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  Text 3

  Being assertive ( 过分自信) is being able to communicate with other people clearly. If you felt that you had expressed what was important to you and allowed the oilier person to respond in their own way then, regardless of the final outcome, you behaved assertively. It is important to remember that being assertive refers to a way of coping with confrontations ( 对抗)。 It does not mean getting your own way every time or winning some battle of wits against another person. In practice assertive behaviour is usually most likely to produce a result which is generally acceptable to all concerned, without anyone feeling that they have been unfairly treated.

  Assertiveness is often wrongly confused with aggression (侵犯行为). An aggressive confrontation is when one or both parties attempt to put forward their feelings and beliefs at the expense of others. In an assertive confrontation, however, each party stands up for their personal rights, but each shows respect and understanding for the other's viewpoint.

  The reason why assertiveness may not come naturally is that we often tend to believe that we must talk around a subject rather than be direct, or that we must offer excuses or justifications forour actions.

  In fact we all have a right to use assertive behaviour in a variety of situations. We are often schooled early in life to believe that sometimes our own need to, express ourselves must take secondary place. For example, in dealing with those in privileged positions such as specialists, we often feel that speaking assertively is, in some way, "breaking the rules". Everybody has certain basic human rights, but often we feel guilty about exercising them.

  56. According to the passage, an assertive person ________.

  [ A ] makes other people feel unfairly treated

  [ B ] puts forward his ideas at the expense of others

  [C] does not show respect to other people

  [ D ] speaks out what he wants to say forcefully

  57. Which of the following is NOT the reason that many people prefer not to be assertive?

  [A] They would rather be aggressive than be assertive.

  [B] It's often better to give people hints than to be straightforward.

  [C] Their needs to express themselves take secondary place before important persons.

  [ D] They tend to give excuses and justifications for their actions.

  58. The last word of the passage "them" refers to _________.

  [A] rules [B] actions

  [c] personal rights [D] privileged positions

  59. According to the passage, one should not only express himself clearly and directly, but also

  [ A ] make other people accept his ideas

  [ B ] be careful with his manner

  [ C] allow others to speak in their own way

  [D]watch other people's response

  60. In this passage, the author intends to encourage people to _____.

  [ A ] fight for their personal rights

  [ B] be aggressive when they talk to others

  [ C J assert themselves regardless of whether others suffer or not

  [ D ] be assertive at any time

  Part B


  Read the following paragraphs in which 5 people talk about the way American consumers borrow.

  For questions 61 to 65, match name of each speaker to one of the statements (A to C) given below.Mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.

  Mark Lilla Young consumers often have not established their credit ratings. Many do not have steady in-comes. They might have difficulty borrowing money from an agency in business to make loans. Parents or relatives are usually their best source of loans. Of course, the parents or relatives would have to have money available and be willing to lend it. You might even get an interest-free loan. However,a parent or relative who lends should receive interest the same as any other lender.

  Chris Roddy

  For most consumers the cheapest place to borrow is at a commercial bank. Banks are a good

  source of installment loans which may run for 12 months or up to 36. Most banks also make singlepayment loans to consumers for short periods@30, 60, or 90 days. A typical interest rate is 3 cents per $100 per day. Suppose that you used $100 of your credit and repaid it in 30 days. The cost would be 90 cents.

  Karen Barber

  Another possible source of loans is a life insurance policy. Anyone who owns this type of insurance may borrow up to the amount of its cash value. The amount the insurance company will pay in case of death is reduced by the amount of the loan. For example, suppose that someone with $10,000 of insurance borrows $2,000 and dies leaving the loan unpaid. The insurance company would pay only $8,000 to the person entitled to receive the money.

  Louise Richard

  Borrowing from pawnbrokers is both easy and expensive. In exchange for a loan the borrower leaves some item of value such as jewelry, a camera, a musical instrument, or clothing. Usually the amount of money received is far less than the actual value of the item left. When a borrower repays the loan plus interest, the pawnbroker returns the item. If the loan is not paid within a year, the pawnbroker gets his or her money by selling the item.

  Jodie Morse

  When money is urgently needed, people may agree to pay any price for a loan. Too late, they may find themselves in the clutches of loan sharks. A loan shark is an unlicensed lender because their rates are higher than the law allows, sometimes 1,000 percent or more a year. Borrowers are hardly ever able to repay their loans. It is all they can do to pay the interest. Borrowers who fail to pay the interest on time have been threatened with injury.

  Now match each of the persons to the appropriate statement.

  Note: there are two extra statements.


  61. Mark Lilla [A] A person can borrow as much as his life insurance's cash value.

  62. Chris Roddy [B] The lender gets huge profits.

  63. Karen Barber [C] The borrowers may not take as long as they want to repay their loans.

  64. Louise Richard [ D] If the loan is not paid in a year, the item belongs to the lender.

  65. Jodie Morse [E] Borrowing from their parents or relatives is the easiest or the

  best loan source for the young consumers.

  [ F ] The consumers without good credit can borrow money from their parents or relatives.

  [G] The interest rate of the commercial bank is the lowest. For example, the cost would be 360 cents if you borrowed $200 and repaid it in 60 days.

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