( 1O point)

  61 . These is a delicate balance of nature which many square miles of ocean and vegetation and

  A B

  clean air are needed to maintain only a relatively few human beings.

  C D

  62 . The idea that learning is a lifelong process has expressed by philosophers and educationalists

  A B C

  throughout the centuries.

  D

  63. Nobody beside little children thinks that a trip by bus is exciting.

  A B C D

  64 . Just outside the ruins are a magnificent building surrounded by tall trees.

  A B C D

  65 . In the teaching of mathematics, the way of instruction is generally traditional , with teachers

  A B

  presenting formal lectures and students take notes.

  C D

  66. The teacher asked them who had completed their tests to leave the room as quietly as possi-

  A B C D

  ble.

  67. He wanted more out of life, not just working at high-paid jobs or spending nights on the

  A B C

  streets playing games.

  D

  68. Man has used metals for centuries in gradual in creasing quantities, but it was not until the

  A B

  Industrial Revolution that they came to be employed in real vast quantities.

  C D

  69. If you want your film to properly process, you'll have to wait and pick it up on Friday,

  A B

  which is the day after tomorrow.

  C D

  70. A man cannot be really happy if that he enjoys doing is ignored by society as of no value or

  A B C D

  importance .

  V . Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. (15 points)

  The fact is that the energy crisis, which has suddenly been officially announced, has been with us for a long time now, and will be with us for an even longer time. Whether Arab oil flows freely or not, it is clear to everyone that world industry cannot be allowed to depend on so fragile a base. (71) The supply of oil can be shut off unexpectedly at any time, and in any case, the oil wells will all run dry in thirty years or so at the present rate of use. (72) New sources of energy must be found, and this will take time, but it is not likely to result in any situation that will ever restore that sense of cheap and plentiful energy we have had in the times past. For an indefinite period from here on, mankind is going to advance cautiously, and consider itself lucky that it can advance at all.

  To make the situation worse, there is as yet no sign that any slowing of the world's population is in sight. Although the birth-rate has dropped in some nations, including the United States , the population of the world seems sure to pass six billion and perhaps even seven billion as the twenty-first century opens. (73) The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this, which means that we are heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing food.

  Taking all this into account , what might we reasonably estimate supermarkets to be like in the year 2001?

  To begin with, the world food supply is going to become steadily tighter over the next thirty years-even here in the United States. By 2001 , the population of the United States will be at least two hundred fifty million and possibly two hundred seventy million, and the nation will find it difficult to expand food production to fill the additional mouths. (74) This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields.

  It seems almost certain that by 200l the United States will no longer be a great food-exporting nation and that , if necessity forces exports, it will be at the price of belt-tightening at home. In fact, as food items will tend to decline in quality and decrease in variety, there is very likely to be increasing use of flavoring additives. (75 ) Until such time as mankind has the sense to lower its population to the point where the planet can provide a comfortable support for all, people will have to accept more "unnatural food" .

  Ⅵ . Writlng (15 point)

  DIRECTIONS :

  A) Title: WHERE TO LIVE——IN THE CITY OR THE COUNTRY?

  B) Time limit: 40 minutes

  C) Word limit: 120 - 150 words (not including the given opening sentence)

  D) Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the giv-

  en opening sentence.

  E) Your composition must be written clearly in the ANSWER SHEET.

  OUTLINE :

  1. Conveniences of the city

  2. Attractions of the country

  3. Disadvantages of both

  4. My preference

  参考答案:

  Ⅰ. l. C 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. D

  6. B 7. C 8. B 9. C 10. A

  11. C 12. D 13. D 14. A 15. C

  16. B 17. C 18. A 19. D 20. D

  21. B 22. C 23. A 24. D 25. A

  26. C 27. D 28. A 29. B 30. D

  Ⅱ. 31. B 32. C 33. A 34. A 35. D

  36. C 37. A 38. C 39. C 40. A

  41. D 42. A 43. C 44. D 45. B

  Ⅲ. 46. B 47. A 48. D 49. C 50. C

  51. B 52. A 53. D 54. B 55. C

  56. A 57. D 58. B 59. C 60. B

  Ⅳ. 61. (B) in which 66. (A) those

  62. (C) has been expressed 67. (C) highly-paid

  63. (A) except/but 68. (B) gradually

  64. (B) is 69. (A) be properly processed

  65. (D) taking 70. (B) what

  Ⅴ.

  71.石油供应可能会随时中断;不管怎样,以目前这种消费速度,只需30年左右,所有的油井都会枯竭。

  72.必须找到新的能源,这需要时间;而过去我们感觉到的那种能源价廉而充足的情况将不可能再出现了。

  73.食品供应的增加将赶不上人口的增长,这就意味着我们在粮食的生产和购销方面正陷入危机。

  74.这种困境将是确定无疑的,因为能源的匮乏使农业无法以高能量消耗这种美国耕种方式继续下去了,而这种耕种方式使投入少数农民就可获得高产成为可能。

  75.除非人类终于意识到要把人口减少到这样的程度:使地球能为所有人提供足够的饮食,否则人们将不得不接受更多的"人造食品"。

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