全国英语等级考试辅导热招
您的位置:外语教育网 > 全国英语等级考试 > 复习指导 > 正文

PETS 语法辅导:虚拟语气

2005-12-14 00:00   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  16. 虚拟语气

  1) 概念

  虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。

  2) 在条件句中的应用

  条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件句表示的是假设的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。

  16.1 真实条件句

  真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是如果的意思。

  时态关系

  句型: 条件从句    主句

  一般现在时   shall/will + 动词原形

  If he comes, he will bring his violin.

  典型例题

  The volleyball match will be put off if it ___.

  A. will rain  B. rains  C. rained  D. is rained

  答案B。真实条件句主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时。

  注意:

  1) 在真实条件句中,主句不能用be going to表示将来,该用shall, will.

  (错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it.

  (对) If you leave now, you will never regret it.

  2) 表示真理时,主句谓语动词便不用shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。

  16.2 非真实条件句

  1)时态:可以表示过去,现在和将来的情况。它的基本特点是时态退后。

  a.  同现在事实相反的假设。

  句型 : 条件从句     主句

  一般过去时   should( would) +动词原形

  If they were here, they would help you.

  b.  表示于过去事实相反的假设。

  句型: 条件从句      主句

  过去完成时    should(would) have+ 过去分词

  If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.

  The rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful.

  If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going.

  If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it.

  含义:He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it.

  If he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress.

  含义: He was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress.

  c.  表示对将来的假想

  句型:  条件从句       主句

  一般过去时      should+ 动词原形

  were+ 不定式     would + 动词原形

  should+ 动词原形

  If you succeeded, everything would be all right.

  If you should succeed, everything would be all right.

  If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.

  16.3 混合条件句

  主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间,这时主,从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因时间不同而不同,这叫做混合条件句。

  If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.

  (从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反。)

  If it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在).

  16.4 虚拟条件句的倒装

  虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有were, should, 或had, 可将if省略,再把were, should或had 移到从句句首,实行倒装。

  Were they here now, they could help us.

  =If they were here now, they could help us.

  Had you come earlier, you would have met him

  =If you had come earlier, you would have met him.

  Should it rain, the crops would be saved.

  =Were it to rain, the crops would be saved.

  注意:

  在虚拟语气的从句中,动词'be'的过去时态一律用"were",不用was, 即在从句中be用were代替。

  If I were you, I would go to look for him.

  如果我是你,就会去找他。

  If he were here, everything would be all right.

  如果他在这儿,一切都会好的。

  典型例题

  _____ to do the work, I should do it some other day.

  A. If were I   B. I were C. Were I D. Was I

  答案C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词,通常将if省略,主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 Were I not to do., 而不能说 Weren't I to do.

  16.5 特殊的虚拟语气词:should

  1) It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用should 加动词原形, should 可省略。

  句型:

  (1)suggested

  It is  (2)important    that…+ (should) do

  (3) a pity

  (1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required,  demanded, requested, insisted; + (should) do

  (2)important, necessary, natural, strange

  a pity,  a shame,  no wonder

  (3)It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

  It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.

  2)在宾语从句中的应用

  在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中。

  order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do

  I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

  He insisted that he (should ) be sent there.

  注意: 如suggest, insist不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时",即它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时,宾语从句用陈述语气。

  The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules.

  判断改错:

  (错) You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.

  (对)  Your pale face suggests that you are ill.

  (错)  I insisted that you ( should) be wrong.

  (对)  I insisted that you were wrong.

  3)在表语从句,同位语从句中的应用

  在suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气,即(should)+动词原形。

  My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.

  I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

  16.6 wish的用法

  1)用于wish后面的从句,表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望。其宾语从句的动词形式为:

  真实状况 wish后

  从句动作先于主句动词动作  现在时  过去时

  (be的过去式为 were)

  从句动作与主句动作同时发生 过去时  过去完成时

  (had + 过去分词)

  将来不大可能实现的愿望   将来时 would/could +

  动词原形

  I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。

  He wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他没讲那样的话。

  I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。

  2)Wish to do表达法。

  Wish sb / sth to do

  I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager.

  I wish the manager to be informed at once. (= I want the manager to be informed at once.)

  16.7 比较if only与only if

  only if表示"只有";if only则表示"如果……就好了"。If only也可用于陈述语气。

  I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。

  If only the alarm clock had rung.   当时闹钟响了,就好了。

  If only he comes early.       但愿他早点回来。

  16.8 It is (high) time that

  It is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形,但should不可省略。

  It is time that the children went to bed.

  It is high time that the children should go to bed.

  16.9 need "不必做"和"本不该做"

  didn't need to do表示: 过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。.

  needn't have done表示: 过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。

  John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she didn't need to walk back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她不必步行回家了。

  John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she needn't have walked back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她本不必步行回家了。 (Mary步行回家,没有遇上John的车。)

  典型例题

  There was plenty of time. She ___.

  A. mustn't have hurried  B. couldn't have hurried  C. must not hurry  D. needn't have hurried

  答案D。needn't have done. 意为"本不必",即已经做了某事,而时实际上不必要。

  Mustn't have done 用法不正确,对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为couldn't have done, "不可能已经"。 must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时)。

  上一篇:  PETS 语法辅导:动名词

  下一篇:  PETS 语法辅导:名词性从句

相关资讯:
网站导航:
 四六级 指南 动态 经验 试题 资料  托福 指南 动态 经验 留学 备考
 雅思 指南 动态 机经 经验 辅导  公共英语 指南 动态 备考 试题 辅导
 日语 就业 辅导 留学 考试 报考  法语 资料 文化 考试 留学 辅导
 韩语 入门 口语 阅读 留学 文化  西语 辅导 资料 考试 留学 风采
PETS三级
超值套餐
超值优惠套餐=基础学习班+真题精讲班+冲刺串讲班
450元/门 课时:50课时
PETS三级
基础学习班
紧扣教材大纲,逐章系统讲解
300元/门 课时:30课时
PETS三级
真题精讲班
精讲历年真题,直击命题精髓
100元/门 课时:10课时
PETS三级
冲刺串讲班
梳理重要考点,预测命题方向
100元/门 课时:约10课时
PETS二级
冲刺串讲班
系统讲解考点,提高应试技巧
100元/门 课时:约10课时
学员 geege:
听了PETS的试听课程感觉真的很好,我立即报了名。我相信在老师的教导下,我一定会取得好成绩!老师的讲课很精彩,我还把它介绍给了我的同事和同学,谢谢老师们的帮助!
学员 noa:
外语教育网给我们学习外语提供了一个很好的平台,在这里有各个级别各个层次的英语学习资料,是块外语学习的风水宝地,希望外语网越办越好!!
学员 yongping:
去年PETS2级顺利的考过了,这得感谢网校的刘老师,今年会继续报网校的PETS3辅导,希望我能顺利通过考试。
学员 xiaobuding00:
PETS的课程不错,老师讲得很细,又不失生动活泼。今年顺利通过了2级,明年继续考3级,还报外语教育网的课~
学员 wrfxc:
考前多亏看了刘勇老师的pets课程,哈哈,顺利过关!多谢!
学员 ghjncv:
PETS张卫东老师讲课清晰、明了,我受益匪浅!
学员 freeg:
今天感谢外语教育网这段时间对我的培训,公司因为看到我最近英文的不断成长,昨天决定把公费读研的名额给我,虽然需要去参加考试,但是正是因为有了这个平台,才让我自己可以约束自己学习。老外客户对我最近这几个月的听力、口语提升有了肯定,项目也进展得顺利,年度业绩很OK。所以在此感谢!
学员 yuitd:
网校就像是自己身边的良师益友,遇到问题后直接提问老师,感谢老师们以最快的速度给予最满意的解答,谢谢网校这个好朋友。
版权声明
   1、凡本网注明 “来源:外语教育网”的所有作品,版权均属外语教育网所有,未经本网授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式使用;已经本网授权的,应在授权范围内使用,且必须注明“来源:外语教育网”。违反上述声明者,本网将追究其法律责任。
  2、本网部分资料为网上搜集转载,均尽力标明作者和出处。对于本网刊载作品涉及版权等问题的,请作者与本网站联系,本网站核实确认后会尽快予以处理。
  本网转载之作品,并不意味着认同该作品的观点或真实性。如其他媒体、网站或个人转载使用,请与著作权人联系,并自负法律责任。
  3、本网站欢迎积极投稿
  4、联系方式:
编辑信箱:for68@chinaacc.com
电话:010-82319999-2371