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考研英语选考题型之语段排序题

2005-12-12 14:46 索玉柱 

  一、大纲解读

  语段排序题是在一篇长度约为500~600词的文章中,各段落的原有顺序已被打乱。要求考生根据文章内容和结构将所列段落(7~8个)重新排序,其中2~3个段落在文章中的位置已给出。

  这就要求考生在阅读各个段落时要把握它们的中心大意,并且将各段的段落大意整合,理清它们之间的逻辑顺序。这类题的命题思路与上一节的语段选搭题的命题思路有很好的承接性,考生要用心体会。

  二、基础知识必备

  英语好文章,一般都单刀直入、一贯到底,思想脉络分明,论理清晰明确。英语文章有这样的特点关键在于段落是构建在一个以"主题"(TOPIC)为核心的基础上。全段以此为中心,进行逻辑发展,结果自然是内容"单一",也"连贯"了。阅读文章时,必须通过分辨主题句、找关键词等捕捉文章的主题意义。必须明确文章的单一性,以便自己在读的过程中去思考、去分析,归纳、总结段落所涉及到的各个信息如何为文章的主题服务,使文章的主题更明了、更突出。段落的主题明确了,那么阐述说明主题的细节在段落中是如何衔接在一起的,使之成为一段连贯的、有意义的文字。作者一方面运用一些具体的连续手段,使句与句之间像链索一样衔接在一起,同时作者也运用逻辑关系使其所有的思想有逻辑而清楚的互相关联。一般说来,一个段落中的细节,1)可以依其重要性,由轻而重的安排;2)可以依其时间发生的顺序,由先而后的陈述;3)可以依其空间的位置,顺次交待;4)可以用演绎的方式,由结论而至细节性逐一证明;5)可以以归纳的方法,由诸多细节的陈述,而得出统一的结论。另一方面,了解细节的逻辑安排方法,有助于我们了解段落内的句与句之间的关系,了解段落之间的关系,这样在文章主题思想的指导下,就可以很容易的追踪到作者的思想脉络,从而迅速有效地判断各段落间的内容。段落细节内容的安排方式除了有上面提到过的时序发展方式、空间发展方式以外,还有分析发展方式。这里重点介绍分析发展方式中发展段落的各种手段,熟悉各种手段,以便在阅读时,快速判断,理清思路,抓住要点。

  经由分析发展方式安排写出的段落,其目的有二,一是论证某一观点;另一目的是列举事实或有关想法以说明事项。要达到这两种目的,作者一般采用以下几种技巧中的一种或几种来列举论证、说明意图。这几种常用技巧是:列举例证,定义说明,因果说明,比较说明,对比说明,分类说明等。

  这里再细讲一下不同文体(记叙文、描写文、说明文和议论文)的基本特征,以使考生更好地掌握文章行文结构的知识:

  1记叙文

  事件的叙述连贯并符合逻辑,通常按照时间顺序展开。事件之间通常使用一些过渡性词语来连接。文中细节逐渐引向事件发生、发展的高潮部分。

  2描写文

  描写文强调的是人的感受,人的视觉、听觉、触觉、味觉和嗅觉的几大感官感受。人物描写通过他或她所说的或所做的反映人的性格、思想和感情;地点描写应该按照一定的顺序展开,由远到近或由近到远,由左至右或由右至左,由上到下或由下到上。这些能够给我们提供一定线索,快速捕获答案;景物描写通常包括三个主要部分:背景、人物和行为。

  3说明文

  说明文阐述事物的原理、起因和可能的后果。说明文的行文中常出现下列规律:举例说明,分析过程,比较和对比,分类以及因果分析等。说明文的基本模块是:引言部分,文章主体,结束段。结束段的行文多以下列方式展现:用立意新颖的句式重述主题,或总结文章的要点,或者重述加总结。

  4议论文

  议论文是人们交流思想的一种重要形式,其最终目的是说服听众或读者接受某个观点。议论文要用逻辑和论据来影响别人的看法或行动,而不是仅仅依靠动之以情,据理力争。其行文规则为:提出论点,充分和恰当地提出论据并论证论点,得出结论。

  三、 解题思路指引

  1从已知段落出发,提炼全文主线。不管给出的段落是文章中的第几自然段,考生都应该认真研究,准确把握这些段落的文意,因为这是考生可以着力的地方。段落中一般都会有主题句,而这些主题句的位置又经常出现在段首或段尾,所以,考生一定要重点阅读已知段落的首尾句。即使没有明显的主题句,考生也应该自己概括,因为这是非常重要的。

  2仔细观察,细致分析,弄清段落之间的关系。此类文章内部都有非常严密的结构和逻辑关系,只要能把握住这一点,对段落进行排序就迎刃而解了。不同的问题有不同的叙述和展开方式,如按时间顺序、逻辑顺序展开;或按不同的论证角度,如事例论证,因果分析、对比比较等展开;或按不同的说明方式,如定义法,引述法,列举法等展开。展开的方式决定了文章的行文结构和层次。同时还要注意一些关键词语和句子,关键词语和句子一般位于段首位置。如:on the other hand, first of all, next, in conclusion, in addition, moreover, on the contrary, at the same time, for example, as a consequence 等等,这些词语(可参见第一节中"表示逻辑关系以及起承转合的标志词语和线索提示语分类归纲一览表"的内容)都向考生暗示了文章各段落之间的逻辑关系,有助于考生作出正确的排列。考生一方面在平时的学习中要注意此方面知识的积累,另一方面考试过程当中对此类词语给予足够的重视。

  3以确定位置的段落为轴心,寻找相邻段落,并重新整合文章,确定排序是否正确。各段主题思想确定,全文的主题也明确后,集中分析题中给出的已经被确定位置的段落,考虑其可能承接或被承接的段落,依次确定邻近的段落。根据前两个步骤,大体确定各段顺序后,再次回过头来按照已排好的顺序快速阅读文章,体会全文的脉络是否通畅,检查各个段落之间是否有脱节现象。

  四、 大纲样题解析

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45,you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  [A] "I just don't know how to motivate them to do a better job. We're in a budget crunch and I have absolutely no financial rewards at my disposal. In fact, we'll probably have to lay some people off in the near future. It's hard for me to make the job interesting and challenging because it isn't -it's boring, routine paperwork, and there isn't much you can do about it.

  [B] "Finally, I can't say to them that their promotions will hinge on the

  excellence of their paperwork. First of all, they know it's not true. If their performance is adequate, most are more likely to get promoted just by staying on the force a certain number of years than for some specific outstanding act. Second, they were trained to do the job they do out in the streets, not to fill out forms. All through their career it is the arrests and intervetions that get noticed.

  [C] "I've got a real problem with my officers. They come on the force as

  young, inexperienced men, and we send them out on the street, either in cars or on a beat, They seem to like the contact they have with the public, the action involved in crime prevention, and the apprehension of criminals. They also like helping people out at fires, accidents, and other emergencies.

  [D] "Some people have suggested a number of things like using conviction records as a performance criterion. However, we know that's not fair-too many other things are involved. Bad paperwork increases the chance that you lose in court, but good paperwork doesn't necessarily mean you'll win. We tried setting up team competitions based on the excellence of the reports, but the guys caught on to that pretty quickly. No one was getting any type of reward for winning the competition, and they figured why should they labor when there was no payoff.

  [E] "The problem occurs when they get back to the station. They hate to do the paperwork, and because they dislike it, the job is frequently put off or done inadequately. This lack of attention hurts us later on when we get to court. We need clear, factual reports. They must be highly detailed and unambiguous. As soon as one part of a report is shown to be inadequate or incorrect, the rest of the report is suspect. Poor reporting probably causes us to lose more cases than any other factor.

  [F] "So I just don't know What to do. I've been groping in the dark in a number of years. And I hope that this seminar will shed some light on this problem of mine and help me out in my future work."

  [G] A large metropolitan city government was putting on a number of seminars for administrators, managers and/or executives of various departments throughout the city. At one of these sessions the topic to be discussed was motivation-how we can get public servants motivated to do a good job. The difficulty of a police captain became the central focus of the discussion.

  Order:

  G41.42.43.44.45.F

  文章导读

  首段说的是:一个大都市的市政府召开各部门管理人员研讨会。有一个研讨会讨论的话题是如何激励公务员做好工作。在讨论中,一位警察局警长遇到的难题成了谈论的焦点。除了这段话,其他段的话都有引号,表明是某人说的话。尾段说到:"所以我不知道如何是好。多年来我一直在黑暗中探索。我希望这次研讨会能给我的难题带来启示,能帮我应对未来的工作。"很明显,这是发言的总结句。结合第一段的内容,我们可以知道,引号里的话是警察局警长的话,而整篇文章主要讲的是他面临的难题。

  答案与解析

  41【答案】C

  【解析】A到E段,哪一段像发言的起始段呢?这就要看是哪一段把讨论的话题引入。这里可以主要看每段的第一句话。会发现C段第一句话直截了当地点出话题:"Ive got a real problem with my officers",而且与首段的最后一句连接自然,所以可以判定41题空中应该填C。

  42【答案】E

  【解析】C段的第一句话后,警长开始评价他的队员。这一段的内容较为正面。因为警长说"有一个难题",按逻辑顺序,下一段落应该出现转折,提出职员中存在的问题。依照这样的思路,我们在剩下的段落中寻找,可以发现下一段选E连接最自然。

  43【答案】A

  【解析】本文的主题是警长遇到的"难题",既然第二题已经知道了警长遇到的难题是They hate to do the paperwork.(他们不喜欢写公文),那么,如果进行适当的推理,下文就应该以"I"做主语,来具体阐述警长自己的困惑之所在了。选项A以第一人称"I"开头,在逻辑上非常合适。

  44【答案】B

  【解析】

  段落之间的关联词语非常重要,选项B中的第一个词Finally就是一个非常重要的线索词。其实,选项A是警长遇到的第一个困惑,而选项B是他遇到的第二个困惑。因为本文是一篇发言,所以,在连接词上可以相对随意些,无论是Second也好还是Finally也好,都能表示出先后顺序来。

  45【答案】D

  【解析】警长是毫无办法。难道就一点办法都没有吗?其他人是怎么看的?在D段中,警长提到有人建议通过胜诉记录来评价,他们也进行过小组之间的比赛,但是没有什么效果。所以,警长殷切地希望能在研讨会上得到启发和帮助。按照这样的思路,这些段落就组成了一篇通顺、完整的文章。

  提示:考生在做这样的题型时,如果没有把握,可以多列出几种可能的顺序,然后根据这些顺序重读文章,看是否思路顺畅。完成此类题目关键是把握文章的主要话题和基本的逻辑顺序。

  答案:

  G 41.C 42.E 43.A 44.B 45.D F

  五、 语段排序题专项突破练习

  Exercise 1

  Part B

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45,you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  [A] Foremost on every potential buyer's list of concerns is debt. The average South

  Korean Company is leveraged four times over its equity, which is why so many are desperate to liquidate assets. But because Korea's currency lost half its value last year, many Korean executives believe-mistakenly-that foreign buyers will find their wares attractive in spite of their debts, analysts says.

  [B] Despite such aversion to foreign ownership, some deals are going through. Directors of Bank of Asia are believed to have approved the sale of a stake in their mid-sized bank to Dutch bank ABN-Amro. For the Bank of Thailand, the central bank, the ABN-Amro deal will send a much-needed signal that the country is welcoming foreign capital.

  [C] "The attitude of Koreans is that only foreigners will pay the price they are as king," says Daniel Harwood of ABN-Amro Asia in Seoul. But foreigners are looking at these business and saying "How can I make a profit," not "Oh, it's cheap, and I'll buy it." No one will take over these companies unless they can restructure.

  [D] Survival is usually uppermost in the minds of companies with their backs to the wall, even if that entails being reduced to a minority stake. In Thailand, however, most ailing companies seem loathe to admit that their conditions may be fatal. "They aren't realistic," says Henry Conell, Goldman Sachs' Hong Kong-based partner in charge of direct investment in Asia. "Nobody is about to say to them, you will be gone."

  [E] In south Korea, interest from foreigners has focused more on the country's manufacturers. But, the number of actual purchases, like those in Thailand, is small. In any event, big-ticket crossborder mergers and acquisitions are bound to take time. Indeed, analysts say the main reason for the dearth of deals so far is due to diligence: foreign investors must thoroughly familiarize themselves with companies they might buy. "You can't do this stuff overnight," says a senior official at a large Western bank in Seoul.

  [F] Still, the number of deals is growing by the day. On February 19, Samsung Heavy Industries simultaneously sold its excavator division to Sweden's Volvo Construction Equipment and its forklift operation to the United States-Clark Martirial Handling. Earlier, the chemical giant Hanwha group sold two affiliates to its Japanese and German partners. Despite the slow start, no one doubts that the bargains at Korea Inc. are for real.

  [G] Thai businesses unwillingness to sell hasn't been helped by the government's own ambivalence. While Finance Minister Tarrin Nimmanahaeminda is committed to attracting foreign money to Thailand, Deputy Prime Minister Supachai Panitchpakdi seems less so. "We don't want foreign firms to come and buy out our businesses. We want them to come, buy shares, and operate firms-and sell them after making profits, "he told the local media recently. "This will give Thais a chance to buy them back."

  Order:

  D41.42.43.44.45.F

  答案与解析

  41【答案】G

  【解析】从本文首段的In Thailand, however, most ailing companies seem loathe to admit that their conditions may be fatal. 可知泰国许多企业的一种消极应对困境的态度。而在五个备选项中,G项中包含泰国政府对于企业生存的观点阐释,使其与首段有效衔接,为正确选项。

  42【答案】B

  【解析】本段首句提到"尽管对外国所有权存在这些厌恶,一些交易仍在进行。"这与上段末句所提及的泰国副首相Supachai对于"我们不愿外国公司进来并购买我们的企业……"是同意承接,B项为此题最佳选项。

  43【答案】E

  【解析】在剩余选项中进行比较,可知接下来的行文应是过渡到韩国公司被国外投资者收购的一些情况介绍上,而E项的…… like those in Thailand,…… 正好是一关键的文意过渡表述段落。E项为此题最佳选项。

  44【答案】A

  【解析】上段阐释了外国投资者对韩国企业的跨边界并购交易数量少的现实情况,而A段首句阐释的潜在的购买者最担心的是债务正好是交易数量少的一个有效说明。A项为此题最佳答案。

  45【答案】C

  【解析】末段具体举例说明了外国投资者购买韩国企业的交易数量与日俱增,上段末说明了韩企老总错误地认为外商会被其产品吸引而不顾及其债务。而C项中的Daniel Harwood 的观点正好把两个段落有效联系起来。

  答案:

  D41.G42.B43.E44.A45.CF

  Exercise 2

  Part B

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45,you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the

  last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  [A] See yourself as successful. If I could plug into the minds of my patients and listen to the statements they make to themselves, I am convinced that the majority of them would be negative:"I'm running late again as usual.""My hair looks terrible this morning.""That was a stupid remark I made-she probably thinks I'm a dummy."Since thousands of these messages flash across our brains every day, it is small wonder that the result is a diminished self-image.

  [B] Author and editor Norman Cousins wrote:"People are never more insecure than when they become obsessed with their fears at the expense of their dreams."There is no doubt that if we can envision beneficial things happening, they have a way of actually occurring.

  [C] Stevens finally had a heart-to-heart talk with herself:"I realized that I simply wasn't a wit or an intellectual and that I could succeed only as myself. I began listening and asking questions at parties instead of trying to impress the guests. When I spoke, I tried to contribute, not to shine. Almost at once I started to feel a new warmth in my social contacts. They liked the real me better." If we are true to our instincts, most of us will find that we naturally develop certain trademarks. The discovery and expression of that uniqueness is one reason we are on this planet. Resisting conformity and developing some small eccentricities are among the steps to independence and self-confidence.

  [D] Many of us get interested in a field, but then the going gets tough, we see that other people are more successful, and we become discouraged and quit. But it is of ten the boring, repetitive sharpening of our skills that will ultimately enable us to reach our goal.

  [E] Horace Bushnell, the great New England preacher, used to say,"Somewhere under the stars God has a job for you to do, and nobody else can do it."Some of us must find our place by trial and error. It can take time, with dead ends along the way. But we should not get discouraged because others seem more skilled. Usually it is not raw talent but drive that makes the difference.

  [F] One daily exercise for building self-confidence is called"imaging"or "visualization".In order to succeed, you must see yourself succeeding. Picture yourself approaching a difficult challenge with poise and confidence. Athletes often visualize a move over and over in their minds; they see themselves hitting the perfect golf or tennis shot. When we burn such positive images into our minds deeply enough, they become a part of the unconscious, and we begin to expect to succeed.

  [G] Break away from other people's expectations. It is a liberating step when we decide to stop being what other people want us to be. Although opera singer Rise Stevens performed onstage with great poise, the self-confidence she felt before audiences evaporated in social situation. "My discomfort," she says, "came from trying to be something I was not-a state in the drawing room as well as onstage. If a clever person made a joke, I tried to top it and failed. I pretended to be familiar with subjects I knew nothing of."

  Order:

  D41.42.43.44.45.C

  答案与解析

  41【答案】E

  【解析】首段说明了我们要实现自己的目标必须通过枯燥、反复的磨练这样一个论点,接下来的一段应该有一个实例阐述作支撑,而E选项中Horace Bushell的说法及其接下来的对成功艰难历程的阐述正好是与首段形成文意的承接。

  42【答案】A

  【解析】选项中A项提出了人们自信丧失这样一个现实,放在此处正好形成一个对比,作为行文的一个承上启下的段落,这样才能进入到接下来的文意讲述。

  43【答案】F

  【解析】F项提出了人们用于增加日常自信的练习方法,这正是针对承接段落A中提出人们丧失自信这样一个现实的回应,即提出解决问题的方法。

  44【答案】B

  【解析】在剩下的两个选项中做出选择时,我们必须前后兼顾。这里不妨先分析45题,再回首来解决44题。(通过对45题的分析,只有B项能作为此题选项了)。

  45【答案】G

  【解析】末段讲述了一个名叫Stevens的人的心灵之旅,从内容看,这之前此人是不善于倾听别人提出的问题,凡事都是竭力给别人留个好印象等等,而且此段之前应该是引入Stevens这个人,因为文章其余部分从未提及他,这样G项就必然成为了本题的最佳选项。

  答案:

  D 41.E 42.A 43.F 44.B 45.G C

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