全国硕士研究生入学考试英语模拟试题 Test Two
Section Ⅰ Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark ［A］, ［B］, ［C］ or ［D］ on Answer Sheet 1. (10 points)
Generally speaking, a British is widely regarded as a quiet, shy and conservative person who is 1 only among those with whom he is acquainted. When a stranger is at present, he often seems nervous, 2 embarrassed. You have to take a commuter train any morning or evening to 3 the truth of this. Serious-looking businessmen and women sit reading their newspapers or dozing in a corner. Hardly anybody talks, since to do so would be considered quite offensive.
4 , there is an unwritten but clearly understood code of behavior which, 5 broken, makes the offender immediately the object of 6 .
It has been known as a fact that the British has a 7 for the discussion of their weather and that, if given a chance, he will talk about it 8 . Some people argue that it is because the British weather seldom 9 forecast and hence becomes a source of interest and 10 to everyone. This may be so. 11 a British cannot have much 12 in the weathermen, who, after promising fine, sunny weather for the following day, are often proved wrong 13 a cloud over the Atlantic brings rainy weather to all districts! The man in the street seems to be as accurate-or as inaccurate-as the weathermen in his 14 .
Foreigners may be surprised at the number of references 15 weather that the British make to each other in the course of a single day. Very often conversational greetings are 16 by comments on the weather. "Nice day, isn't it?" "Beautiful!" may well be heard instead of "Good morning, how are you?" 17 the foreigner may consider this exaggerated and comic, it is worthwhile pointing out that it could be used to his advantage. 18 he wants to start a conversation with a British but is 19 to know where to begin, he could do well to mention the state of the weather. It is a safe subject which will 20 an answer from even the most reserved of the British.
1. ［A］ relaxed ［B］ frustrated ［C］ amused ［D］ exhausted
2. ［A］ yet ［B］ otherwise ［C］ even ［D］ so
3. ［A］ experience ［B］ witness ［C］ watch ［D］ undergo
4. ［A］ Deliberately ［B］ Consequently ［C］ Frequently ［D］ Apparently
5. ［A］ unless ［B］ once ［C］ while ［D］ as
6. ［A］ suspicion ［B］ opposition ［C］ criticism ［D］ praise
7. ［A］ emotion ［B］ fancy ［C］ likeliness ［D］ judgment
8. ［A］ at length ［B］ to a great extent ［C］ from his heart ［D］ by all means
9. ［A］ follows ［B］ predicts ［C］ defies ［D］ supports
10. ［A］ dedication ［B］ compassion ［C］ contemplation ［D］ speculation
11. ［A］ Still ［B］ Also ［C］ Certainly ［D］ Fundamentally
12. ［A］ faith ［B］ reliance ［C］ honor ［D］ credit
13. ［A］ if ［B］ once ［C］ when ［D］ whereas
14. ［A］ propositions ［B］ predictions ［C］ approval ［D］ defiance
15. ［A］ about ［B］ on ［C］ in ［D］ to
16. ［A］ started ［B］ conducted ［C］ replaced ［D］ proposed
17. ［A］ Since ［B］ Although ［C］ However ［D］ Only if
18. ［A］ Even if ［B］ Because ［C］ If ［D］ For
19. ［A］ at a loss ［B］ at last ［C］ in groups ［D］ on the occasion
20. ［A］ stimulate ［B］ constitute ［C］ furnish ［D］ provoke
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing ［A］, ［B］, ［C］ or ［D］. Mark your answers on Answer Sheet 1. (40 points)
Readers of our Christmas issue were invited to nominate the wisest fool of the past 50 years. They responded magnificently, though often predictably. But this was not a popularity contest, or an unpopularity one. Except Jack Kennedy, every eligible president of the United States was nominated, along with every important political leader of the rest of the world. Alan Greenspan was a popular choice, but surprisingly few businessmen were proposed. Donald Trump, Kenneth Lay, Steve Jobs, Sir Richard Branson and Lord Conrad Black were those most often mentioned. Even fewer women were nominated, though Diana, Princess of Wales, was a strong contender.
Piers Allen of Malta nominated Ronald Reagan, explaining, "A joke-cracking, afternoon-napping, intellectual lightweight whose memory could, in times of crisis, always be relied upon, but only to fail. Although foolish enough to announce, live on radio, that he would be bombing Russia in five minutes and take advice from his wife's astrologer (占星家), he was also wise enough to have survived union leadership and two terms as governor of California to reach the presidency of the United States and end the cold war favourably for the West. Any other wise fools making it to the White House will be hard pressed to fill his cowboy boots. "
Richard Spencer (address not supplied) chose Yasser Arafat, whose foolishness was in "never missing an opportunity to miss an opportunity". "While appearing to his people as a strong leader who could stand up to the Israelis, Arafat was unable to (or simply chose not to) seize the historical moment and forge a compromise solution that would benefit the lot of the Palestinians. Had he been wise enough to make a deal with Israel when the going was good, he likely would have been buried as a bona fide (真正的) world leader in a sovereign state of Palestine. "
Denis Papathanasiou of Hoboken, New Jersey, nominated Lawrence Peter "Yogi" Berra, baseball player for the New York Yankees (1946-63). "Mr Berra hardly qualifies as an intellectual: he is famous for such remarks as 'You don't look so hot yourself' (in response to a comment that he looked cool in his summer suit), 'What? You mean right now? (when asked for the time of day), and 'I take a two-hour nap, from one o'clock to four. 'On second glance, however, his utterances depict a certain honest Zen-like（类似禅宗） wisdom: If you don't know where you're going, you'll wind up somewhere else? It was hard to have a conversation with anyone-there were so many people talking. Those qualities have inspired a miniature popular cult (崇拜) of books and seminars. Not bad for a humble baseball player of modest education. "
Mr Papathanasiou takes first prize.
21. Dennis Papathasiou's comment suggests .
［A］ Lawrence Berra is no doubt a confused character.
［B］ It is hard to have a conversation with Lawrence Berra.
［C］ It is wrong to underestimate a person of modest education.
［D］ The baseball player is philosophical about life.
22. What is NOT true of Ronald Reagan?
［A］ He was a trade union leader before assuming the governorship of California.
［B］ He threatened to bomb the Soviet Union on the advise of an astrologer.
［C］ He projected an image of tough guy when he was the U.S. president.
［D］ His memory could only be relied on in times of crisis.
23. The possible reason to drop the U.S. presidents from the contest is that .
［A］ The magazine deliberately disregarded popularity in the contest
［B］ most of the readers endorsed Dennis Papathanasiou's choice
［C］ The editors decided that they were not strong contenders
［D］ The purpose of the contest was to outwit the readers
24. Richard Spencer's comment implies that the Palestinian leader .
［A］ should have declared the formation of a Palestinian state
［B］ failed to identify a historical opportunity when it arose
［C］ failed to live up to his image as a strong leader
［D］ should have been flexible in his approach to dealing with the Israelis
25. The word "humble" (Line 9, Para. 4) denotes .
［A］ self-importance in bearing ［B］ modesty in behavior
［C］ a free of care character ［D］ easy-goingness in manners
The aging process may not be the result of a rigid genetic program that in itself dictates longevity. On the contrary, what we see as maximum life span may simply be the complex and indirect result of multiple traits in the organism that are internally tied to normal development. In other words, it is not that the body is somehow pre-programmed to acquire gray hair, wrinkles, or diminished metabolic(新陈代谢的) functions. Rather, these signs of aging are simply telltale side effects of activities of the organism.
Consider the analogy of an "aging car". Suppose a distinctive "species" of automobile were designed to burn fuel at a fixed temperature with an efficient rate of combustion(燃烧). That specific rate of combustion is required for appropriate acceleration, cruising speed, fuel mileage(油耗), and so on. But, when the car functions in this way over a period of time, the car also, of necessity, produces certain emission by-products that, over time, begin to clog the cylinders, reduce automotive efficiency, and lead to the breakdown and final collapse of the machine.
In the case of the human "car", it could be the burning oxygen in normal metabolism generates harmful by-products in free radicals that prove toxic to the organism. What we see here may be a basic trade-off: oxygen is essential for life yet harmful to our eventual well-being. In this view, the human "car" is not intentionally designed to accumulate toxic emissions in order to collapse. But there seems to be no way for the car to function at optimum levels without the destructive by-products.
But suppose we could find some special "fuel additive" that eliminates toxic emissions. Would we then have an "immortal" car? Probably not. Changing the fuel used in your car won't prevent accidents, nor would any fuel additive prevent rusting or the wearing down of springs and shock absorbers. The human "car" analogy, of course, is misleading, because an organism, unlike a manufactured object, has a capacity for repair and self-generation, at least up to certain point. The whole question about why we grow old is finding out why that capacity for self-repair ultimately seems unable to keep up with the damage rate: in short, why aging and death seem to be universal.
26. From the passage, we learn that .
［A］ the aging process becomes quicker as people live longer
［B］ one's life span has nothing to do with his genetic constitution
［C］ aging may not be caused by the body's genetic program
［D］ normal development dictates the maximum age of a person
27. The example of the "aging car" is used to make the point that .
［A］ aging is actually a by-product of the life process
［B］ any car may break down or collapse over time
［C］ no car can function at optimum levels due to inferior fuel
［D］ efficient rate of combustion is most important to the car
28. A "basic trade-off" (Line 3, Para. 3) is a process .
［A］ by which old cars are traded off for new ones
［B］ by which any organism depends on others for oxygen
［C］ through which an organism gets rid of harmful substances
［D］ in which any use carries with it an inherent side effect
29. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
［A］ Aging would never take place if we developed a special fuel additive.
［B］ We would live forever if we developed a magic medicine for longevity.
［C］ Longevity is determined by diverse kinds of factors.
［D］ Nothing can be done to prolong a life when it comes to its natural end.
30. The "human car" analogy is faulty in the way that .
［A］ unlike a person, a car does not have a life span
［B］ a human being has a self-repairing capacity
［C］ no can is expected to last longer than a life
［D］ a car cannot be restored to its original state once damaged
The most effective attacks against globalization are usually not those related to economics. Instead, they are social, ethical and, above all, cultural. These arguments surfaced amid the protests in Seattle in 1999 and more recently in Davos, Bangkok and Prague. They say this: the disappearance of national borders and the establishment of a world interconnected by markets will deal a death blow to regional and national cultures, and to the traditions, customs, myths and mores that determine each country's or region's cultural identity. Since most of the world is incapable of resisting the invasion of cultural products from developed countries that inevitably trails the great transnational corporations, North American culture will ultimately impose itself, standardizing the world and annihilating its richness of diverse cultures. In this manner, all other peoples, and not just the small and weak ones, will lose their identity, their soul, and will become no more than 21st-century colonies modeled after the cultural norms of a new imperialism that, in addition to ruling over the planet with its capital, military might and scientific knowledge, will impose on others its language and its ways of thinking, believing, enjoying and dreaming.
Even though I believe this cultural argument against globalization is unacceptable, we should recognize that deep within it lies an unquestionable truth. This century, the world in which we will live will be less picturesque and filled with less local color than the one we left behind. The festivals, attire(穿着), customs, ceremonies, rites and beliefs that in the past gave humanity its culturally and racially variety are progressively disappearing or confining themselves to minority sectors, while the bulk of society abandons them and adopts others more suited to the reality of our time.
All countries of the earth experience this process, some more quickly than others, but it is not due to globalization. Rather, it is due to modernization, of which the former is effect, not cause. It is possible to lament, certainly, that this process occurs, and to feel nostalgia(恋旧) for the past ways of life that, particularly from our comfortable vantage point of the present, seem full of amusement, originality and color. But this process is unavoidable. In theory, perhaps, a country could keep this identity, but only if-like certain remote tribes in Africa or the Amazon-it decides to live in total isolation, cutting off all exchange with other nations and practicing self sufficiency. A cultural identity preserved in this form would take that society black to prehistoric standards of living.
It is true that modernization makes many forms of traditional life disappear. But at the same time, it opens opportunities and constitutes an important step forward for a society as a whole. That is why, when given the option to choose freely, peoples, sometimes counter to what their leaders or intellectual traditionalists would like, opt for modernization without the slightest ambiguity.
31. Which of the following is the argument against globalization?
［A］ The world will become a globalized economic entity.
［B］ Cultural identities in some countries will be compromised.
［C］ Transnational corporations will take advantage of the poor countries.
［D］ Poor countries will be dominated by the powerful ones.
32. According to the author, .
［A］ globalization will enrich cultural diversity
［B］ countries should strive to reserve their unique customs and practices
［C］ modernization will succeed in some countries but not in others
［D］ the world will be culturally less diversified because of globalization
33. The author would agree with which of the following statements?
［A］ A country should try to retain its cultural identity in its modernization drive.
［B］ Cultural identity may work against the aspiration for modernization.
［C］ People should understand what may contribute to modernization.
［D］ It's impossible for a country to modernize and keep its cultural identity intact.
34. The author main purpose is to .
［A］ discuss globalization and cultural identity
［B］ refute the cultural argument against globalization
［C］ explain why modernization is inevitable
［D］ discuss the consequences of globalization
35. The author mentions the remote tribes in Africa and the Amazon to illustrate .
［A］ the resistance that people put up against globalization
［B］ the marginalization brought forth by globalization
［C］ the importance of self-reliance and self-sufficiency
［D］ the insurmountable difficulty of retaining cultural identity
What our society suffers from most today is the absence of consensus about what it and life in it ought to be. Such consensus cannot be gained from society's present stage, or from fantasies about what it ought to be, for that the present is too close and too diversified, and the future too uncertain, to make believable claims about it. A consensus in the present hence can be achieved only through a shared understanding of the past, as Homer's epics (史诗) informed those who lived centuries later what it meant to be Greek, and by what images and ideals they were to live their lives and organize their societies.
Most societies derive consensus from a long history, a language all their own, a common religion, common ancestry. The myths by which they live are based on all of these. But the United States is a country of immigrants, coming from a great variety of nations. Lately, it has been emphasized that an asocial(反社会的), narcissistic (自恋) personality has become characteristic of Americans, and that it is this type of personality that prevents us from achieving consensus that would counteract a tendency to withdraw into private worlds. In his study of narcissism, Christopher Lasch says that modern man, "tortured by self-consciousness, turns to new therapies not to free himself of his personal worries but to find meaning and purpose in life, to find something to live for". There is widespread distress because national morale has declined, and we have lost an earlier sense of national vision and purpose.
Contrary to rigid religions or political beliefs, as are found in totalitarian (极权主义的) societies, our culture is one of great individual differences, at least in principle and in theory. But this leads to disunity, even chaos. Americans believe in the value of diversity, but just because ours is a society based on individual diversity, it needs consensus about some dominating ideas more than societies based on uniform origin of their citizens. Hence, if we are to have consensus, it must be based on a myth-a vision-about a common experience, a conquest that made us Americans, as the myth about the conquest of Troy formed the Greeks. Only a common myth can offer relief from the fear that life is without meaning or purpose. Myths permit us to examine our place in the world by comparing it to a shared idea. Myths are shared fantasies that form the tie that binds the individual to other members of his group. Such myths help to fight off feelings of isolation, guilt, anxiety, and purposelessness-in short, they combat isolation and the breakdown of social standards and values.
36. In the author's view, the greatest trouble with the US society lies in the .
［A］ lack of serious disagreement over the organizations of social life
［B］ non-existence of unanimity on the forms the society should take
［C］ general denying of its conformity with what it was unexpected to be
［D］ public negation of the consensus on how to conduct social reforms
37. Homer's epics mentioned intend to exemplify the fact that .
［A］ the present is varying too fast to be caught up easily
［B］ the future may be so indefinite as to be unpredictable
［C］ the past can help to shape a consensus in the present
［D］ the past determines social moralities for later generations
38. The asocial personality of Americans results from .
［A］ the multiracial composition of the US society
［B］ the absence of a common religion and ancestry
［C］ the want of shared myths they possess in life
［D］ the obstruction of achieving a general agreement
39. It can be inferred from the text that Christopher Lasch is most probably .
［A］ an earnest nationalist ［B］ an advanced psychologist
［C］ a radical reformer ［D］ a social historian
40. The author concludes that only shared myths can help Americans to .
［A］ bring about the uniformity of their culture
［B］ diminish their great individual differences
［C］ avoid the sense of being isolated and anxious
［D］ regain the feelings of social values and morale
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order for Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on Answer Sheet 1. (10 points)
［A］ Concerned citizens and scientists have begun to take action. A wide range of solutions is being proposed to stop the destruction of biodiversity at the regional as well as the global level. Since 1985, the effort has become more precisely charted, economically efficient, and politically sensitive.
［B］ The new biodiversity studies will lead logically to an electronic encyclopedia of life designed to organize and make immediately available everything known about each of the millions of species. The industrialized countries will lead for a time. However, the bulk of the work must eventually be done in the developing countries. The latter contains most of the world餾 species, and they are destined to benefit soonest from the research. The technology needed is relatively inexpensive, and its transfer can be accomplished quickly. The discoveries generated can be applied directly to meet the concerns of greatest importance to the geographic region in which the research is conducted, being equally relevant to agriculture, medicine, and economic growth.
［C］ In the midst of this richness of life forms, however, the rate of species extinction is rising, chiefly through habitat destruction. Most serious of all is the conversion of tropical rainforests, where most species of animals and plants live. The rate has been estimated, by two independent methods, to fall between 100 and 10,000 times the pre-human background rate, with 1,000 times being the most widely accepted figure. The price ultimately to be paid for this cataclysm is beyond measure in foregone scientific knowledge; new pharmaceutical and other products; ecosystems services such as water purification and soil renewal; and, not least, aesthetic and spiritual benefits.
［D］ Since the current hierarchical, binomial classification was introduced by Carolus Linnaeus 250 years ago, 10 percent, at a guess, of the species of organisms have been described. It is believed that most and perhaps nearly all of the remaining 90 percent can be discovered, diagnosed, and named in as little as about 25 years. That potential is the result of two developments needed to accelerate biodiversity studies.
［E］ The increasing attention given to the biodiversity crisis highlights the inadequacy of biodiversity research itself. Earth remains in this respect a relatively unexplored planet. The total number of described and formally named species of organisms has grown, but not by much, and today is generally believed to lie somewhere between 1.5 million and 1.8 million. The full number, including species yet to be discovered, has been estimated in various accounts that differ according to assumptions and methods from an improbably low 3.5 million to an improbably high 100 million. By far the greatest fraction of the unknown species will be insects and microorganisms.
［F］ The past decade has witnessed the emergence of a much clearer picture of the magnitude of the biodiversity problem. Put simply, the biosphere has proved to be more diverse than was earlier supposed, especially in the case of small microorganisms. An entire domain of life, the Archaea, has been distinguished from the bacteria, and a huge, still mostly unknown and energetically independent environment has been found to extend three kilometers or more below the surface of Earth.
［G］ The first is information technology, with which high-resolution digitized images of specimens can now be obtained. Moreover, type specimens, scattered in museums around the world can now be photographed and made instantly available everywhere as "e瞭ypes" on the Internet. The second revolution about to catapult biodiversity studies forward is genomics, which will soon enable scientists to describe bacterial and archaean species by partial DNA sequences and to subsequently identify them by genetic bar-coding.
F→41. →42. →43. →44. →45. →B
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on Answer Sheet 2. (10 points)
Education begins with teachers. Yet teaching seems to be losing its appeal for many of the best and brightest college students: in high school, many of the best students decide that they want to be teachers, but their relatives and friends soon convince them to change their minds. (46) According to several recent reports on the shortcomings of American public schooling, teaching's lack of appeal for the brightest college students is one of the teaching profession's most worrisome problems.
Many articles on teaching, currently popular in newspapers, magazines, and professional education journals, concentrate on the negative aspects of teaching; the expression "teacher burnout" is commonly ascribed to thousands of thoughtful and dedicated teachers who are leaving the profession. (47) Teacher burnout is caused by such problems as violence in the classroom, vandalism(肆意破坏行为), inadequate salaries, involuntary transfers, interfering parents, oversized classes, and excessive paperwork. Even the best teachers cannot solve a child's problems, but many of them believe the public expects them to, and they give up teaching in despair.
(48) Despite the more limited financial prospects, the deterioration of the American public's attitude toward teachers, and the problems caused by disruptive students, many of the best students conclude that they want to pursue careers in the classroom after all. They usually discover that they want personal fulfillment from their life's work more than they want material rewards. Each eventually chose to become a teacher. However, a growing body of evidence shows that such students are exceptions, rather than the rule, in America's more than 1,200 teacher-training programs. Many teacher-training schools are beginning to look at ways to recruit the kind of people who would be inclined toward the positive aspects of teaching. The teaching profession has to become more attractive to good students.
(49) Prospective teachers will see increased emphasis by national teacher organizations, state certification agencies, and local districts on improving the status of the profession, as well as on improving teacher salaries. Continued efforts to eliminate jobs teachers do that are not teacher's-such as policing the restrooms, hallways, and cafeterias-are important for upgrading the profession.
While teaching is not a wise career choice for all, teaching is a noble and rewarding profession for those who indeed seek personal fulfillment from their life's work. (50) Though the first year of teaching is frequently the most frustrating year in a teacher's life, the experience of solving problems that deal with instruction, students, parents, administrators, and fellow teachers is of immeasurable value for future success.
Section Ⅲ Writing
You are scheduled to head for a job interview tomorrow afternoon. However, you have just been informed that there will be an important lecture then, and you can't excuse yourself. So write a letter to the interviewer:
1) Express your apology;
2) Explain the reason why you can't meet the appointment;
3) Request your appointment be scheduled for another time;
4) Make sure that you are mostly polite in writing the letter.
Write your letter with no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on Answer Sheet 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, use "Li Ming" instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should first describe the drawing, interpret its meaning, and give your comment on it.
You should write neatly on Answer Sheet 2. (20 points)