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2002年英语专业八级试题及答案

2005-12-21 00:00

  2002年英语专业八级考试试题

  PART Ⅰ LISTENING COMPREHENSION [40 min]

  In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct response to each question on your COLOURED ANSWER SHEET.

  SECTION A TALK

  Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.

  Now listen to the talk.

  1. According to the passage, during the 18th and 19th centuries cities were small in size mainly because ______.

  〔A〕 the urban population was stable

  〔B〕 few people lived in cities

  〔C〕 transport was backward

  〔D〕 it was originally planned

  2. Cities survived in those days largely as a result of ______.

  〔A〕 the trade activities they undertook

  〔B〕 the agricultural activities in the nearby areas

  〔C〕 their relatively small size

  〔D〕 the non-economic roles they played

  3. City dwellers were engaged in all the following economic activities EXCEPT ______.

  〔A〕 commerce

  〔B〕 distribution

  〔C〕 processing

  〔D〕 transportation

  4. Urban people left cities for the following reasons EXCEPT ______.

  〔A〕 more economic opportunities

  〔B〕 a freer social and political environment

  〔C〕 more educational opportunities

  〔D〕 a more relaxed religious environment

  5. Why did the early cities fail to grow as quickly as expected throughout the 18th century?

  〔A〕 Because the countryside attracted more people.

  〔B〕 Because cities did not increase in number.

  〔C〕 Because the functions of the cities changed.

  〔D〕 Because the number of city people was stable.

  SECTION B INTERVIEW

  Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.

  Now listen to the interview.

  6. According to Janet, the factor that would most affect negotiations is ______.

  〔A〕 English language proficiency

  〔B〕 different cultural practices

  〔C〕 different negotiation tasks

  〔D〕 the international Americanized style

  7. Janet's attitude towards the Americanized style, as a model for business negotiations is ______.

  〔A〕 supportive

  〔B〕 negative

  〔C〕 ambiguous

  〔D〕 cautious

  8. Which of the following can NOT be seen as a difference between Brazilian and American negotiators?

  〔A〕 Americans prepare more points before negotiations.

  〔B〕 Americans are more straightforward during negotiations.

  〔C〕 Brazilians prefer more eye contact during negotiations.

  〔D〕 Brazilians seek more background information.

  9. Which group of people seems to be the most straightforward?

  〔A〕 The British.

  〔B〕 Germans.

  〔C〕 Americans.

  〔D〕 Not mentioned.

  10. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of Japanese negotiators?

  〔A〕 Reserved.

  〔B〕 Prejudiced.

  〔C〕 Polite.

  〔D〕 Prudent.

  SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST

  Question 11 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the question.

  Now listen to the news.

  11. The news item is mainly about ______.

  〔A〕 a call for research papers to be read at the conference

  〔B〕 an international conference on traditional Tibetan medicine

  〔C〕 the number of participants at the conference and their nationalities

  〔D〕 the preparations made by the sponsors for the international conference

  Questions 12 and 13 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now listen to the news.

  12. The news item mainly concerns ______ in Hong Kong.

  〔A〕 Internet centres

  〔B〕 an IBM seminar

  〔C〕 e-government

  〔D〕 broadcasting

  13. The aims of the three policy objectives include all the following EXCEPT ______.

  〔A〕 improvement of government efficiency

  〔B〕 promotion of e-commerce

  〔C〕 integration of service delivery

  〔D〕 formulation of Digital 21 Strategy

  Questions 14 and 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions.

  Now listen to the news.

  14. Which of the following records was the second best time of the year by Donovan Bailey?

  〔A〕 9.98.

  〔B〕 9.80.

  〔C〕 9.91.

  〔D〕 9.95.

  15. The record shows that Bailey was ______.

  〔A〕 still suffering from an injury

  〔B〕 getting back in shape

  〔C〕 unable to compete with Greene

  〔D〕 less confident than before

  SECTION D NOTE-TAKING & GAP-FILLING

  Fill in each of the gaps with ONE word. You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable.

  Study Activities in University

  In order to help college and university students in the process of learning, four key study activities have been designed and used to encourage them to make knowledge their own.

  1. essay writing: central focus of university work esp. in the humanities, e.g. (1)______

  Benefits : 1)helping to select interesting content in books and to express understanding.

  2) enabling teachers to know progress and to offer(2) ______.

  3)familiarizing students with exam forms.

  2. seminars and classroom discussion: another form to internalize knowledge in specialized contexts.

  Benefits: 1) (3)______ enables you to know the effectiveness of and others response to your speech immediately.

  2) Within the same period of time, more topics can be dealt with than in(4)______.

  3) The use of a broader range of knowledge is encouraged.

  3. individual tutorials : a substitute for group discussion. Format: from teacher (5)______to flexible conversation.

  Benefit: encouraging ideas and interaction.

  4. lectures: a most (6) ______used study activity.

  Disadvantages: 1) less (7) ______ than discussions or tutorials.

  2) more demanding in note-taking.

  Advantages: 1) providing a general (8)______ of a subject under discussion.

  2) offering more easily understood versions of a theory.

  3) updating students on(9)______ developments.

  4) allowing students to follow different (10)______.

  PART Ⅱ PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION [15 min]

  The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it.

  There are great impediments to the general use

  of a standard in pronunciation comparable to that

  existing in spelling (orthography). One is the fact

  that pronunciation is learnt "naturally" and uncon-

  sciously, and orthography is learnt deliberately and (1)______

  consciously. Large numbers of us, in fact, remain

  throughout our lives quite unconscious with what (2)______

  our speech sounds like when we speak out, and (3)______

  it often comes as a shock when we firstly hear a (4)______

  recording of ourselves. It is not a voice we recog-

  nize at once, whereas our own handwriting is some-

  thing which we almost always know. We begin the (5)______

  "natural" learning of pronunciation long before we

  start learning to read or write, and in our early years

  we went on unconsciously imitating and practicing (6)______

  the pronunciation of those around us for many more

  hours per every day than we ever have to spend  (7)______

  learning even our difficult English spelling. This is  (8)______

  "natural", therefore, that our speech-sounds should

  be those of our immediate circle; after all, as we

  have seen, speech operates as a means of holding

  a community and to give a sense of "belonging". We  (9)______

  learn quite early to recognize a "stranger", someone

  who speaks with an accent of a different comm-

  unity - perhaps only a few miles far.   (10)______

  PART Ⅲ READING COMPREHENSION [40 min]

  SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION [30min]

  In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your COLOURED ANSWER SHEET.

  TEXT A

  Do you ever feel as though you spend all your time in meetings?

  Henry Mintzberg, in his book The Nature of Managerial Work, found that in large organizations managers spent 22 per cent of their time at their desk, 6 per cent on the telephone, 3 per cent on other activities, but a whopping 69 per cent in meetings. There is a widely-held but mistaken belief that meetings are for "solving problems" and "making decisions". For a start, the number of people attending a meeting tends to be inversely proportional to their collective ability to reach conclusions and make decisions. And these are the least important elements. Instead hours are devoted to side issues, playing elaborate games with one another. It seems, therefore, that meetings serve some purpose other than just making decisions. All meetings have one thing in common: role-playing. The most formal role is that of chairman. He sets the agenda, and a good chairman will keep the meeting running on time and to the point. Sadly, the other, informal, role-players are often able to gain the upper hand. Chief is the "constant talker", who just loves to hear his or her own voice. Then there are the "can t do" types who want to maintain the status quo. Since they have often been in the organization for a long time, they frequently quote historical experience as an excuse to block change: "It won t work, we tried that last year and it was a disaster." A more subtle version of the "can't do" type, the "yes, but ……", has emerged recently. They have learnt about the need to sound positive, but they still can t bear to have things change. Another whole sub-set of characters are people who love meetings and want them to continue until 5∶30 pm or beyond. Irrelevant issues are their speciality. They need to call or attend meetings, either to avoid work, or to justify their lack of performance, or simply because they do not have enough to do. Then there are the "counter-dependents", those who usually disagree with everything that is said, particularly if it comes from the chairman or through consensus from the group. These people need to fight authority in whatever form. Meetings can also provide attenders with a sense of identification of their status and power. In this case, managers arrange meetings as a means of communicating to others the boundaries of their exclusive club: who is "in", and who is not. Because so many meetings end in confusion and without a decision, another game is played at the end of meetings, called reaching a false consensus. Since it is important for the chairman to appear successful in problem solving and making a decision, the group reaches a false consensus. Everyone is happy, having spent their time productively. The reality is that the decision is so ambiguous that it is never acted upon, or, if it is, there is continuing conflict, for which another meeting is necessary. In the end, meetings provide the opportunity for social intercourse, to engage in battle in front of our bosses, to avoid unpleasant or unsatisfying work to highlight our social status and identity. They are, in fact, a necessary though not necessarily productive psychological sideshow. Perhaps it is our civilized way to moderating, if not preventing, change.

  16. On role-playing, the passage seems to indicate that chairman ______.

  〔A〕 talks as much as participants

  〔B〕 is usually a "constant talker"

  〔C〕 prefers to take the role of an observer

  〔D〕 is frequently outshone by participants

  17. Which of the following is NOT a distinct characteristic of the three types of participants?

  〔A〕 Submissiveness.

  〔B〕 Stubbornness.

  〔C〕 Disobedience.

  〔D〕 Lack of focus.

  18. The passage suggests that a false consensus was reached at the end of a meeting in order to ______.

  〔A〕 make room for another meeting

  〔B〕 bring an illusory sense of achievement

  〔C〕 highlight the importance of a meeting

  〔D〕 go ahead with the agreed programme

  TEXT B

  Cooperative competition. Competitive cooperation. Confused? Airline alliances have travellers scratching their heads over what s going on in the skies. Some folks view alliances as a blessing to travellers, offering seamless travel, reduced fares and enhanced frequent-flyer benefits. Others see a conspiracy of big businesses, causing decreased competition, increased fares and fewer choices. Whatever your opinion, there's no escaping airline alliances: the marketing hype is unrelenting, with each of the two mega-groupings, Oneworld and Star Alliance, promoting itself as the best choice for all travellers. And, even if you turn away from their ads, chances are they will figure in any of your travel plans. By the end of the year, Oneworld and Star Alliance will between them control more than 40% of the traffic in the sky. Some pundits predict that figure will be more like 75% in 10 years.

  But why, after years of often ferocious competition, have airlines decided to band together? Let's just say the timing is mutually convenient. North American airlines, having exhausted all means of earning customer loyalty at home, have been looking for ways to reach out to foreign flyers. Asian carriers are still hurting from the region-wide economic downturn that began two years ago-just when some of the airlines were taking delivery of new aircraft. Alliances also allow carriers to cut costs and increase profits by pooling manpower resources on the ground (rather than each airline maintaining its own ground crew)and code-sharing-the practice of two partners selling tickets and operating only one aircraft.

  So alliances are terrific for airlines-but are they good for the passenger? Absolutely, say the airlines: think of the lounges, the joint FFP(frequent flyer programme)benefits, the round-the-world fares, and the global service networks. Then there's the promise of "seamless" travel: the ability to, say, travel from Singapore to Rome to New York to Rio de Janeiro, all on one ticket, without having to wait hours for connections or worry about your bags. Sounds utopian? Peter Buecking, Cathay Pacific's director of sales and marketing, thinks that seamless travel is still evolving. "It's fair to say that these links are only in their infancy. The key to seamlessness rests in infrastructure and information sharing. We're working on this." Henry Ma, spokesperson for Star Alliance in Hong Kong, lists some of the other benefits for consumers: "Global travellers have an easier time making connections and planning their itineraries." Ma claims alliances also assure passengers consistent service standards.

  Critics of alliances say the much-touted benefits to the consumer are mostly pie in the sky, that alliances are all about reducing costs for the airlines, rationalizing services and running joint marketing programmes. Jeff Blyskal, associate editor of Consumer Reports magazine, says the promotional ballyhoo over alliances is much ado about nothing. "I don't see much of a gain for consumers: alliances are just a marketing gimmick. And as far as seamless travel goes, I'll believe it when I see it. Most airlines can't even get their own connections under control, let alone coordinate with another airline."

  Blyskal believes alliances will ultimately result in decreased flight choices and increased costs for consumers. Instead of two airlines competing and each operating a flight on the same route at 70% capacity, the allied pair will share the route and run one full flight. Since fewer seats will be available, passengers will be obliged to pay more for tickets.

  The truth about alliances and their merits probably lies somewhere between the travel utopia presented by the players and the evil empires portrayed by their critics. And how much they affect you depends on what kind of traveller you are.

  Those who've already made the elite grade in the FFP of a major airline stand to benefit the most when it joins an alliance: then they enjoy the FFP perks and advantages on any and all of the member carriers. For example, if you re a Marco Polo Club "gold" member of Cathay Pacific s Asia Miles FFP, you will automatically be treated as a valuable customer by all members of Oneworld, of which Cathay Pacific is a member-even if you've never flown with them before.

  For those who haven t made the top grade in any FFP, alliances might be a way of simplifying the earning of frequent flyer miles. For example, I belong to United Airline s Mileage Plus and generally fly less than 25, 000 miles a year. But I earn miles with every flight I take on Star Alliance member-All Nippon Airways and Thai Airways.

  If you fly less than I do, you might be smarter to stay out of the FFP game altogether. Hunt for bargains when booking flights and you might be able to save enough to take that extra trip anyway. The only real benefit infrequent flyers can draw from an alliance is an inexpensive round-the-world fare.

  The bottom line: for all the marketing hype, alliances aren't all things to all people-but everybody can get some benefit out of them.

  19. Which is the best word to describe air travellers reaction to airline alliances?

  〔A〕 Delight.

  〔B〕 Indifference.

  〔C〕 Objection.

  〔D〕 Puzzlement.

  20. According to the passage, setting up airline alliances will chiefly benefit ______.

  〔A〕 North American airlines and their domestic travellers

  〔B〕 North American airlines and their foreign counterparts

  〔C〕 Asian airlines and their foreign travellers

  〔D〕 Asian airlines and their domestic travellers

  21. Which of the following is NOT a perceived advantage of alliances?

  〔A〕 Baggage allowance.

  〔B〕 Passenger comfort.

  〔C〕 Convenience.

  〔D〕 Quality.

  22. One disadvantage of alliances foreseen by the critics is that air travel may be more expensive as a result of ______.

  〔A〕 less convenience

  〔B〕 higher operation costs

  〔C〕 less competition

  〔D〕 more joint marketing

  23. According to the passage, which of the following categories of travellers will gain most from airline alliances?

  〔A〕 Travellers who fly frequently economy class.

  〔B〕 Travellers who fly frequently business class.

  〔C〕 Travellers who fly occasionally during holidays.

  〔D〕 Travellers who fly economy class once in a while.

  TEXT C

  It is nothing new that English use is on the rise around the world, especially in business circles. This also happens in France, the headquarters of the global battle against American cultural hegemony. If French guys are giving in to English, something really big must be going on. And something big is going on.

  Partly, it s that American hegemony. Didier Benchimol, CEO of a French e-commerce software company, feels compelled to speak English perfectly because the Internet software business is dominated by Americans. He and other French businessmen also have to speak English because they want to get their message out to American investors, possessors of the world s deepest pockets.

  The triumph of English in France and elsewhere in Europe, however, may rest on something more enduring. As they become entwined with each other politically and economically, Europeans need a way to talk to one another and to the rest of the world. And for a number of reasons, they've decided upon English as their common tongue.

  So when German chemical and pharmaceutical company Hoechst merged with French competitor Rhone-Poulenc last year, the companies chose the vaguely Latinate Aventis as the new company name- and settled on English as the company's common language. When monetary policymakers from around Europe began meeting at the European Central Bank in Frankfurt last year to set interest rates for the new Euroland, they held their deliberations in English. Even the European Commission, with 11 official languages and traditionally French-speaking bureaucracy, effectively switched over to English as its working language last year.

  How did this happen? One school attributes English s great success to the sheer weight of its merit. It s a Germanic language, brought to Britain around the fifth century A.D. During the four centuries of French-speaking rule that followed Norman Conquest of 1066, the language morphed into something else entirely. French words were added wholesale, and most of the complications of Germanic grammar were shed while few of the complications of French were added. The result is a language with a huge vocabulary and a simple grammar that can express most things more efficiently than either of its parents. What's more, English has remained ungoverned and open to change-foreign words, coinages, and grammatical shifts-in a way that French, ruled by the purist Academic Francaise, had not.

  So it's a swell language, especially for business. But the rise of English over the past few centuries clearly owes at least as much to history and economics as to the language's ability to economically express the concept win-win. What happened is that the competition-first Latin, then French, then, briefly, German-faded with the waning of the political, economic, and military fortunes of, respectively, the Catholic Church, France, and Germany. All along, English was increasing in importance: Britain was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, and London the world's most important financial centre, which made English a key language for business. England s colonies around the world also made it the language with the most global reach. And as that former colony the U.S. rose to the status of the world's preeminent political economic, military, and cultural power, English became the obvious second language to learn.

  In the 1990s more and more Europeans found themselves forced to use English. The last generation of business and government leaders who hadn't studied English in school was leaving the stage. The European Community was adding new members and evolving from a paper-shuffling club into a serious regional government that would need a single common language if it were ever to get anything done. Meanwhile, economic barriers between European nations have been disappearing, meaning that more and more companies are beginning to look at the whole continent as their domestic market. And then the Internet came along.

  The Net had two big impacts. One was that it was an exciting, potentially lucrative new industry that had its roots in the U.S., so if you wanted to get in on it, you had to speak some English. The other was that by surfing the Web, Europeans who had previously encountered English only in school and in pop songs were now coming into contact with it daily.

  None of this means English has taken over European life. According to the European Union, 47% of Western Europeans (including the British and Irish)speak English well enough to carry on a conversation. That's a lot more than those who can speak German (32%) or French (28%), but it still means more Europeans don't speak the language. If you want to sell shampoo or cell phones, you have to do it in French or German or Spanish or Greek. Even the U.S. and British media companies that stand to benefit most from the spread of English have been hedging their bets-CNN broadcasts in Spanish; the Financial Times has recently launched a daily German-language edition.

  But just look at who speaks English: 77% of Western European college students, 69% of managers, and 65% of those aged 15 to 24. In the secondary schools of the European Union's non-English-speaking countries, 91% of students study English, all of which means that the transition to English as the language of European business hasn't been all that traumatic, and it s only going to get easier in the future.

  24. In the author s opinion, what really underlies the rising status of English in France and Europe is ______.

  〔A〕 American dominance in the Internet software business

  〔B〕 a practical need for effective communication among Europeans

  〔C〕 Europeans eagerness to do business with American businessmen

  〔D〕 the recent trend for foreign companies to merge with each other

  25. Europeans began to favour English for all the following reasons EXCEPT its ______.

  〔A〕 inherent linguistic properties

  〔B〕 association with the business world

  〔C〕 links with the United States

  〔D〕 disassociation from political changes

  26. Which of the following statements forecasts the continuous rise of English in the future?

  〔A〕 About half of Western Europeans are now proficient in English.

  〔B〕 U.S. and British media companies are operating in Western Europe.

  〔C〕 Most secondary school students in Europe study English.

  〔D〕 Most Europeans continue to use their own language.

  27. The passage mainly examines the factors related to ______.

  〔A〕 the rising status of English in Europe

  〔B〕 English learning in non-English-speaking E.U. nations

  〔C〕 the preference for English by European businessmen

  〔D〕 the switch from French to English in the European Commission

  TEXT D

  As humankind moves into the third millennium, it can rightfully claim to have broken new ground in its age-old quest to master the environment. The fantastic achievements of modern technology and the speed at which scientific discoveries are translated into technological applications attest to the triumph of human endeavour.

  At the same time, however, some of these applications threaten to unleash forces over which we have no control. In other words, the new technology Man now believes allows him to dominate this wider cosmos could well be a Frankenstein monster waiting to turn on its master.

  This is an entirely new situation that promises to change many of the perceptions governing life on the planet. The most acute challenges facing the future are likely to be not only those pitting man against his fellow man, but those involving humankind's struggle to preserve the environment and ensure the sustainability of life on earth.

  A conflict waged to ensure the survival of the human species is bound to bring humans closer together. Technological progress has thus proved to be a double-edged sword, giving rise to a new form of conflict: a clash between Man and Nature.

  The new conflict is more dangerous than the traditional one between man and his fellow man, where the protagonists at least shared a common language. But when it comes to the reactions of the ecosystems to the onslaught of modern technology, there is no common language.

  Nature reacts with weather disturbances, with storms and earthquakes, with mutant viruses and bacteria-that is, with phenomena having no apparent cause and effect relationship with the modern technology that supposedly triggers them.

  As technology becomes ever more potent and Nature reacts ever more violently, there is an urgent need to rethink how best to deal with the growing contradictions between Man and Nature.

  For a start, the planet, and hence all its inhabitants, must be perceived as an integral whole, not as a dichotomous mass divided geographically into the rich and developed and the poor and underdeveloped.

  Today, globalization encompasses the whole world and deals with it as an integral unit. It is no longer possible to say that conflict has shifted from its traditional east-west axis to a north-south axis. The real divide today is between summit and base, between the higher echelons of the international political structure and its grassroots level, between government and NGOs, between state and civil society, between public and private enterprise.

  The mesh structure is particularly obvious on the Internet. While it is true that to date the Internet seems to be favouring the most developed sectors of the international community over the less developed, this need not always be the case. Indeed, it could eventually overcome the disparities between the privileged and the underdeveloped.

  On the other hand, the macro-world in which we live is exposed to distortions because of the unpredictable side-effects of a micro-world we do not and cannot totally control.

  This raises the need for a global system of checks and balances, for mandatory rules and constraints in our dealings with Nature, in short, for a new type of veto designed to manage what is increasingly becoming a main contradiction of our time: the one between technology and ecology.

  A new type of international machinery must be set in place to cope with the new challenges. We need a new look at the harnessing of scientific discoveries, to maximize their positive effects for the promotion of humanity as a whole and to minimize their negative effects. We need an authority with veto powers to forbid practices conducive to decreasing the ozone hole, the propagation of AIDS, global warming, desertification-an authority that will tackle such global problems.

  There should be no discontinuity in the global machinery responsible for world order. The UN in its present form may fall far short of what is required of it, and it may be undemocratic and detrimental to most citizens in the world, but its absence would be worse. And so we have to hold on to the international organization even as we push forward for its complete restructuring.

  Our best hope would be that the functions of the present United Nations are gradually taken over by the new machinery of veto power representing genuine democratic globalization.

  28. The mention of Man s victory over Nature at the beginning of the passage is to highlight ______.

  〔A〕 a new form of conflict

  〔B〕 Man s creative powers

  〔C〕 the role of modern technology

  〔D〕 Man s ground-breaking work

  29. According to the passage, which is NOT a responsibility of the proposed international authority?

  〔A〕 Monitoring effects of scientific discoveries.

  〔B〕 Dealing with worldwide environmental issues.

  〔C〕 Vetoing human attempts to conquer Nature.

  〔D〕 Authorizing efforts to improve human health.

  30. When commenting on the present role of the UN, the author expresses his ______.

  〔A〕 dissatisfaction

  〔B〕 disillusionment

  〔C〕 objection

  〔D〕 doubt

  SECTION B SKIMMING & SCANNING [10 min]

  In this section there are seven passages with ten multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your COLOURED ANSWER SHEET.

  TEXT E

  First read the following question.

  31. What is the most appropriate topic of the following passage?

  〔A〕 Strikes.

  〔B〕 Pensions.

  〔C〕 Retirement Ages.

  〔D〕 Government decisions.

  Now go through TEXT E quickly and answer the question.

  In addition to the national social security system, 17 special pension schemes are among the social advantages that government employees are not prepared to give up.

  Under the national scheme, retirement is at the age of 65, whereas the special schemes offer retirement at 55 or even 50.

  Most of the pension schemes are in the red and have to be topped up by the state. The total state contribution in 1994 was F125 billion ( $ 25 billion).

  The prime minister says he wants to keep the special schemes. There are three solutions for keeping them afloat: lengthening the contribution period, increasing contributions, or reducing the pensions paid out. The government chose the first solution in the plan that it announced on November 15. Private sector employees were required in 1993 to contribute for 40 instead of 37.5 years, in order to qualify for a full pension. State employees could still retire after 37.5 years service provided they had reached the age limit.

  The prime minister's announcement touched off strikes on the railways, Paris's transport services and government departments. Facing increasing opposition to this proposal, the prime minister said on December 5 that working more years would no longer be a condition for reforming the special pension schemes.

  A government commission that will examine pensions will, however, be free to propose changes in the retirement age in certain professions. But it will take into consideration the hardships involved in the work and the constraints of working hours.

  At the moment, the minimum retirement age is 60-as in the private sector before 1983-for 65 percent of public service employees. It is 55, or even 50, for 35 per cent of employees considered to be doing work "involving special risks or exceptional fatigue".

  Primary school teachers can retire at 55, but the limit for new, better qualified recruits is 60. Postal workers at sorting offices can retire at 55. The retiring age for police officers is 50, prison officers 50, nurses 55, and railwaymen 50 and 55 for others. The 30, 000 employees of the Paris Metro have an average retirement age of 53.

  Two-thirds of the "active" employees and those working in conditions that can damage health in the public gas and electric utility retire at 55. Retirement age for notary s clerks is 55 for women, and 60 for men. For miners, retirement is at 55.

  Comparing the national pension scheme and the special schemes is not easy, because state employees receive bonuses-some of them substantial-which are not included in calculating their contributions or their pensions.

  TEXT F

  First read the following question.

  32. In the following passage the author intends to ______.

  〔A〕 explain how the Gulf Stream is formed

  〔B〕 compare global warming with global cooling

  〔C〕 explain the composition of the sea currents

  〔D〕 deliver a warning of a coming ice age

  Now go through TEXT F quickly and answer the question.

  It seems obvious that trapping more of the sun's heat will make the planet hotter. But what seems obvious isn't always true. According to some respected scientists, there is a chance that global warming could plunge us into, of all things, an ice age.

  The argument hinges on the Gulf Stream, the ocean current that brings warm surface water north and east and heats Europe. As it travels, some of the water evaporates; what's left is saltier and thus denser. Eventually the dense surface water sinks to the sea bottom, where it flows back southward. And then, near the equator, warm, fresh water from tropical rivers and rain dilutes the salt once again, allowing the water to rise to the surface, warm up and begin flowing north again.

  But with global warming, melting ice from Greenland and the Arctic Ocean could pump fresh water into the North Atlantic; so could the increased rainfall be predicted for northern latitudes in a warmer world. Result: the Gulf Stream's water wouldn't get saltier after all and wouldn't sink so easily. Without adequate re-supply, the southerly underwater current would stop, and the Gulf Stream would in turn be shut off.

  If that happens, Europe will get very cold. Rome is, after all, at the same latitude as Chicago, and Paris is about as far north as North Dakota. More snow will fall, and the bright snow cover will reflect more of the sun's energy back into space, making life even chillier. Beyond that, the Gulf Stream is tied into other ocean currents, and shutting it down could rearrange things in a way that would cause less overall evaporation.

  Worst of all, the experts believe, such changes could come on with astonishing speed-perhaps within a decade or less. And while we might have a great deal of trouble adjusting to a climate that gets 2℃ warmer over the next century, an ice age by mid-century would be unimaginably devastating. The lingering uncertainty about whether our relentless production of greenhouse gases will keep heating our planet or ultimately cool it suggests that we should make a better effort to leave the earth's thermostat alone.

  TEXT G

  First read the following question.

  33. What is the main theme of the following passage?

  〔A〕 Strengths of paper books over E-books.

  〔B〕 Projected extinction of paper books.

  〔C〕 Market prospects of E-books.

  〔D〕 The history of paper books.

  Now go through TEXT G quickly and answer the question.

  Experts predict that the printed paper and glue book will be rendered obsolete by electronic text delivery systems, of which one, the Microsoft Reader, is already on the market, offering "book" on a pocket PC manufactured by Hewlett-Packard. This is not impossible; already much of the written communication that used to be handled by letters, newspapers and magazines has shifted to computer screens and to the vast digital library available over the Internet. If the worst comes true and the paper book joins the papyrus scroll and parchment codex in extinction, we will miss, I predict, a number of things about it.

  The book as furniture. Shelved rows of books warm and brighten the starkest room. By bedside and easy chair, books promise a cozy, swift and silent release from this world into another. For ease of access and speed of storage, books are tough to beat.

  The book as sensual pleasure. Smaller than a breadbox, bigger than a TV remote, the average book fits into the human hand with a seductive nestling, a kiss of texture, whether of cover cloth, glazed jacket or flexible paperback. The weight can rest on the little finger of the right hand for hours without strain, while the thumb holds the pages open and the fingers of the other hand turn them.

  The rectangular block of type, a product of five and a half centuries of printers lore, yields to decipherment so gently that one is scarcely aware of the difference between immersing oneself in an imaginary world and scanning the furniture of one's own room.

  The book as souvenir. One's collection comes to symbolize the contents of one s mind. Books read in childhood, in yearning adolescence, at college and in the first self-conscious years of adulthood travel along, often, with readers as they move from house to house. My mother's college texts sat untouched in a corner of our country bookcase.

  The bulk of my own college books are still with me, rarely consulted but always there, reminders of moments, of stages, in a pilgrimage. The decades since add their own drifts and strata of volumes read or half read or intended to be read. Books preserve, daintily, the redolence of their first reading-this beach, that apartment, that summer afternoon, this flight to Indonesia.

  Books as ballast. As movers and the moved both know, books are heavy freight, the weight of refrigerators and sofas broken up into cardboard boxes. They make us think twice about changing addresses. How many aging couples have decided to stay put because they can t imagine what to do with the books? How many divorces have been forestalled by love of the jointly acquired library?

  Books hold our beams down. They act as counterweight to our fickle and flighty natures. In comparison, any electronic text delivery device would lack substance. Further, speaking of obsolescence, it would be outdated in a year and within 15 years as inoperable as my formerly treasured Wang word processor from the mid-80's. Electronic equals immaterial. Without books, we might melt into the airwaves, and be just another set of blips.

  TEXT H

  First read the following question.

  34. The passage intends primarily to ______ in some Asian cities.

  〔A〕 explain how porters work

  〔B〕 introduce top-end eateries

  〔C〕 provide advice on tipping

  〔D〕 describe how taxis are metered

  Now go through TEXT H quickly and answer the question.

  It's difficult to determine what constitutes an appropriate tip in any country. In Japan, if you leave a couple of coins on the table, the waiter is liable to chase after you to return your forgotten change. In New York, on the other hand, if you leave less than 15%, your reservation might not hold up next time. Asia, with its multiplicity of cultures and customs, is a particularly difficult terrain. To make your next trip a little easier, here s a guide to tipping across the region:

  HONG KONG

  Tipping is de rigreur in this money-mad metropolis at all but the lowest establishments. Even bathrooms in posh hotels have little dishes for loose change.

  Restaurants: Most places automatically add a 10% service charge to the bill, but the surcharge often ends up in the pocket of the owner, not the staff kitty. If the service is good, add another 10% to the bill, up to HK $ 100 if you've in an especially nice restaurant.

  Porters: HK $ 10 should do it at all but the nicest hotels where a crisp HK $ 20 bill may be more acceptable.

  Taxis: Round up to the nearest dollar, although many drivers will do this on their own when making change.

  MANILA

  Tipping is common in Manila, and anything above 10% will gain you undying loyalty.

  Restaurants: Even if a service charge is included, custom dictates adding another 5%~10% to the bill.

  Porters: Service in top hotels is good and should be rewarded with 20 pesos per bag.

  Taxis: Most cabs are metered, and rounding up to the next five pesos is a good rule of thumb.

  SEOUL

  Tipping is not part of Korean culture, although it has become a matter of course in international hotels where a 10% service charge is often added.

  Restaurants: If you re at a Korean barbecue joint, there s no need to add anything extra. But a sleek Italian restaurant may require a 10% contribution.

  Porters: If you re at a top-end hotel, international standards apply, so expect to give 500~1, 000 won per bag.

  Taxis: Drivers don t expect a tip, so unless you re feeling remarkably generous, keep the change for yourself.

  SINGAPORE

  According to government mandate in the Lion City, tipping is a no-no. It's basically outlawed at Changi Airport and officials encourage tourists not to add to the 10% service charge that many high-end hotels add on to the bill.

  Porters: Hotel staff are the one exception to the no-tipping rule. As a general guide, S $ 1 should be adequate for baggage-lugging service.

  Taxis: Drivers don t expect tipping, but they won t refuse if you want to round up the fare to the next Singaporean dollar.

  TEXT I

  First read the following questions.

  35. If you want to see a performance by the Beijing Peking Opera Theatre, which phone number would you ring?

  〔A〕 6841-9283.

  〔B〕 6848-5462.

  〔C〕 6301-6688.

  〔D〕 6523-3320.

  36. Supposing you have some free time after 7 pm on July 1st, which performance or exhibition can you go to?

  〔A〕 Traditional Chinese music.

  〔B〕 Chinese modern operas.

  〔C〕 Peking Opera.

  〔D〕 Lao Dao s recent paintings.

  Now go through TEXT I quickly and answer the questions.

  WHAT'S ON

  CONCERTS

  New concert hall: The movie theatre of the National Library of China has been turned into a concert hall after months of renovation.

  The Guotu Concert Hall will open to the public for the first time on June 30. After the opening ceremony, the China National Song and Dance Theatre will present highlights of Chinese modern operas from the past 50 years.

  Programme: excerpts from Chinese modern operas including "The White-haired Girl", "Red Rocks" and more.

  Time: 7∶30 pm, June 30

  Place: Guotu Concert Hall at the National Library of China

  Tel: 6841-9283

  Chinese music: The Traditional Band of China National Song and Dance Theatre will perform traditional Chinese music, under Liu Wenjin, composer and director of the theatre.

  Programme: "Butterfly Lovers", "Moonlight Reflected on Number Two Spring", "The Night is Deep" and other traditional pieces.

  Time: 7∶30 pm, July 1~2

  Place: Guotu Concert Hall at the National Library of China

  Tel: 6848-5462

  EXHIBITIONS

  One-man show: Lao Dao is presenting his most recent paintings at the Wanfung Gallery.

  Titled "Spanning the Space", the exhibition features about 30 works created from synthetic materials. The paintings are composed of mottled ancient doors with faded couplets pasted on them, leading the viewers into ancient stories hidden behind the door.

  Time: 9 am~5 pm until July 1st

  Place: 136 Nanchizi Dajie, Dongcheng District

  Tel: 6523-3320

  Charm of ink: The Huangshicheng Gallery is hosting a solo show of ink-and-colour paintings by veteran calligrapher and painter Qin Tang. More than just visually appealing, Qin's work impresses the viewer with its vividness and simplicity.

  Time: 9 am~5 pm until July 5th

  Place: Nanchizi Dajie, Dongcheng District

  Tel: 6528-9103

  STAGE

  Peking Opera: The Liyuan Theatre presents traditional Peking Opera excerpts in short programmes for foreign audiences and in original styles. With an explanation in English, the performances are from the Beijing Opera Theatre.

  Time: 7∶30 pm July 3~5

  Place: Liyuan Theatre, Qianmen Jianguo Hotel, Xuanwu District

  Tel: 6301-6688

  TEXT J

  First read the following questions.

  37. Who's the author of Culture/Metaculture ?

  〔A〕 Linda Anderson.

  〔B〕 Peter Childs.

  〔C〕 Adam Roberts.

  〔D〕 Francis Mulhern.

  38. Which of the following books draws on case studies?

  〔A〕 Modernism .

  〔B〕 Science Fiction .

  〔C〕 Autobiography .

  〔D〕 Culture/Metaculture .

  Now go through TEXT J quickly and answer the questions.

  Autobiography

  Linda Anderson, University of Newcastle, UK

  This wide-ranging introduction to the study of autobiography offers a historical overview of autobiographical writing from St Augustine to the present day. Linda Anderson follows the important developments in autobiographical criticism in the last thirty years, paying particular attention to psychoanalytic, post-structuralist and feminist approaches. This volume:

  ● outlines the main theoretical issues and concepts of this difficult area

  ● looks at the different forms from confessions to narratives to memoirs to diaries

  ● considers the major writers of this historical tradition.

  Culture/Metaculture

  Francis Mulhern, Middlesex University, UK

  Culture/Metaculture is a stimulating introduction to the meanings of "culture" in contemporary Western society. This essential survey examines:

  ● culture as an antidote to "mass" modernity, in the work of Thomas Mann, Julien Benda, Karl Mannheim and F. R. Leavis

  ● post-war theories of "popular" culture and the rise of Cultural Studies, paying particular attention to the key figures of Raymond Williams and Stuart Hall

  ● theories of "metaculture", or the ways in which culture, however defined, speaks of itself.

  Modernism

  Peter Childs, Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education, UK

  With its battle cry of "Make it New", the modernist movement shook the foundations of the late nineteenth-and early twentieth-century literary establishment. Modernism offers an outstanding analysis of this literary and cultural revolution. Peter Childs immensely readable account:

  ● details the origins of the modernist movement and the influence of thinkers such as Darwin, Marx, Freud, Nietzsche, Saussure and Einstein

  ● explores the radical changes which occurred in the literature, drama, art and film of the period

  ● traces "modernism at work" in the writing of Joyce, Woolf, Mansfield, Forster, Yeats, Ford, Eliot, Beckett and other key literary figures.

  Science Fiction

  Adam Roberts, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK

  Science Fiction is one of the most vigorous and exciting areas of modern culture, ranging from ground-breaking novels of ideas to blockbusters on the cinema screen. This outstanding volume offers a clear and critically engaged account of the phenomenon. Adam Roberts:

  ● provides a concise history of science fiction and the ways in which the genre has been defined

  ● examines the interactions between science fiction and science fact

  ● anchors each chapter with a case study drawn from short story, book or film, from Frank Herbert's Dune to Barry Sonnenfeld's Men in Black .

  TEXT K

  First read the following questions.

  39. What are "Cookies" in the following passage?

  〔A〕 Computer data.

  〔B〕 Shopping habits.

  〔C〕 Websites.

  〔D〕 Passwords.

  40. How many pieces of advice are offered by the author to protect online shoppers privacy?

  〔A〕 1.

  〔B〕 2.

  〔C〕 3.

  〔D〕 4.

  Now go through TEXT K quickly and answer the questions.

  We all enjoy a little extra-special every now and then, whether it's a prime table at our favourite restaurant or an upgrade on that long flight across the Pacific. Being recognized makes us feel valued-and we re more likely to do business with someone who takes the time to go that extra mile. E-commerce sites know this, and they re doing everything they can to create personalized environments so we'll want to spend money online. How? By employing cookies.

  Cookies are bits of data stored on your computer s hard drive when you visit a website. They can only be read by the site that sets them. Companies use them to store information about you and to track your behaviour on a particular website and, of course, your shopping habits.

  Cookies help companies personalize their websites. This is how an online bookstore knows you're you, or how a news website knows to show you headlines from your hometown. Retailers use cookies to promote products they think you might like or to target ads that you might find appealing. Cookies also record user IDs and passwords so you don't have to log in each time you visit a site.

  Cookies, however, have a darker side too, and all kinds of privacy issues lurk at every bend. On their own, cookies are generally harmless, if mildly intrusive. One potential problem, though, crops up when you enter personal information on a survey. This can be easily linked up with cookies about your surfing habit and the website knows pretty much everything there is to know about you. Often this information is used simply to show you an advertisement for a product you might want to buy. But privacy advocates worry that this information could be misused.

  Here's what you can do as an online shopper to protect your privacy:

  ● Accept only cookies that get sent back to the originating server. But Microsoft Explorer and Netscape Communicator offer this option.

  ● Shop only with sites that post online privacy policies.

  ● Be careful about what sort of information you give out in surveys.

  ● Set up a secondary profile using an anonymous e-mail account and bogus ID. It s clandestine, but you'll surf with greater anonymity. Of course, when you actually want to buy something you'll have to give out your real name and address.

  PART Ⅳ TRANSLATION [60 min]

  SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH

  Translate the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

  大自然对人的恩赐, 无论贫富, 一律平等。所以人们对于大自然全部一致并深深地依赖着。尤其在乡间, 上千年来人们一直以不变的方式生活着:种植庄稼和葡萄, 酿酒和饮酒, 喂牛和挤奶, 锄草和栽花; 在周末去教堂祈祷和做礼拜, 在节日到广场拉琴、跳舞和唱歌。往日的田园依旧是今日的温馨家园。这样, 每个地方都有自己的传说, 风俗也就衍传了下来。

  SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

  Translate the following underlined part of the text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

  The word "winner" and "loser" have many meanings. When we refer to a person as a winner, we do not mean one who makes someone else lose. To us, a winner is one who responds authentically by being credible, trustworthy, responsive, and genuine, both as an individual and as a member of a society.

  Winners do not dedicate their lives to a concept of what they imagine they should be; rather, they are themselves and as such do not use their energy putting on a performance, maintaining pretence and manipulating others. They are aware that there is a difference between being loving and acting loving, between being stupid and acting stupid, between being knowledgeable and acting knowledgeable. Winners do not need to hide behind a mask.

  Winners are not afraid to do their own thinking and to use their own knowledge. They can separate facts from opinions and don t pretend to have all the answers. They listen to others, evaluate what they say, but come to their own conclusions. Although winners can admire and respect other people, they are not totally defined, demolished, bound, or awed by them.

  Winners do not play "helpless", nor do they play the blaming game. Instead, they assume responsibility for their own lives.

  PART Ⅴ WRITING [60 min]

  All of us would agree that in order to be successful in the present-day society, we university graduates have to possess certain personal qualities that can enable us to realize our aim. What do you think is the most important personal quality of a university graduate? Write a composition of about 300 words on the following topic:

  THE MOST IMPORTANT PERSONAL QUALITY OF A UNIVERSITY STUDENT

  In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement, and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.

  Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.

  Write your composition on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.

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