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1996年研究生入学考试英语试题

2005-12-20 14:50  

  1996年全国硕士研究生考试英语试卷及答案

  Part One:

  1. Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often _____,of better than an actual performance.

  A. as good as Bas good C. good D. good as

  2. My pain _____apparent the moment I walked into the room. for the first man I met asked sympathetically: "Are you feeling all right?"

  A. must be B. had C. must have been D. had to be

  3. The senior librarian at the circulation desk promised to get the book for me ____ she could remember who last borrowed it.

  A. ever since B. much as C. even though. D if only

  4. Observations were made ____ the children at the beginning and at the end of pre-school and first grade.

  A. towards B. of C. on D. with

  5. The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports, each ____ one major point in contrast with the other.

  A. makes B. made C. is to make D. making

  6. A safety analysis ___ the target as a potential danger. Unfortunately, it was never done.

  A. would identify B. will identify C. would have identified D. will have identified

  7. The number of registered participants in this year's marathon was half _____ .

  A. of last year's B. those of last year's C. of those of last year D. that of last year's

  8. For there ____ successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present.

  A. is B. to be C. will be D. being

  9. There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently _____ what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic.

  A. giving B. gave C. to give D. given

  10. No one would have time to read or listen to an account of everything ____ going on in the world.

  A. it is B. as is C. there is D. what is

  Section B(改错):

  ll . I'd rather you would go by train, because I can't bear the idea of your being in an airplane A B C

  in such bad weather.

  D

  12 . It's essential that people be psychological able to resist the impact brought about by the tran-

  A B C

  sition form planned economy to market economy.

  D

  13. Some bosses dislike to allow people to share their responsibllities; they keep all important

  A B C

  matters tightly in their own hands.

  D

  14. Each cigarette whlch a person smokes does some harm, and eventually you may get a serious

  A B C

  disease from its effect.

  D

  15 . On the whole , ambitious students are much likely to succeed in their studies than are those

  A B C

  with little ambition .

  D

  16. Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that is

  A B C

  not fully understood .

  D

  17 . In 1921 Einstein won the Nobel Prize, and was honored in Germany until the rise of Nazism

  A B

  then he was driven from Germany because he was a Jew.

  C D

  18. The data received from the two spacecrafts whirling around Mars indicate that there is much

  A B C

  evidence that huge thunderstorms are occuning about the equator of the planet .

  D

  19. Generally speaking, the bird flying across our path is observed, and the one staying on the

  A B

  tree near at hand is passed by without any notice taking of it.

  C D

  20. Mercury's velocity is so much greater than the Earth's that it completes more than four rev-

  A B

  olutions around the Sun in the time that takes the Earth to complete one.

  C D

  Section C:

  21. I was speaking to Ann on the phone when suddenly we were ___.

  A. hung up B. hung back C. cut down D. cut off

  22. She wondered if she could have the opportunity to spend _____ here so that she could learn more about the city.

  A. sometimes B. some time C. sometime D. some times

  23. Ms. Green has been living in town for only one year, yet she seems to be ____ with everyone who comes to the store.

  A. accepted B. admitted C. admired D. acquainted

  24. He does not ___ as a teacher of English as his pronunciation is terrible.

  A. equal B. match C. qualify D. fit

  25. Dozens of scientific groups all over the world have been ____ the goal of a practical and economic way to use sunlight to split water molecules.

  A. pursuing B. chasing C. reaching D. winning

  26. The discussion was so prolonged and exhausting that ____ the speakers stopped for refreshments.

  A. at large B. at intervals C. at ease D. at random

  27. When travelling, you are advised to take travellers' checks, which provide a secure ____ to carrying your money in cash.

  A. substitute B. selection C preference D. alternative

  28. I never trusted him because I always thought of him as such a ______ character.

  A. gracious B. suspicious C. unique D. particular

  29. Changing from solid to liquid, water takes in heat from all substances near it, and this _____ produces artificial cold surrounding it.

  A. absorption B. transition C. consumption D. interaction

  30. I didn't say anything like that at all. You are purposely ____ my ideas to prove your point.

  A. revising B. contradicting C. distorting D. distracting

  31. Language culture, and personality may be considered ____ of each other in thought, but they are inseparable in fact.

  A. indistinctly B. separately C. irrelevantly D. independently

  32. Watching me pulling the calf awkwardly to the barn, the Irish milkmaid fought hard to ____ her laughter.

  A. hold back B. hold on C. hold out D. hold up

  33. The manager gave one of the salesgirls an accusing look for her ____ attitude toward customers.

  A. impartial B. mild C. hostile D. opposing

  34. I ____ with thanks the help of my colleagues in the preparation of this new column.

  A. express B confess C. verify D. acknowledge

  35. It is strictly ____ that access to confidential documents is denied to all but a few.

  A. secured B. forbidden D. regulated D determined

  36. The pollution question as well as several other issues is going to be discussed when the Congress is in ____ again next spring.

  A. assembly B. session C. conference D. convention

  37. Christmas is a Christian holy day usually celebrated on December 25th ____ the birth of Jesus Christ.

  A. in accordance with B. in terms of

  C. in favor of D. in honor of

  38. Since it is too late to change my mind now, I am _____ to carrying out the plan.

  A. obliged B. committed C. engaged D. resolved

  39. It was a bold idea to build a power station in the deep valley, but it ____ as well as we had hoped.

  A. came off B. Went off C. brought Out D. made out

  40. To survive in the intense trade competition between countries, we must ____ the qualities and varieties of products we make to the world —— market demand.

  A. improve B. enhanced C guarantee D. gear

  Part Two:

  Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in small amounts in the diet for the normal growth and maintenance of life of animals, including man.

  They do not provide energy, 41 do they construct or build any part of the body. They are needed for 42 foods into energy and body maintenance. There are thirteen or more of them, and if 43 is missing a deficiency disease becomes 44 .

  Vitamins are similar because they are made of the same elements-usually carbon, hydrogen , oxygen , and 45 nitrogen. They are different 46 their elements are arranged differently, and each vitamin 47 one or more specific functions in the body.

  48 enough vitamins is essential to life, although the body has no nutritional use for 49 vitamins. Many people, 50 , believe in being on the "safe side" and thus take extra vitamins. However, a well- balanced diet will usually meet all the body' s vitamin needs.

  41. (A) either (B) so (C) nor (D) never

  42. (A) shifting (B) transfening (C) altering (D) transforming

  43. (A) any (B) some (C) anything (D) something

  44. (A) serious (B) apparent (C) severe (D) fatal

  45. (A) mostly (B) partially (C) sometimes (D) rarely

  46. (A) in that (B) so that (C) such that (D) except that

  47. (A) undertakes (B) holds (C) plays (D) performs

  48. (A) Supplying (B) Getting (C) Providing (D) Furnishing

  49. (A) exceptional (B) exceeding (C) excess (D) external

  50. (A) nevertheless (B) therefore (C) moreover (D) meanwhile

  Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension

  Passage l

  Tight-lipped elders used to say, "It's not what you want in this world, but what you get. "Psych- ology teaches that you do get what you want if you know what you want and want the right things.

  You can make a mental blueprint of a desire as you would make a blueprint of a house, and each of us is continually making these blueprints in the general routine of everyday living. If we intend to have friends to dinner, we plan the menu, make a shopping list, decide which food to cook first, and such planning is an essential for any type of meal to be served.

  Likewise, If you want to find a job, take a sheet of paper, and write a brief account of yourself. In making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your services.

  This acoount of yourself is actuaLly a sketch of your working life and should include alucation, experience and references. Such an account is valuable. It can be referred to in filling out standard application blanks and is extremely helpful in personal interviews.While talking to you,your could-be employer is deciding whether your "wares" and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.

  When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something tangible to sell. Then you are ready to hunt for a job. Get all the possible information about your could-be job. Make inquiries as to the details regarding the job and the firm. Keep your eyes and ears open, and use your own judgement. Spend a certain amount of time each day seeking the employment you wish for, and keep in mind: Securing a job is your job now.

  51. What do the elders mean when they say, "It's not what yau want in this world, but what

  you get. "?

  (A) You'll certainly get what you want.

  (B) It's no use dreaming.

  (C) You should be dissatisfied with what you have.

  (D) It's essential to set a goal for yourself.

  52. A blueprint made before inviting a friend to dinner is used in this passage as__.

  (A) an illustration of how to write an application for a job

  (B) an indication of how to secure a good job

  (C) a guideline for job description

  (D) a principle for job evaluation

  53. According to the passage, one must write an account of himself before starting to find a job

  because __.

  (A) that is the first step to please the employer

  (B) that is the requirement of the employer

  (C) it enables him to know when to sell his services

  (D) it forces him to become clearly aware of himself

  54. When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have some-

  thing__.

  (A) definite to offer (B) imaginary to provide

  (C) practical to supply (D) desirable to present

  Passage 2

  With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporation's news coverage, as well as listen to it. And of course in Britain listeners and viewers can tune in to two BBC television channels, five BBC national radio services and dozens of local radio station. They are brought sport , comedy, drama, music, news and current affairs , education , religion , parliamentary coverage, children ' s pragrammes and films for an annual licence fee of 83 pounds per household.

  It is a remarkable record, stretching back over 70 years——yet the BBC' s future is now in doubt. The Corporation will survive as a publicly-funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmes are now the subject of a nation-wide debate in Britain.

  The debate was launched by the Government , which invited anyone with an opinion of the

  BBC-including ordinary listeners and viewers——to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. The reason for its inquiry is that the BBC' s royal charter runs out in 1996 and it must decide whether to keep the organization as it is,or to make changes.

  Defenders of the Corporation-of whom there are many——are fond of quoting the American slogan "If it ain't broke, don't fix it. " The BBC "ain' t broke" ,they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word 'broke' , meaning having no money) , so why bother to change it?

  Yet the BBC will have to change, because the broadcasting world around it is changing. The

  commercial TV channels——TV and Channel 4-were required by the Thatcher Government's Broadcasting Act to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs. But it is the anival of new satellite channels——funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers' subscriptions-which will bring about the biggest changes in the long term .

  55 . The world famous BBC now faces__ .

  (A) the problem of new coverage (B) an uncertain prospect

  ( C) inquiries by the general public (D) shrinkage of audience

  56. In the passage, which of the following about the BBC is not mentioned as the key issue?

  (A) Extension of its TV service to Far East.

  (B) Programmes as the subject of a nation-wide debate.

  (C) Potentials for further intemational co-operations.

  (D) Its existence as a broadcasting organization.

  57. The BBC's "royal charter" (Llne 4, Paragraph 3) stands for__

  (A) the financial support from the roval family (B) the privileges granted by the Queen

  (C) a contract with the Queen (D) a unique relationship with the royal family

  58. The foremost reason why the BBC has to readjust itself is no other than__

  (A) the emergence of commercial TV channels

  (B) the enforcement of Broadcasting Act by the government

  (C) the urgent necessity to reduce costs and jobs

  (D) the challenge of new satellite channels

  Passage 3

  In the last half of the nineteenth century "capital" and "labour" were enlarging and perfecting their rival organizations on modern lines. Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders. It was moreover a step away from individual initiative, towards collectivism and municipal and state-owned business. The railway companies, though still private business managed for the benefit of shareholders, were very unlike old family business. At the same time the great municipalities went into business to supply lighting , trams and other services to the taxpayers .

  The growth of the limited liability company and municipal business had important consequences. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class , an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business. All through the nineteenth century, America,Africa, India, Australia and parts of Europe were being developed by British capital, and British shareholders were thus enriched by the world ' s movement towards industrialisation. Towns like Bournemouth and Eastboume sprang up to house large. " comfonable" classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders' meeting to dictate their orders to the management. On the other hand "shareholding" meant leisure and freedom which was used by many of

  the later Victorians for the highest purpose of a great civilisation.

  The "shareholders" as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labour was not good. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away. Indeed the mere size of operations and the numbers of workmen involved rendered such personal relations impossible. Fortunately, however, the increasing power and organization of the trade unions, at least in all skilled trades, enabLed the workmen to meet on equal terms the managers of the companies who employed them. The cruel discipline of the strike and lockout taught the two parties to respect each other' s strength and understand the value of fair negotiation .

  59. It's true of the old family finns that__.

  (A) they were spoiled by the younger generations

  (B) they failed for lack of individual initiative

  (C) they lacked efficiency compared with modem companies

  (D) they could supply adequate services to the taxpayers

  60. The growth of limited liability companies resulted in__.

  (A) the separation of capital from management

  (B) the ownership of capital by managers

  (C) the emergence of capital and labour as two classes

  (D) the participation of shareholders in municipal business

  61 . According to the passage, all of the following are true except that__.

  (A) the shareholders were unaware of the needs of the workers

  (B) the old firm owners hand a better understanding of their workers

  (C) the limited liability Qompanies were too large to run smoothly

  (D) the trade unions seemed to play a positive role

  62. The author is most critical of___ .

  (A) family film owners (B) landowners ( C) managers (D) shareholders

  Passage 4

  What accounts for the great outburst of major inventions in early America-breakthroughs such as the telegraph , the steamboat and the weaving machine?

  Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country ' s excellent elementary schools; a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors ; and above all the American genius for nonverbal , "spatial"thinking about things technological .

  Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics ,especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry.

  Acute foreign observers related American adaptiveness and invelltiveness to this educational

  advantage. As a member of a British commission visiting here in 1853 reported, "With a mind prepared by thorough school discipline, the American boy develops rapidly into the skilled workman. "

  A further stimulus to invention came from the "premium" system, which preceded our patent system and for years ran parallel with it. "fhis approach,originated abroad, offered inventors medals, cash prizes and other incentives.

  In the United States, multitudes of premiums for new devices were awarded at country fairs and at the industrial fairs in major cities. Americans flocked to thess fairs to admire the new machines and thus to renew their faith in the beneficence of technological advance.

  Given this optimistic approach to technological innovation, the American worker took readily to that special kind of nonverbal thinklng required in mechanical technology. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out , "A technologist thinks about objects that cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process . . . The designer and the inventor . . . are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist. "

  This nonverbal "spatial" thinking can be just as creative as painting and writing. Robert Fulton once wrote, "The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheels, etc. ,like a poet among the letters of the alphabet , considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea. "

  When all these shaping forces——schools, open attitudes, the premium system, a genius for spatial thinking——interacted with one another on the rich U. S. mainland, they produced that American characteristic , emulation . Today that word implies mere imitation. But in earlier times it meant a friendly but competitive striving for fame and excellence.

  63. According to the author, the great outburst of major inventions in early America was in a

  large part due to__

  (A) elemental'y schools ( B) enthusiastic workers

  (C) the attractive premium system (D) a special way of thinking

  64 . It is implied that adaptiveness and inventiveness of the early American mechanics__

  (A) benefited a lot from their mathematical knowledge

  (B) shed light on disciplined school management

  (C) was brought about by privileged home training

  (D) owed a lot to the technological development

  65 . A technologist can be compared to an artist because __

  (A) they are both winners of awards

  (B) they are both experts in spatial thinking

  (C) they both abandon verbal description

  (D) they both use various instruments

  66. The best title for this passage might be__

  (A) Inventive Mind (B) Effective Schooling

  (B) Ways of Thinking (D) Outpouring of Inventions

  Passage 5

  Rumor has it that more than 20 books on creationism/evolution are in the publisher ' s pipelines. A few have already appeared. The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life. Cosmology , geology , and biology have provided a consistent , unified, and constantly improving account of what happened. "Scientific" creationism, which is being pushed by some for "equal time" in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are eivel, is based on religion, not science. Virtually all scientists and the majority of nonfundamentalist religious leaders have come to regard "scientific" creationism as bad science and bad religion.

  The first four chapters of Kitcher's book give a very brief introduction to evolution. At ap-

  propriate places, he introduces the criticisms of the creationists and provides answers. In the last

  three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their

  programmes and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise. When their basic motivation is religious, one might have expected more Christian behavior.

  Kitcher is a philosopher, and this may account, in part, for the clarity and effectiveness of

  his arguments. The non-specialist wiU be able to obtain at least a notion of the sorts of data and

  argument that support evolutionary theory. The final chapter on the creationists will be extremely

  clear to all. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: "This book stands for

  reason itself. "And so it does-and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creation-

  ism/evolution debate .

  67. "Creationism" in the passage refers to__

  (A) evolution in its true sense as to the origin of the universe

  (B) a notion of the creation of religion

  (C) the scientific explanation of the earth formation

  (D) the deceptive theory about the origin of the universe

  68. Kitcher's book is intended to __.

  (A) recommend the views of the evolutionists

  (B) expose the true features of creationists

  (C) curse bitterly at this opponents

  (D) launch a surprise attack on creationists

  69 From the passage we can infer that__

  (A) reasoning has played a decisive role in the debate

  (B) creationists do not base their argument on reasoning

  (C) evolutionary theory is too difficult for non-specialists

  (D) creationism is supported by scientific findings

  70. This passage appears to be a digest of__

  (A) a book review (B) a scientific paper

  (C) a magazine feature (D) a newspaper editorial

  Part Ⅳ English-Chinese Translation

  The differences in relative growth of various areas of scientific research have several causes.

  71 )Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable

  consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating. Some , how-

  ever , are less reasonable processes of different growth in which preconception of the form scientif-

  ic theory ought to take, by persons in authority, act to alter the growth pattern of different areas.

  This is a new problem probably not yet unavoidable; but it is a frightening trend. 72)This trend

  began during the Second World War, when several govemments came to the conclusion that the

  specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally

  be foreseen in detail. It can be predicted, however, that from time to time questions will arise

  which will require specific scientific answers. It is therefore generally valuable to treat the scien-

  tific establishment as a resource or machine to be kept in functional order. 73)This seems mostly

  effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of

  possible consequence in the future.

  This kind of support , like all government support , requires decisions about the appropriate

  recipients of funds. Decisions based on utility as opposed to lack of utility are straightforward. But

  a decision among projects none of which has immediate utility is more difficult. The goal of the

  supporting agencies is the praisable one of supporting "good " as opposed to "bad" science, but a

  valid determination is difficult to make. Generally, the idea of good science tends to become con-

  fused with the capacity of the field in question to generate an elegant theory. 74)However, the

  world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's

  more fascinating and delightful aspects. 75) New forms of thought as well as new subjects for

  thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.

  Part V Writing (15 points)

  76. DIRECTIONS :

  A. Title : GOOD HEALTH

  B. Time limit :40 minutes

  C. Word limit : 120-150 words ( not including the given opening sentence)

  D. Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the

  given opening sentence : "The desire for good health is universal. "

  E. YOur composition should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

  OUTLINE:

  1. Importance of good health

  2. Ways to keep fit

  3. My own practices

  参考答案:

  l. A 3. D 5. D 7. D 9. A

  2. C 4. B 6. C 8. B IO. C

  11. A, went 12. B, psychologically

  13. A, allowing 14. C, he

  15. B, are more likely 16. C, are

  17. C, when 18. B, two spacecraft

  19. D, taken 20. C, it

  21. D 23. D 25. A 27. D 29. A

  22. B 24. C 26. B 28. B 30. C

  31. D 33. C 35. C 37. D 39. A

  32. A 34. D 36. B 38. B 40. D

  41. C 43. A 45. C 47. D 49. C

  42. D 44. B 46. A 48. B 50. A

  51. B 53. D 55. B 57. C 59. C

  52. A 54. A 56. C 58. D 60. A

  61. C 63. D 65. B 67. D 69. B

  62. D 64. A 66. A 68. B 70. A

  71.在这些原因中,有些完全是自然而然地来自社会需求;另一些则是由于科学在一定程度上自我加速而产生某些特定发展的必然结果。

  72.这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:政府要向科研机构提出的具体要求通常是无法详尽预见的。

  73.给某些与当前目标无关但将来可能产生影响的科研以支持,看来通常能有效地解决这个问题。

  74.然而,世界就是如此,完美的体系一般而言是无法解决世上某些更加引人人胜的课题的。

  75.同过去-样,将来必然会出现新的思维方式和新的思维对象,给完美以新的标准。

  Part V . Writing

  GOOD HEALTH

  . . . Wherever you are and whatever you do, staying healthy is always important. With the improvement of our living standards, people are attaching more and more importance to their health. We students can' t keep the high study efficiency without good. health. The same thing is true with workers, scientists and doctors.

  In my opinion, good diet and exercises are two major ways to keep healthy. The food we eat every day must be rational and should include meat, vegetables, eggs, and fruit. It is important to drink water every day and not to get addicted to drinking coffee or some other soft drinks. Ex-ercising every day is also essential for us to stay healthy. We can ride bicycles, play tennis or swim. Of course we don' t need to exhaust ourselves. We should plan our physical exercises according to our actual condition. An hour a day is enough.

  As a university student, I have much free time to do exercises. l usually play badminton and tennis. But sometimes I am lazy and do not exercise for all kinds of excuses, such as cold weather and exams. I must correct it. I am also careful with my diet. In a way, keeping healthy is not very hard, if you just take it seriously.

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