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全方位攻克考研英语英译汉(四)

2005-12-2 14:40 外语教学与研究出版社 

  四、 考研英语英译汉真题解析

  2005年英译汉试题(全国试题)

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  The study of law has been recognized for centuries as a basic intellectual discipline in European universities. However, only in recent years has it become a feature of undergraduate programs in Canadian universities. (46) Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers, rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person. Happily, the older and more continental view of legal education is establishing itself in a number of Canadian universities and some have even begun to offer undergraduate degrees in law.

  If the study of law is beginning to establish itself as part and parcel of a general education, its aims and methods should appeal directly to journalism educators. Law is a discipline which encourages responsible judgment. On the one hand, it provides opportunities to analyze such ideas as justice, democracy and freedom. (47) On the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news. For example, notions of evidence and fact, of basic rights and public interest are at work in the process of journalistic judgment and production just as in courts of law. Sharpening judgment by absorbing and reflecting on law is a desirable component of a journalist's intellectual preparation for his or her career.

  (48) But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media. Politics or, more broadly, the functioning of the state, is a major subject for journalists. The better informed they are about the way the state works, the better their reporting will be. (49) In fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.

  Furthermore, the legal system and the events which occur within it are primary subjects for journalists. While the quality of legal journalism varies greatly, there is an undue reliance amongst many journalists on interpretations supplied to them by lawyers. (50) While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgments. These can only come from a well-grounded understanding of the legal system.

  这篇文章主要讲对大学生,尤其是新闻专业的学生进行法律教育的重要性。

  其大概意思是:以前,在加拿大,学习法律一直被看作是律师的事情,现在已经日益成为普通高等教育的重要组成部分,法律知识已经被认为是受过教育的公民所必备的知识素养。法律中的公正、民主、自由等观念与实际紧密相连;对于新闻专业的学生和新闻工作者来说,法律知识的储备和对于宪法的了解尤为重要,后者对于他们对新闻,尤其是政治新闻的把握和判断是必不可少的。

  需要翻译的五个句子具有三个特点。一是句子结构比较复杂,如将作状语的介词词组插入动词词组中,而不是放在其后;定语从句中又套定语从句和状语从句;同位语从句;并列结构修饰同一个中心词;本身包含从句的从句作it的真实主语;含有并列结构的不定式作it的真实主语,等等。二是划线句子对上下文的依赖较大,一方面是名词和代词词组的所指,如第一句中的such institutions,第二句中的it、these concepts等需要到上文中去找,另一方面,对第二句的翻译有赖于其后边的例子所作的进一步的解释和说明。三是词汇的难度较大,用词抽象,一词多义的较多,如special preserve、intellectual、equipment等,其具体含义需要根据上下文进行引申理解。总之,词义和代词及名词词组对上下文的依赖是这套题非常突出的特点之一,进一步提醒我们要注重对语篇的理解,培养根据上下文猜测词义的能力。另外,在平常记忆单词时,要用联想记忆等科学的方法全面掌握一个单词的多个含义。具体分析如下:

  [翻译题解]

  46. Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers, rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person.

  [分析]1. 句子分段: Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions ‖ as the special preserve of lawyers, ‖ rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person.

  2. 句子结构:

  1) 主干结构:简单句legal learning has been viewed as……rather than……;

  2) view……as中间插入介词词组in such institutions作状语,该词组的含义要到前一句话中去找,指的是"Canadian universities"。

  3. 词的处理: institution机构;special preserve专门的工作;intellectual equipment知识素养;educated受过良好教育的

  [译文]传统上,在加拿大的高等学府里,学习法律一直被看作是律师的专门工作,而不是一个受过良好教育的人所必须具备的知识素养。

  47. On the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news.

  [分析]1. 句子分段: On the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner ‖ which is parallel to the links ‖ journalists forge on a daily basis ‖ as they cover and comment on the news.

  2. 句子结构:

  1) 主语+谓语+which引导的定语从句+省略引导词的定语从句+as引导的状语从句;

  2) these concepts的含义也要到前边的句子中去找,指的是前面提到的justice, democracy and freedom;

  3) which引导的定语从句which is……the news修饰manner,其中包含了定语从句journalists……daily basis,修饰links以及as引导的状语从句。

  3. 词的处理: concept观念;everyday reality日常生活中的实际情况;in a……manner以……方式;parallel类似的,相似的;forge使形成;on a basis以……为基础;cover报道

  [译文]另一方面,法律又将正义、民主和自由这些观念与日常生活中的实际联系在一起,其方式就如同新闻工作者在报道和评论新闻事件时,以日常生活为基础,使这些观念与实际情况相结合一样。

  48. But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.

  [分析]1. 句子分段: But the idea ‖ that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen ‖ rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.

  2. 句子结构:

  1) 主语+that引导的同位语从句+谓语(rest on)+宾语(an understanding of……);

  2) the established conventions和special responsibilities均修饰news media。

  3. 词的处理: profoundly深刻地;rest on建立在……之上,以……为基础或根据;understanding理解,共识;established既定的,确认的;convention规范;news media新闻媒体

  [译文]但是,新闻工作者对于法律的理解应该比普通公民更加深刻,这个观点是在对于新闻媒体的既定规范和特殊的社会责任有深刻认识的基础之上建立的。

  49. In fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.

  [分析]1. 句子分段: In fact, it is difficult to see ‖ how journalists ‖ who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution ‖ can do a competent job on political stories.

  2. 句子结构:

  1) 形式主语it+表语+真实主语how……political stories;

  2) 真实主语是how引导的从句,该从句的主语是journalists,谓语部分是can do……;who引导的定语从句修饰journalists。

  3. 词的处理: see设想,想象;grasp领会,理解;basic feature基本特点;competent令人满意的;story新闻报道

  [译文]实际上,很难想象那些对于加拿大宪法的基本特点缺乏清晰了解的新闻工作者能够胜任政治新闻报道的工作。

  50. While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgments.

  [分析]1. 句子分段:While comment and reaction from lawyers ‖ may enhance stories, ‖ it is preferable for journalists ‖ to rely on their own notions of significance and ‖ make their own judgments.

  2. 句子结构:while引导的状语从句+形式主语it+真实主语to rely on……and make……。

  3. 词的处理: reaction反应;enhance提高,提升;preferable更可取的,更好的;rely on依靠,依赖;notion见解,看法;significance重要性,意义;make one's own judgment作出自己的判断

  [译文]律师的评论和反应当然能够提升新闻报道的价值,但是,记者们最好还是依靠自己对于事件重要性的认识来做出判断。

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