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2004年研究生入学考试英语试题

2005-12-20 14:49  

  Section Ⅰ Listening Comprehension Part A(每题1分,共20分)Directions:

  This section is designed to test your ability to understand spoken English. You will hear a selection of recorded materials and you must answer the questions that accompany them. There are three parts in this section, Part A, Part B, and Part C. Remember, you should first put down your answers in your test booklet. At the end of the listening comprehension section, you will have five minutes to transfer all your answers from your test booklet to ANSWER SHEET I.

  Now look at Part A in your test booklet.

  Part A

  Directions: For Quesstions1-5,you will hear a talk about Boston Museum of Fine Art. While you listen, fill out the table with the information you have heard. Some of the information has been given to you in the table. Write only 1 word or number in each numbered box. You will hear the recording twice. You now have 25 seconds to read the table below.(5 points)

  1、Geography of BelgiumThree main regions coastal plaincentral plateau Highest 1

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  【正确答案】

  highlands

  2、altitude of the coastal plain 2 m

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  【正确答案】

  20

  3、Climate near the sea 3 humid

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  【正确答案】

  mild

  4、Particularly rainy months of the years 4 April

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  【正确答案】

  November

  5、Average TEMperatures in July in Brussels low 13℃ high 5 ℃

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  【正确答案】

  22

  Section Ⅰ Part B(每题1分,共5分)Directions: For Questions 6-10,you will hear an interview with Mr. Saffo from the Institute for the Future. While you listen, complete the sentences or answer the questions. Use not more than 3 words for each answer. You will hear the recording twice. You now have 25 seconds to read the sentences and questions below. ( 5 points )

  6、What is Saffo according to himself?

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  【正确答案】

  A (technology)forecaster

  7、The Institute for the Future provides services to private companies and

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  【正确答案】

  government agencies

  8、The Institute believes that to think systematically about the long-range future is

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  【正确答案】

  (a)meaningful(exercise)

  9、To succeed in anything, one should be flexible, curious and

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  【正确答案】

  open to change

  10、What does Saffo consider to be essential to the work of a team?

  (本题分值:1分)

  Section Ⅰ Part C(共三节,满分10分) Directions: You will hear three pieces of recorded material. Before listening to each one, you will have time to read the questions related to it. While listening, answer each question by choosing A,B,C or D . After listening, you will have time to check your answers. You will hear each piece once only. ( 10 points )

  Questions 11-13 are based on the following talk about naming newborns. You now have 15 seconds to read questions 11-13.

  11、What do we often do with the things we love?

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  【正确答案】

  D

  A.Ask for their names.

  B.Name babies after them.

  C.Put down their names.

  D.Choose names for them.

  12、 The unpleasant meaning of an old family name is often overlooked if

  (本题分值:1分)

  【正确答案】

  B

  A. the family tree is fairly limited.

  B. the family tie is strong enough.

  C.the name is commonly used.

  D.nobody in the family complains.

  13、 Several months after a baby's birth, its name will

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  【正确答案】

  C

  A.show the beauty of its own.

  B.develop more associations.

  C.lose the original meaning.

  D.help form the baby's personality.

  Questions 14-16 are based on the biography of Bobby Moore, an English soccer player. You now have 15 seconds to read Questions 14-16.

  14. How many matches did Moore play during his professional career?

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  【正确答案】

  D

  A. 90.

  B .108.

  C.180.

  D. 668.

  15、In 1964, Bobby Moore was made

  (本题分值:1分)

  【正确答案】

  A

  A.England's footballer of the year.

  B.a soccer coach in West Germany.

  C.a medalist for his sportsmanship.

  D.a number of the Order of the British Empire.

  16、After Moore retired from playing, the first thing he did was

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  【正确答案】

  C

  A.editing Sunday Sport.

  B.working for Capital Radio.

  C.managing professional soccer teams.

  D.developing a sports marketing company.

  Questions 17-20 are based on the on the city of Belfast. You now have 20 seconds to read Questions 17-20.

  17. Belfast has long been famous for its

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  【正确答案】

  B

  A. oil refinery.

  B. linen textiles.

  C.food products.

  D. deepwater port.

  18、Which of the following does Belfast chiefly export?

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  【正确答案】

  A

  A. Soap.

  B. Grain.

  C.Steel.

  D.Tobacco.

  19、When was Belfast founded?

  (本题分值:1分)

  【正确答案】

  A

  A. In 1177.

  B. In 1315.

  C.In the 16th century.

  D. In the 17th century.

  20、 What happened in Belfast in the late 18th century?

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  【正确答案】

  C

  A. French refugees arrived.

  B. The harbor was destroyed.

  C.Shipbuilding began to flourish.

  D.The city was taken by the English.

  Section II Use of English(满分10分)

  Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories (21)[] on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior (22)[] they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through (23)[] with others. Theories focusing on the role of society that children commit crimes in (24)[] to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status (25)[] as a rejection of middle-class values.

  Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families, (26)[] the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes (27)[] lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are (28)[] to criticism.

  Changes in the social structure may indirectly (29)[] juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that (30)[] to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment (31)[] make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in (32)[] lead more youths into criminal behavior.

  Families have also(33)[] changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents; (34)[], children are likely to have less supervision at home (35)[] was common in the traditional family (36)[]. This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates. Other (37)[] causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased (38)[] of drugs and alcohol, and the growing (39)[] of child abuse and child neglect. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act, (40)[] a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.

  21、

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  【正确答案】

  C

  [注释]"很多有关少年犯罪原因的理论,要么把个人当成主要的影响因素,要么把社会当成主要的影响因素。关注个人的理论认为,孩子们的犯罪行为是因为他们先前的错误行为未受到应有的处罚或是因为别人的影响"。此题考查的是动词词组的用法。A ACT ON是指"对…有影响、有作用";B RELY ON 是指"依靠";D CEMENT意思是"加强、巩固"。只有C项CENTER ON可以表示围绕,观注,把…当成重点、中心、主题的意思,与上下文相契合。

  A. acting

  B. relying

  C.centering

  D. commenting

  22、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  D

  [注释]参见21题解析中的译文,22题的考察点是连词。A BEFORE;B UNLESS"除非";C UNTIL"直到"。这几项都与上下文句意格格不入。

  A. before

  B. unless

  C.until

  D. BECause

  23、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  A

  [注释]参见21题解析中的译文。"与别人的导致他们的犯罪行为"。B ASSIMILATION"消化,吸收",与D CONSULTATION"询问",均不与介词WITH连用,故只有A INTERACTIONS"相互作用,相互影响",与C COOPERATION"合用",可与WITH连用。INTERACTION不但有"相互协作、合用"的意思,还有"影响、作用"的意思,孩子们犯罪是因为一起生活时的影响,而不会仅仅是相处时的友好合作。

  A. interactions

  B. assimilation

  C.cooperation

  D. consultation

  24、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  D

  [注释]"观注社会作用的理论认为孩子们犯罪是他们对在争取社会经济地位中的失败的反应,或是他们对中层阶级价值观的拒斥"。少有IN RETURN TO 或IN REFERENCE TO这样的用法,故A RETURN与C REFERENCE当排除在外。IN REPLY TO 与IN RESPONSE TO 都是对…反应,回应的意思,只是IN REPLY TO 这一词组中,进行回应者的主观性、主动性更强些,而IN RESPONSE TO 则稍显客观些。

  A. return

  B. reply

  C.reference

  D. response

  25、

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  【正确答案】

  A

  [注释]参见24题解析中的译文,可知所考查的连接词前后是并列成分,并没有转折的含义,故当选A。

  A. or

  B. but rather

  C.but

  D. or else

  26、

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  【正确答案】

  B

  [注释]"MOST THEORIES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY HAVE FOCUSED ON CHILDREN FROM DISADVANTAGED FAMILIES,THE FACT THAT CHILDREN FROM WEALTHY HOMES ALSO COMMIT CRIMES."(大多数关于少年犯罪的理论都聚焦在贫困弱势家庭,而忽略了富家子弟也会犯罪这一事实。)后半句是伴随状语从句。A CONSIDERING"考虑";C HIGHLIGHTING"强调",这两项都与句意不符合。D DISCARDING"抛弃",这些理论是没有注意到状语从句中所表述的事实,而不是有意舍弃这些事实,故此题选B IGNORING.

  A. considering

  B. ignoring

  C.highlighting

  D. discarding

  27、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  C

  [注释]"THE LATTER MAY COMMIT CRIMESLACK OF ADEQUATE PARENTAL CONTROL."(富家子弟犯罪是因为缺乏足够的父母管教。)连接词后边的部分明显是所犯罪的原因,而只有FOR于此可以表示原因,故当选C。

  A. on

  B. in

  C.for

  D. with

  28、

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  【正确答案】

  D

  [注释]"ALL THEORIES, HOWEVER, ARE TENTATIVE AND ARE TO CRITICISM."(所有的理论都是尝试性的并都会受批评。)C BE SENTITIVE TO CRITICISM"对批评很敏感",与上下文注意有偏离;而B BE RESISTANT TO "对批评有抵抗力";A BE IMMUNE TO ."对批评有免疫力"都与上下文意相悖。故只有D BE SUBJECT TO CRITICISM符合文意。词组BE SUBJECT TO STH.:OFTEN HAVING, SUFFERING OR UNDERGOING STH.;LIABLE TO STH.""常有、常患或常遭遇某事物;倾向某物"。

  A. immune

  B. resistant

  C.sensitive

  D. subject

  29、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  A

  [注释]"CHANGES IN SOCIAL STRUCTURE MAY INDIRECTLYJUVENILE CRIME RATES."(社会结构中的变化会间接影响少年犯罪率。)

  A. affect

  B. reduce

  C.chock

  D. reflect

  30、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  B

  [注释]FOR EXAMPLE, CHANGES IN THE ECONOMY THATTO FEWER JOB OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUTH AND RISING UNEMPLOYMENT MAKE GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT INCREASINGLY DIFFICULT TO OBTAIN.(例如,经济中的变化导致青年就业机会的减少和失业的上升,通常情况下,这又使获得有利可图的工作变得越来越困难。)A POINT TO "指向";B LEAD TO"引向;导致";C COME TO"到达";D AMOUNT TO" (累计)达到"。

  A. point

  B. lead

  C.come

  D. amount

  31、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  A

  [注释]参见30题解析译文。这一题考察的是固定短语,A IN GENERAL"通常";B ON AVERAGE"平均";C BY CONTRAST"相比,相对,相反";D AT LENGTH "最后"。

  A. in general

  B. on average

  C.by contrast

  D. at length

  32、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  C

  [注释]THE RESULTING DISCONTENT MAY IN LEAD MORE YOUTHS INTO CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR.(最终的不满情绪进而会引导更多的青年走向犯罪。)这一句承接前面两句,是递进关系。A IN CASE 不是一个完整的词组;B IN SHORT"总之";D IN ESSENCE"本质上",都不合题意。只有C IN TURN"依次;逐个",最适合上下文。

  A. case

  B. short

  C.turn

  D. essence

  33、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  D

  [注释]FAMILIES HAVE ALSOCHANGES THESE YEARS.(这些年来,家庭也经历了一些变化。)C UNDERTAKEN 表示从事,与句意相去甚远。B NOTICED"留心,看到",此处若改NOTICED为 SAW,还说得过去,因为SEE可以表示经历或进行某事。THIS COAT OF MINE HAS SEEN HARD WEAR.我这件大衣穿了很久了。SEE作EXPERIENCE/UNDERGO解释。A SURVIVE意为幸存:CONTINUE TO LIVE OR EXIST IN SPITE OF NEARLY BEING KILLED OR DESTROYED BY STH.这里若用SURVIVE CHANGES,则意思是家庭虽经历了社会的变化而自身依然如故,正好与文意相反。

  A. survived

  B. noticed

  C.undertaken

  D. experienced

  34、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  B

  [注释]MORE FAMILIES CONSIST OF ONE PARENT HOUSEHOLDS OR TWO WORKING PARENTS;,CHILDREN ARE LIKELY TO HAVE LESS SUPERVISION AT HOME WAS COMMON IN THE TRADITIONAL FAMILY.(更多的单亲家庭和双职工家庭出现了。结果是,比起在传统的家庭结构中,孩子们受到的监督变少了。)根据文意,可知空移前后是因果关系。A CONTRARILY,"相反地";B CONSEQUENTLY"结果";C SIMILARLY"相似地";D SIMULTANEOUSLY" 同时地",只有B可以表示因果。

  A. contrarily

  B. consequently

  C.similarly

  D. simultaneously

  35

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  A

  [注释]参见34题,LESS…THAN是固定的搭配。

  A.than

  B. that

  C.which

  D. as

  36、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  B

  [注释]参见34题。D FAMILY HERITAGE"家庭遗传";C FAMILY CONCEPT"家庭观念"很容易排除这两项。只有A SYSTEM"家庭系统",干挠性最强,但也少有这种表述,而用FAMILY STRUCTRURE则更为合适。

  A. system

  B. structure

  C.concept

  D. heritage

  37、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  B

  [注释]OTHERCAUSE OF OFFENSIVE ACTS INCLUDE FRUSTRATION OR FAILURE IN SCHOOL, THE INCREASED OF DRUGS AND ALCONOL, AND THE GROWINGOF CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD NEGLECT.(其它可以察明的犯罪行为的原因有:在学校的挫折和失败,毒品和酒更为容易获得,虐待和忽视孩子的情形也有增长。)A ASSESSABLE"可估测的",C NEGLIGIBLE"不值得考虑的",D INCREDIBLE"不可信的",皆与文意相差太远。

  A. assessable

  B. identifiable

  C.negligible

  D. incredible

  38、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  D

  [注释]参见37题。A EXPENSE" 花销",B RESTRICTION "限制",C ALLOCATION "分配",D AVAILABILITY"可用,可得"。A项差强人意,但有了D项,不仅语法畅顺,而且在文意上更合情理。

  A. expense

  B. restriction

  C.allocation

  D. availability

  39、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  A

  [注释]B AWARENESS与C EXPOSURE 都很容易排除。D POPULARITY,也可以表示"普遍性",但又含有"受人欢迎"的意思。较POPULARITY 而言,PREVALENCE则中性了一些,但选项中没有PREVALENCE.A INCIDENCE指"发生率;影响范围",与PREVALENCE接近,故选A。

  A. incidence

  B. awareness

  C.exposure

  D. popularity

  40、

  (本题分值:0.5分)

  【正确答案】

  C

  [注释]文中最后一句空格后有"…HAS NOT YET…"中就可以知道空格处的的连接词应当表示转折,而只有C ALTHOUGH"尽管"有转折意义,A、B、D三项都不合适。

  A. provided

  B. since

  C.although

  D. supposing

  Section III Reading Comprehension Part A(满分40分)

  Directions: Read the following four Passages. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)

  Passage 1

  Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across CareerBuilder, a job database on the Internet. He searched it with no success but was attracted by the site's "personal search agent". It's an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title, and salary, then E-mails them when a matching position is posted in the database. Redmon chose the keywords legal, intellectual property, and Washington, D.C. Three weeks later, he got his first notification of an opening. "I struck gold," says Redmon, who E-mailed his resume to the employer and won a position as in-house counsel for a company. With thousands of career-related sites on the Internet, finding promising openings can be time-consuming and inefficient. Search agents reduce the need for repeated visits to the databases. But although a search agent worked for Redmon, career experts see drawbacks. Narrowing your criteria, for example, may work against you:"Every time you answer a question you eliminate a possibility." says one expert. For any job search, you should start with a narrow concept —— what you think you want to do —— then broaden it. "None of these programs do that," says another expert. "There's no career counseling implicit in all of this." Instead, the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep abreast of jobs in a particular database; when you get E-mail, consider it a reminder to check the database again."I would not rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a database that might interest me," says the author of a job-searching guide. Some sites design their agents to tempt job hunters to return. When CareerSite's agent sends out messages to those who have signed up for its service, for example, it includes only three potential jobs —— those it considers the best matches. There may be more matches in the database; job hunters will have to visit the site again to find them —— and they do.""On the day after we send our messages, we see a sharp increase in our traffic," says Seth Peets, vice president of marketing for CareerSite. Even those who aren't hunting for jobs may find search agents worthwhile. Some use them to keep a close watch on the demand for their line of work or gather information on compensation to arm themselves when negotiating for a raise. Although happily employed, Redmon maintains his agent at CareerBuilder. "You always keep your eyes open," he says. Working with a personal search agent means having another set of eyes looking out for you.

  41. How did Redmon find his job?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  C

  [注释]细节题。此题答案可以从第一段中找出,并且这一篇文章通篇都在讲PERSONAL SEARCH AGENT这项服务。A BY SEARCHING OPENINGS IN A JOB DATABASE太笼统。D BY E-MAILING HIS RESUME TO A DATABASE太具体。B BY POSTING A MATCHING POSITION IN A DATABASE,这不是REDMON 而是DATABASE 或者EMPLOYER所做的。

  A.By searching openings in a job database.

  B. By posting a matching position in a database.

  C.By using a special service of a database.

  D.By E-mailing his resume to a database.

  42. Which of the following can be a disadvantage of search agents?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  A

  [注释]细节题。第二段最后一句话,NARROWING YOUR CRITERIA…放窄标准会对找工作不利。第三段第一句,FOR ANY JOB SEARCH…在找工作时,一般是从较狭窄的意向开始,即你要干什么,然后再放宽一些,但有位专业人士说,"NONE OF THESE PROGRAMES DO THAT","THERE'S NO CAREER COUNSELING IMPLICIT IN ALL OF THIS."

  A.Lack of counseling.

  B.Limited number of visits.

  C.Lower efficiency.

  D.Fewer successful matches.

  43、The expression "tip service" (Line 4, Paragraph 3) most probably means

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  D

  [注释]词义题。此题只有A最具干挠性,因为TIP有ADVICE 的意思,但这里的TIP SERVICE不可以作ADVISOTY SERVICE,因为ADVISORY SERVICE与COUNSELING是没有本质区别的,选A便与42题矛盾。另外,下文及第四段便是对此的说明。

  A.advisory.

  B.compensation.

  C.interaction.

  D.reminder.

  44、Why does CareerSite's agent offer each job hunter only three job options?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  B

  [注释]细节题。根据43题,既然TIP SERVICE 起REMINDER的作用,"REMINDER TO CHECK THE DATABASE AGAIN."(第三段第五行),那么B TO ATTRACT MORE RETURNING VISITS便是唯一符合题目的答案,第四段"THERE MAY BE MORE MATCHES IN THE DATABASE; JOB HUNTERS WILL HAVE TO VISIT THE SITE AGAIN TO FIND THEMAND THEY DO",是进一步的具体说明。

  A.To focus on better job matches.

  B.To attract more returning visits.

  C.To reserve space for more messages.

  D.To increase the rate of success.

  45、Which of the following is true according to the text?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  C

  [注释]细节题。并非所有人都通过网络求职,所以A PERSONAL SEARCH AGENTS ARE INDISPENSABLE TO JOB-HUNTERS 是不正确的表述,最后一段第二句,SOME USE THEM TO KEEP A CLOSE WATCH ON THE DEMAND FOR THEIR LINE OF WORK…错选B项的同学一定是没有读清楚这一句话:ALTHOUGH HAPPILY EMPLOYED, REDMON MAITNAIN HIS AGENT AT CAREERBUILDER.由此可知选C。

  译文 解读 去年年底,甘特莱得门律师到处求职时,在互联网上的工作职位库"打造事业"中搜索一气,他没有成功地找到工作,但却被这个网站的"个人搜索代理"吸引住了。这种服务是互动的,人们可以键入诸如地点、职位和薪金的求职标准,等到资料库里有了合适的工作职位时,系统就会发电子邮件给他们。莱得门选择了法律、知识产权和哥伦比亚特区华盛顿这些关键词。三周后,他收到了第一份通知,"我可找到金矿了,"莱得门说,他用电子邮件把自己的简历发给了那位老板,由此得到了该公司的内部的辩护律师职务。 本文是一篇有关在互联网上求职的小品文。 互联网上有成千上万个与找工作的有关的网站,碰到一个有前途的机会需要花很多时间,而且往往效率不高,搜索代理使人不必反复访问资料库。但是虽然有一个搜索代理帮了莱得门的忙,求职专家们还是注意到了一些缺点。例如,将自己的工作标准范围定得很窄,反而对你产生不利影响,每回答一个问题,你就失去了一个做另外一种工作的机会"一个专家说。 第一段主要说明了莱得门在互联网上成功求职的经历。 对于任何求职者来说你应该从一个狭窄的范围开始——你认为你想干的工作——作为出发点,然后拓宽它。"这些电脑程序中没有一个是这么设计的,"另一个专家说。"整个体系中没有任何就业咨询的成分在里面"。因此,最有效的办法就是将这个代理看作是一种提示器,使你手头总是有几个工作机会;收到电子邮件的时候,就当它是提醒你再去资料库里看一看。"我不会指望代理功能帮我找到资料库中所有吸引我的东西。"一个求职指南的作者说。 第二段指出"个人搜索代理"的优缺点。 有的网站尽力设计自己的代理系统,以吸引求职者回来。例如,事业网站的代理系统给登记过的人发的邮件中只包含三种可能的工作职位——它所认为最好的三个。资料库中或许还有更多;求职者只得回到网站中才能看到它们——而他们也确实是这么做了。"我们发出邮件的第二天,网站上的流量就会急剧增加",事业网站的市场部副经理塞斯皮资说。 第三段的内容主要是写有关专家对求职代理这一服务的建议。 即使是那些并不需要找工作的人也觉得搜索代理很有价值。有些人通过它们密切关注着市场对自己这个职业的需求,或者搜集有关信息,好在和老板谈判加薪的时候有些底气。莱得门虽然工作得很开心,但他仍保留着在"打造事业"网站的搜索代理。"这样你就知道外面的一切"他说。有一个个人搜索代理就等于有另外一双眼睛帮你留心外面的世界。 最后两段说明了"个人搜索代理"的发展和进步意义。

  A.Personal search agents are indispensable to job-hunters.

  B. Some sites keep E-mailing job seekers to trace their demands.

  C.Personal search agents are also helpful to those already employed.

  D.Some agents stop sending information to people once they are employed.

  Passage 2

  Over the past century, all kinds of unfairness and discrimination have been condemned or made illegal. But one insidious form continues to thrive: alphabetism. This, for those as yet unaware of such a disadvantage, refers to discrimination against those whose surnames begin with a letter in the lower half of the alphabet.

  It has long been known that a taxi firm called AAAA cars has a big advantage over Zodiac cars when customers thumb through their phone directories. Less well known is the advantage that Adam Abbott has in life over Zoe Zysman. English names are fairly evenly spread between the halves of the alphabet. Yet a suspiciously large number of top people have surnames beginning with letters between A and K. Thus the American president and vice-president have surnames starting with B and C respectively; and 26 of George Bush's predecessors (including his father) had surnames in the first half of the alphabet against just 16 in the second half. Even more striking, six of the seven heads of government of the G7 rich countries are alphabetically advantaged (Berlusconi, Blair, Bush, Chirac, Chrétien and Koizumi). The world's three top central bankers (Greenspan, Duisenberg and Hayami) are all close to the top of the alphabet, even if one of them really uses Japanese characters. As are the world's five richest men (Gates, Buffett, Allen, Ellison and Albrecht).

  Can this merely be coincidence? One theory, dreamt up in all the spare time enjoyed by the alphabetically disadvantaged, is that the rot sets in early. At the start of the first year in infant school, teachers seat pupils alphabetically from the front, to make it easier to remember their names. So short-sighted Zysman junior gets stuck in the back row, and is rarely asked the improving questions posed by those insensitive teachers. At the time the alphabetically disadvantaged may think they have had a lucky escape. Yet the result may be worse qualifications, because they get less individual attention, as well as less confidence in speaking publicly. The humiliation continues. At university graduation ceremonies, the ABCs proudly get their awards first; by the time they reach the Zysmans most people are literally having a ZZZ. Shortlists for job interviews, election ballot papers, lists of conference speakers and attendees: all tend to be drawn up alphabetically, and their recipients lose interest as they plough through them.

  46. What does the author intend to illustrate with AAA A cars and Zodiac cars?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  A

  [注释]结构题。第一段中,作者指出唯有一种歧视ALPHABETISM依然盛行,因为它是潜隐不显的INSIDIOUS, 并且多不为人知UNAWARE.第二段列举的AAAA汽车的例子和ADAM ABBOTT人名的例子都是对此种歧视不易为人察觉的进一步解释。

  A. A kind of overlooked inequality.

  B. A type of conspicuous bias.

  C. A type of personal prejudice.

  D. A kind of brand discrimination.

  47、What can we infer from the first three paragraphs?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  D

  [注释]推论题。这一题需要从前三段中概括出来其答案。A、B、C三项都是只抓句子细节而不求整体理解所作的陈述。另外,本题与46题相联系,如果46题做错了,这一题也难以做对。

  A.In both East and West, names are essential to success.

  B.The alphabet is to blame for the failure of Zo? Zysman.

  C.Customers often pay a lot of attention to companies' names.

  D.Some form of discrimination is too subtle to recognize.

  48、The 4th paragraph suggests that

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  C

  [注释]推论题。这一题的答案可以在第四段中寻找,由于学生的座位是按姓名首字母排列的,那些靠后的学生常常不会被老师提问到,并因此而可能逃学,成绩变差,缺乏当众发言的自信等。本段倒数第一行,BECAUSE THEY GET LESS INDIVIDUAL ATTENTION,由此可知答案为C。

  A.questions are often put to the more intelligent students.

  B.alphabetically disadvantaged students often escape form class.

  C.teachers should pay attention to all of their students.

  D.students should be seated according to their eyesight.

  49、What does the author mean by "most people are literally having a ZZZ" (Line 2-3, Paragraph 5)?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  B

  [注释]词义题。C、D两项都很容易排除。选择将在A、B之间进行。最后一段讲,所有按字母顺序排列的东西,都会使接受者渐失其兴趣,(ALL TEND TO BE DRAWN UP ALPHABETICALLY, AND THEIR RECIPIENTS LOSE INTEREST AS THEY PLOUGH THOUGH THEM.)A GETTING IMPATIENT,文意尚通,但较笼统。作者在此有一种夸张,逗乐的幽默风格,认为毕业典礼颁发奖品到了后面,很多学生都鼾声如雷了。

  A.They are getting impatient.

  B.They are noisily dozing off.

  C.They are feeling humiliated.

  D.They are busy with word puzzles.

  50、Which of the following is true according to the text?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  D

  [注释]细节题。这一题与47题类似,要求通观全文,把握作者主要观点。

  译文 解读 在过去的一个世纪,各种不公平和歧视都遭到了谴责或被视为非法。但是还有一种神秘的不公平和歧视形式继续盛行:按字母排序。对于那些至今还没有意识到这个劣势的人来说,这指的是歧视那些姓氏首字母排在字母表后半部分的人。 这是一篇议论文。

  第一段指出"按字母顺序排列"这种神秘的不公平和歧视继续盛行。 人们早就发现顾客通过电话本叫出租车时,与一家名叫佐迪亚克的出租车公司相比,一家名叫AAAA的出租车公司具有相当大的优势。人们不太知晓的是一个名叫A DAM ABBOTT的人在他的一生中比一个名叫ZOE ZYSMAN的人占了多大的优势。英语名字很均匀地分布于字母表的前后两部分,不过,许多杰出人物的姓氏首字母都是在A与K之间。

  美国总统和副总统的姓氏首字母分别是B和C;乔治、布什的前任中(包括他的父亲),有26位姓氏在字母表的前半部分,而只有16位在后半部分。更另人惊奇的,七国首脑中有6位其姓氏具有按字母排序的优势。(贝卢斯科尼,布莱尔,布什,希拉克,施罗德和小泉)。世界三大中央银行家(格林斯藩,德伊森贝赫和福井)的姓氏也都在字母表靠前位置,尽管他们其中一位使用的是日文。世界五大富翁也是一样(盖茨、也菲特、艾伦、艾里森和阿尔布雷赫特)。

  这仅仅算是巧合吗?排在字母表不利位置的人,花费所有的闲假时间得出的一个结论也是这种情况,在很早时就已经不妙了。在幼儿园另一学期的开始,老师们按字母表顺序从前排开始按排座位,为的是更容易记住他们的名字。所以近视眼的姓氏靠后的人被排到了后排,而那些不敏感的老师也很少向他提出有启发性的问题。当时,因受字母排序之害的学生还以为自己是有幸逃脱了。不过,结果是更糟糕的成绩,他们因为很少受到关注,在公众面前说话时,也就没有那么自信。 第二段、三段、四段用举例子的方法说明一种被人们忽视的不平等和歧视。 这种羞辱还在继续,在大学的毕业典礼上,那些姓氏靠前的人首先获得嘉奖,等轮到了姓氏靠后的人领奖时,大多数人其实已在打鼾了。求职面试的决选名单、投票选举单、会议发言和出席名单,所有这些往往都是按字母顺序排列的,而人们在翻看这些东西的时候总是渐渐的失去兴趣了。 第五段指出这种羞辱并没有结束,与名字排在字母表前部分的人相比,排在字母表后面的人无形中失去了优势。

  A.People with surnames beginning with N to Z are often ill-treated.

  B.VIPs in the Western world gain a great deal from alphabetism.

  C.The campaign to eliminate alphabetism still has a long way to go.

  D.Putting things alphabetically may lead to unintentional bias.

  Pasage 3

  When it comes to the slowing economy, Ellen Spero isn't biting her nails just yet. But the 47-year-old manicurist isn't cutting, filling or polishing as many nails as she'd like to, either. Most of her clients spend $12 to $50 weekly, but last month two longtime customers suddenly stopped showing up. Spero blames the softening economy. "I'm a good economic indicator," she says. "I provide a service that people can do without when they're concerned about saving some dollars." So Spero is downscaling, shopping at middle-brow Dillard's department store near her suburban Cleveland home, instead of Neiman Marcus. "I don't know if other clients are going to abandon me, too" she says.

  Even before Alan Greenspan's admission that America's red-hot economy is cooling, lots of working folks had already seen signs of the slowdown themselves. From car dealerships to Gap outlets, sales have been lagging for months as shoppers temper their spending. For retailers, who last year took in 24 percent of their revenue between Thanksgiving and Christmas, the cautious approach is coming at a crucial time. Already, experts say, holiday sales are off 7 percent from last year's pace. But don't sound any alarms just yet. Consumers seem only concerned, not panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economy's long-term prospects, even as they do some modest belt-tightening. Consumers say they're not in despair because, despite the dreadful headlines, their own fortunes still feel pretty good. Home prices are holding steady in most regions. In Manhattan, "there's a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range, predominantly fed by Wall Street bonuses," says broker Barbara Corcoran. In San Francisco, prices are still rising even as frenzied overbidding quiets. "Instead of 20 to 30 offers, now maybe you only get two or three," says john Deadly, a Bay Area real-estate broker. And most folks still feel pretty comfortable about their ability to find and keep a job.

  Many folks see silver linings to this slowdown. Potential home buyers would cheer for lower interest rates. Employers wouldn't mind a little fewer bubbles in the job market. Many consumers seem to have been influenced by stock-market swings, which investors now view as a necessary ingredient to a sustained boom. Diners might see an upside, too. Getting a table at Manhattan's hot new Alain Ducasse restaurant need to be impossible. Not anymore. For that, Greenspan & Co. may still be worth toasting. 51. By "Ellen Spero isn't biting her nails just yet"(Line 1, Paragraph 1), the author means

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  D

  [注释]词义题。这一题的关键在于作者巧妙地使用了一个双关语PUN,BITE ONE'S NAILS,或形容词NAIL-BITING,指陷入困境,焦虑不安。指甲美容师SPERO面对经济衰退,虽然生意少了,没有指甲可修,但并未陷入绝境,所以说ELLEN SPERO ISN'T BITING HER NAILS JUST YET.

  A. Spero can hardly maintain her business.

  B. Spero is too much engaged in her work.

  C. Spero has grown out of her bad habit.

  D. Spero is not in a desperate situation.

  52、 How do the public feel about the current economic situation?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  A

  [注释]细节题。文中第二段最后一句话中,顾客们对此只是关注,并不惊慌,尽管很多人消费有所减缩,但他们对经济的长期前景是乐观的。

  A. Optimistic.

  B. Confused.

  C. Carefree.

  D. Panicked.

  53、When mentioning "the $4 million to $10 million range" (Lines 3-4, Paragraph 3) the author is talking about.

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  B

  [注释]细节题。第三段第二句讲,HOME PRICES ARE HOLDING STEADY IN MOST REGIONS,可知是住房价格问题,REAL-ESTATE指房地产。

  A. gold market.

  B. real estate.

  C. stock exchange.

  D. venture investment.

  54、 Why can many people see "silver linings" to the economic showdown?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  A

  [注释]细节题。SILVER LININGS指忧中之喜。最后一段讲到LOWER INTEREST RATES, STOCK-MARKET SWINGS 都是经济衰退中的有利可图的地方。

  A. They would benefit in certain ways.

  B. The stock market shows signs of recovery.

  C. Such a slowdown usually precedes a boom.

  D. The purchasing power would be enhanced.

  55、To which of the following is the author likely to agree?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  C

  [注释]细节题。这是一道主旨题,从全文的行文可以读出作者的态度。

  译文 解读 谈到正在减速的经济,埃伦·丝皮罗的情况还不是很糟糕。但是这位47岁的剪指甲师修剪、锉光、擦亮的指甲并不是像她希望的那么多,她的多数顾客每周消费12~50美元,但上个月两个老顾客突然就不光顾了。丝皮罗因而归咎于经济疲软。"我是个准确的经济指示器",她说:"我所提供的是一种人们想省钱就可以不要的服务。所以丝皮罗正在缩减开支,在克里夫兰她乡下的家附近的一中档DILLAND商场购物。而不是在NEIMAN MARARS购物。她说,我不知其他顾客是否也会抛弃我"。 本文是一篇经济类论述文。

  第一段、二段论述了当前美国经济衰退的各种迹象。 即使艾伦·格林斯番承认美国过热的经济正在降温,之前许多工薪族就已经觉察到了经济减缓的迹象。从汽车经济商到GAP销售店,因顾客削减开支,销售额已连续数月走低。对零售商来说,去年在感恩节和圣诞节之间的收入占全年收入的24%。而今年关键时刻又要来到了。专家们说,假日销售与去年同比下降了7%。但是现在还不用拉响警报,消费者似乎只是稍微有点担心,并不恐慌,许多人说他们对于经济的长远发展保持乐观的态度。甚至在他们适度地紧缩开支时也是如此。

  消费者说他们并没有绝望,尽管报纸的大标题有些令人惊骇,他们自己的财富依旧坚挺。在大多数地区房地产的价格保持稳定。在曼哈顿,"四百万到一千万美元的房子,形成一股新的抢购热,主要是因为华尔街的分红",经纪人巴巴拉考克安说,在旧金山尽管疯狂的叫价逐渐平息,但房价仍然在上涨。以前是20~30个卖主,现在取而代之的只有2个或3个,大多数人对自己有能力找到并保住一份工作感到很满意。

  许多人在这次萧条中仍能看到一线希望,想买房子的人会为更低的利率而欢呼,老板们不会介意就业市场中的泡沫,一些消费者受到了股市波动的影响。但投资将此看作是保持繁荣的必要因素。吃饭的人也能得到好处。以前到曼哈顿的艾伦杜可斯餐厅找张桌子是不可能的,现在不会有这种事了。因此,格林斯番和各大公司还是可以值得庆祝的。 第三段、四段论述了美国的大多数人所持的乐观、积极的态度。我们仍需要谨慎,但也大可不必惊慌。

  A. A now boom, on the horizon.

  B. Tighten the belt, the single remedy.

  C. Caution all right, panic not.

  D.The more ventures, the more chances.

  Passage 4

  Americans today don't place a very high value on intellect. Our heroes are athletes, entertainers, and entrepreneurs, not scholars. Even our schools are where we send our children to get a practical education —— not to pursue knowledge for the sake of knowledge. Symptoms of pervasive anti-intellectualism in our schools aren't difficult to find.

  "Schools have always been in a society where practical is more important than intellectual," says education writer Diane Ravitch. "Schools could be a counterbalance." Razitch's latest bock, Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms, traces the roots of anti-intellectualism in our schools, concluding they are anything but a counterbalance to the American distaste for intellectual pursuits. But they could and should be. Encouraging kids to reject the life of the mind leaves them vulnerable to exploitation and control. Without the ability to think critically, to defend their ideas and understand the ideas of others, they cannot fully participate in our democracy. Continuing along this path, says writer Earl Shorris, "We will become a second-rate country. We will have a less civil society."

  "Intellect is resented as a form of power or privilege," writes historian and professor Richard Hofstadter in Anti-Intellectualism in American life, a Pulitzer Prize winning book on the roots of anti-intellectualism in US politics, religion, and education. From the beginning of our history, says Hofstadter, our democratic and populist urges have driven us to reject anything that smells of elitism. Practicality, common sense, and native intelligence have been considered more noble qualities than anything you could learn from a book.

  Ralph Waldo Emerson and other Transcendentalist philosophers thought schooling and rigorous book learning put unnatural restraints on children:"We are shut up in schools and college recitation rooms for 10 or 15 years and come out at last with a bellyful of words and do not know a thing."Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn exemplified American anti-intellectualism. Its hero avoids being civilized —— going to school and learning to read —— so he can preserve his innate goodness.

  Intellect, according to Hofstadter, is different from native intelligence, a quality we reluctantly admire. Intellect is the critical, creative, and contemplative side of the mind. Intelligence seeks to grasp, manipulate, re-order, and adjust, while intellect examines, ponders, wonders, theorizes, criticizes and imagines.

  School remains a place where intellect is mistrusted. Hofstadter says our country's educational system is in the grips of people who "joyfully and militantly proclaim their hostility to intellect and their eagerness to identify with children who show the least intellectual promise."

  56. What do American parents expect their children to acquire in school?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  C

  [注释]细节题。文章开篇便讲,美国人当今对学术价值不大重视,他们的英雄是运动员、企业家而不是学者。学校是送孩子去接受实际教育的地方,而不是要为知识而知识。故知答案为C。

  A. The habit of thinking independently.

  B. Profound knowledge of the world.

  C.Practical abilities for future career.

  D. The confidence in intellectual pursuits.

  57、 We can learn from the text that Americans have a history of

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  A

  [注释]细节题。文中第四段第三句话讲,自美国历史开始,民主党与平民党人士都拒绝任何有精美主义味道的东西。后文又谈及超验主义者爱默生和作家马克·吐温都是学术教育的反对者,故知美国传统中便有低估学术的倾向。

  A. undervaluing intellect.

  B. favoring intellectualism.

  C.supporting school reform.

  D. suppressing native intelligence.

  58、 The views of Ravish and Emerson on schooling are

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  D

  [注释]细节题。RAVITCH的态度在文中第二段有所表露。RAVITCH认为学校是处于实际比学术重要的社会之中,学校应成为社会的一种平低力量,看来他是反对轻视学术的。

  A. identical.

  B. similar.

  C.complementary.

  D.opposite.

  59、 Emerson, according to the text, is probably

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  B

  [注释]细节题。文中第五段第一句话讲,爱默生认为学校教育和严格的读书学习给孩子们加上了非自然的限制,并说学生学了10年乃至15年后,除了一肚子的文词之外,步入社会却不晓世事。可知其反对学校教育。

  A. a pioneer of education reform.

  B. an opponent of intellectualism.

  C.a scholar in favor of intellect.

  D.an advocate of regular schooling.

  60、 What does the author think of intellect?

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  C

  [注释]态度题。作者的态度是比较客观的。文中第三段讲,拒思想性生活,会使人们丧失批判性思考的能力,也会使人们易于为人控制,不能充分参与民主,所以应当有学术追求。

  译文 解读 当今的美国人对知识的获得并不特别重视。我们心目中的英雄是运动员、演员和企业家,而不是学者。甚至学校也是一个我们送孩子去接受实用教育的场所。而不是为了获得知识而学知识的地方。学校里很容易见到处处存在的反知识主义的现象。 本文是一篇议论文。第一段指出了美国社会中的对知识学习轻视的倾向。 "学校总是处在一个实践重于知识的社会环境中"教育作家黛安·瑞维茨说。"学校能够成为一种平衡力量。"瑞维茨最新出版的一本书《学校改革一个世纪的失败》追溯了我们的学校里反知识主义的根源,并得出结论:它们根本不能平衡美国人对追求知识的反感。

  但是学校能够而且应该是人们追求知识的地方。鼓励孩子抛弃脑力活动使得他们容易被利用和控制。如果没有能力进行批判性思维,维护自己的观点,并理解他人的观点,他们就能充分地参与到我们的民主政治中来。这样发展下去,就会像作家俄尔萧里斯说的,"我们会变成一个二流的国家,社会文明度将降低"。

  "知识被人们看作是一种权力或特权的形式而遭到憎恶",历史学家理查德·豪夫斯台德教授在他的《美国社会中的反知识主义》一书中这样说。该书因为揭示美国政治、宗教以及教育界的反知识主义根源,获得普利策奖。豪夫斯台德说,从我们的历史最早期开始,我们的民主和民粹主义倾向就使我们摈弃一切和精英政治味道的东西。实用性、常识、天分一直都被认为是比从书本中学来的任何东西都高尚的资质。 第二段、三段指出美国人对知识的轻视源于对实用性的认同,使得学校也不能成为为了知识而学习知识的地方。 拉夫瓦尔·多爱默生和其他一些先验论哲学家认为学校教育和高强度的书本学习会使孩子受到不正常的限制,"我们被关在学校和大学的背诵室里,一关就是10到15年,最后带着满腹经文出来,却什么都不知道。"马克吐温的作品《哈克贝利·芬》这样描述美国的反知识主义。书中的主人公拒绝接受文明教化——上学认字——所以他保持了自己天生的好的品质。

  在豪夫斯台德看来,知识和天分是不同的,我们虽不情愿,但只能羡慕别人的天分,但知识是我们头脑中批判性、创造性和沉思性的一面。天分对信息进理解,应用、加工、并调整,而知识却会研究、思考、提问、总结理论、批判、并想象。

  目前学校里知识仍遭到怀疑。豪夫斯台德说我们国家的教育体系掌握在这样一些人手中,他们"毫不掩饰自己对知识的憎恶,对学习成绩最差的学生却表现出极大的认同,并且对自己的立场颇为得意。" 第四、五、六、七段作者在分析了知识和天分区别的基础上,说明了知识的重要性。

  A. It is second to intelligence.

  B. It evolves from common sense.

  C.It is to be pursued.

  D.It underlies power.

  Section III Part B(每题2分,共10分)

  Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(10 points)

  The relation of language and mind has interested philosophers for many centuries. (61) The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be. Only recently did linguists begin the serious study of languages that were very different from their own. Two anthropologist-linguists, Franz Boas Edward Sapir, were pioneers in describing many native languages of North and South America during the first half of the twentieth century. (62) We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages. Other linguists in the earlier part of this century, however, who were less eager to deal with bizarre data from "exotic" language, were not always so grateful. (63) The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data Native American languages are indeed different, so much so in fact that Navajo could be used by the US military as a code during World War II to send secret messages. Sapir's pupil, Benjamin Lee Whorf, continued the study of American Indian languages. (64) Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society. He reasoned that because the structure of habitual thought in a society. He reasoned that because it is easier to formulate certain concepts and not others in a given language, the speakers of that language think along one track and not along another. (65) Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which, in its strongest form, states that language imprisons the mind, and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce far-reaching consequences for the culture of a society. Later, this idea became to be known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, but this term is somewhat inappropriate. Although both Sapir and Whorf emphasized the diversity of languages ,Sapir himself never explicitly supported the notion of linguistic determinism.

  61、

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  希腊人认为,语言结构与思维过程之间存在着某种联系。这一观点在人们尚未认识到语言的千差万别以前就早已在欧洲扎下了根。

  62、

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  我们之所有感激他们(两位先驱),是因为在此之后,这些(土著)语言中有一些已经不复存在了,这是由于说这些语言的部族或是消亡了,或是被同化而丧失了自己的本族语言。

  63、

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  这些新近被描述的语言与已经得到充分研究的欧洲和东南亚地区的语言往往差别显著,以至于有些学者甚至指责Boas和Sapir编造了材料。

  64、

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  Whorf对语言与思维的关系很感兴趣,逐渐形成了这样的观点:在一个社会中,语言的结构决定习惯思维的结构。

  65、

  (本题分值:2分)

  【正确答案】

  Whorf进而相信某种类似语言决定论的观点,其极端说法是:语言禁锢思维,语言的语法结构能对一个社会的文化产生深远的影响。

  Section IV (共20分)Writing

  66、Directions:

  Study the following set of drawings carefully and write an essay in which you should

  1) describe the drawing

  2) interpret its meaning, and.

  3) support your view with examples.

  You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(20 points)

  终点又是新起点

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