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考研英译汉词义的选择和引申(二)

2005-12-5 14:41 新东方 

  2005年试题分析

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET2. (10points)

  It is not easy to talk about the role of the mass media in this overwhelmingly significant phase in European history. History and news become confused, and one's impressions tend to be a mixture of skepticism and optimism. (46)Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed-and perhaps never before has it served to much to connect different peoples and nations as is the recent events in Europe. The Europe that is now forming cannot be anything other than its peoples, their cultures and national identities. With this in mind we can begin to analyze the European television scene. (47) In Europe, as elsewhere multi-media groups have been increasingly successful groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another. One Italian example would be the Berlusconi group, while abroad Maxwell and Murdoch come to mind.

  Clearly, only the biggest and most flexible television companies are going to be able to compete in such a rich and hotly-contested market. (48)This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks, no less than 50% took a loss in 1989.

  Moreover, the integration of the European community will oblige television companies to cooperate more closely in terms of both production and distribution.

  (49) Creating a "European identity" that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old continent is no easy task and demands a strategic choice-that of producing programs in Europe for Europe. This entails reducing our dependence on the North American market, whose programs relate to experiences and cultural traditions which are different from our own.

  In order to achieve these objectives, we must concentrate more on co-productions, the exchange of news, documentary services and training. This also involves the agreements between European countries for the creation of a European bank for Television Production which, on the model of the European Investments Bank, will handle the finances necessary for production costs. (50) In dealing with a challenge on such a scale, it is no exaggeration to say, "Unity we stand, divided we fall"-and if I had to choose a slogan it would be "Unity in our diversity." A unity of objectives that nonetheless respect the varied peculiarities of each country.

  [试题分析]

  C 节 5 小题, 每小题 2 分, 满分 10 分, 平均分 5.17 分, 难度 0.517, 各小题的难度值均在0.45~0.56 之间, 比较均衡, 分别为 0.503(46 题 ) 、 0.563(47 题 ) 、 0.512(48 题 ) 、 0.453(49 题 ) 、0.555(50 题 )。相比而言,46 题句子结构相对复杂。, 而且还含有倒装句。, 因此难度较大 ;49 题句子结构最复杂, 而且有几个词义很难把握的词汇, 难度最大。 综合考生答卷情况, 有以下两方面的问题值得注意 :(1) 考生对复杂的句子结构仍然掌握不好, 对复合句和倒装句的理解和翻译还存在一定的困难, 尤其表现在第 46 题和 49 题上 ;(2) 对一些貌似简单、但很难在汉语中找到确切对应意义的单词的理解和掌握还不够好, 如 46 题中的 "convey" 和 "serve",47 题的 "mu1ti-media",48 题的 "underline",49 题的 "identity" 、 "the Old Continent" 和 "fabric",50 题的 "scale" 、 "stand" 和 "fall" 等。

  46.[答案] 电视是引发和传递这些感受的手段之一一一在欧洲近来发生的事件中, 它把不同的民族和国家连到一起, 其作用之大, 前所未有。

  [分析] 难度 0.503; 区分度 0.447.与 47 、 48 和 50 题相比, 该题有较大难度, 主要因为 :(1) 句子结构较复杂;(2) 单词如 "feelings", "created","conveyed" 和 "served" 的词义比较难确定。从句法上讲, 该句是由两个并列句构成的, 破折号以前的并列句还包含了一个由 "by which" 引导的定语从句,而且是被动式的句子。在翻译这个并列句时, 考生应首先关注该句的主语一表语结构:"Television is one of the means"( 电视是……手段之一), 然后再关注跟在 "means" 后面的被动式定语从句。从翻译技巧上讲, 英语被动式应尽可能用汉语主动式来翻译。最后再关注 "feelings","created" 和 "conveyed" 的词义。 "feehgs" 一词可译成 "感情" 、" 感觉 "、"感受"、" 情绪 "、" 知觉 "等, 究竟应选择哪个汉语表达最准确, 这要看 "feelings" 指的是什么了。该句前面谈到 "……one 's impressions tend to be a mixture of skepticism and optimism " ( 在欧洲的这段特殊的历史时期里,大众媒体的作用很难谈清楚。历史与新闻混淆在一起, 人的印象趋于一种既怀疑又乐观的感受 ), 因此, 这里的"feelings" 应指感受而非感情。 "created" 指引发而非创造( 这些感受 ),"conveyed" 指传递而非搬运或转让( 这些感受 )。这个并列句可译为 "电视是引发和传递这些感受的手段之一"。该句的后一个并列句是个倒装句式"never before has it done ……", 关键是 "it" 指代什么。从上文看,"it" 指代 "television"( 电视 ) 。 "serve so much to do sth" 可译成" 在 ( 做 ) 什么方面发挥如此大的作用 "。该句可译为: 电视在连结不同民族和国家方面从未发挥过如此大的作用。 "people" 加了 "s" 之后指民族,"nations"指国 家。

  47.[答案] 在欧洲, 像在其他地方一样, 传媒集团越来越成功: 这些集团将相关的电视、广播、报纸、杂志和出版社组合在一起。

  [分析] 难度 0.563; 区分度 0.489。与 46 和 49 题相比, 该题的难度不大, 句子结构相对比较简单, 包含一个主句 "multi-media groups have been increasingly successful", 主句后跟了个含有两个定语从句的同位语 "groups which bring together television,radio,newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another ", 由 "which" 引导的定语从句是用来限定 "groups" 的; 由"that" 引导的定语从句是进一步说明"television","radio","newspapers","magazines" 和 "publishing houses" 的。该句可分成两部分翻译。第一部分是冒号以前的主句,"multi-media groups" 要译成"传媒集团 ", 不可译成"多媒体集团", 以免引起歧义。 "increasingly successful" 可译为 " 传媒集团越来越成功 "。冒号后面的同位语部分可单独译成一句话, 主语重复 "这些集团 ", 谓语用定语从句中的谓语 "bring together"( 把……组合在一起 ), 译为 " 这些集团把……组合在一起 "。由 "that" 引导的定语从句这里可用一个 简单的形容词 "相关的" 来翻译。

  48.[答案] 这一点就足以表明, 要在电视行业里生存下来并非易事。统计数字尤其说明了这一事实, 在 80 个欧洲电视网中, 多达一半在 1989 年亏损。

  [分析] 难度 0.512; 区分度 0.553。与前面一句相比, 这句话相对较难, 主要难在 :(1) 句子结构复杂, 该句的主句包含一个宾语从句 "that the television business is not an easy world to survive in", 一个同位语 "a fact", 一个限定同位语的过去分词结构, 里面还有一个限定介词宾语"statistics" 的定语从句 :"that show ……", 以及动词 "show" 的宾语从句 :"no less than 50% took a loss";(2) 有些表面上看去比较简单的常用词的译法需要注意, 如 :"alone", "world", "underlined", "took a loss" 等。这句话可分成两部分来翻译。第一部分是该句的主句 :"This demonstrates that……"( 这一点表明 ),"alone" 指光靠这一点, 因此可译成 " 足以 "。"Demonstrates"后的宾语从句可译成 :" 在电视行业里生存不是件容易的事 ", 注意 "survive" 后的介词 "in" 。全句可译成:" 这一点足以表明, 要在电视行业中生存下来并非易事。"该句的第二部分是整个前面部分的同位语, 可单独翻译。 "underline" 指强调, 其过去分词形式隐含着被动的语态, 原意为 :"这一事实被统计数字所强调 "。但按照翻译技巧, 被动式可做主动处理, 因此可译成:" 统计数字尤其说明了这一事实 "。至于限定 "statistics" 的定语从句 "that show that out of eighty European television networks, no less than 50% took a loss in 1989", 则可单独译成一句:" 在 80个欧洲电视网中, 多达一半在 1989 年亏损"。"no less than"原意是"不少于", 这里可译成"多达 "。

  49.[答案] 不同的文化和传统把欧洲大陆编织成一体,要创造出一种尊重这些不同文化和传统的 "欧洲品牌 " 绝非易事, 需要人们做出战略性的选择。

  [分析] 难度 0.453; 区分度 0.536。这句话是 5 句话中最难的句子, 主要难在:(1) 主语因含两个不同层次的定语从句而变得太长, 与谓语"is" 和 "demands" 相隔太远, 考生容易混淆;(2) 这句话中的许多单词考生都很熟悉, 但这里的具体词义却很难选定, 如"identity", "connecting fabric","the Old Continent" 等。首先, 考生可搭建起该句的基本结构 :"Creating sth is no easy task, and demands a choice"( 创造……是不容易的事情, 需要做出……选择 )。问题在于作主语的动名词 "creating" 后的成分, 这里包含了两个不同层次的定语从句: "that respects……; which go to make up……" 。只要考生把 "creating"后的成分及其关系理解清楚并翻译顺当, 事情就成功了一大半。考生不妨按照原句的次序先梳理一下思路:要创造出一种 " 欧洲品牌 " 不是件易事 -一一这种欧洲品牌尊重不同的文化和传统一一这些不同的文化和传统把欧洲大陆编织成一体。按照汉语的行文习惯,英语中后置的定语从句应提前, 放在被限定的名词之前, 因此, 翻译时要先把最后部分提前。

  从词义层面上讲,这句话的难度也很大。如 "identity" 一词, 原意为 "身份、特性、一致、本体、个体 ", 但这些词义都与原文所包含的意义不大相符。紧接这句话的是 :"that of producing programs in Europe for Europe. This entails reducing our dependence on the North American market,whose programs relate to experiences and cultural traditions which are different from our own"(也就是选择在欧洲为欧洲制作电视节目。减少对北美市场的依赖, 因为他们的节目所涉及的体验和文化传 统与我们自己的大为不同) 。由此可见, 这里的 "European identity" 指的是一种不 同于北美的、代表欧洲特性的标志, 因此译为"品牌 "比较合适。另外,"the Old Continent" 特指发现北美新大陆之前的欧洲大陆, 因此这里不宜译成"老大陆", 而应明确译为"欧洲大陆"。

  50.[答案] 在应对如此规模的挑战时,可以毫不夸张地说,"联合,我们就生存;分裂,我们就灭亡。"

  [分析] 难度 0.555; 区分度 0.510。这句话较之 49 题, 可谓简单了许多, 主要是句子结构相对简单, 而且结构对称, 容易理解。该句的难点有:1) 如何理解和翻译"stand"和 "fall", 是译成" 站立 "、"倒下", 还是根据上文的意思, 译成"生存"、"灭亡"; 2)"on such a scale" 和 "deal with" 的译法,"deal with" 可译成 "处理" " 应对 ","on such a scale" 可译成 " 如此规模的 "。另外, 过去分词 "united" 和 "divided" 实际上是 "if we are united" 和 "if we are divided" 的省略, 意思是:"假如我们联合,我们就生存; 假如我们分裂, 我们就灭亡"。

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