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1998年研究生入学考试英语试题

2005-12-20 14:50  

  1998年全国硕士研究生考试英语试卷及答案

  Part I Structure and Vocabulary

  Sections A

  Directions:Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked A),B),C)andD). Choose the one that best completes the sentence.

  Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding  letter in the brackets. (5 points)

  The Social Security Retirement Program is made up of two trust funds, _____ could go penniless by next year.

  A)the larger one

  B)the larger of which

  C)the largest one

  D)the largest of which

  Nowhere in nature is aluminum found free, owing to its always _____ with other elements, most commonly with oxygen.

  A)combined

  B)having combined

  C)combine

  D)being combined

  Andrew, my father's younger brother, will not be at the picnic, _____ to the family's disappointment.

  A)much

  B)more

  C)too much

  D)much more

  I would have gone to visit him in the hospital had it been at all possible, but I _____ fully occupied the whole of last week.

  A)were

  B)had been

  C)have been

  D)was

  Help will come from the UN, but the aid will be _____ near what's needed.

  A)everywhere

  B)somewhere

  C)nowhere

  D)anywhere

  The chief reason for the population growth isn't so much a rise in birth rates _____ a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical

  care.

  A)and

  B)as

  C)but

  D)or

  He claims to be an expert in astronomy, but in actual fact he is quite ignorant on the subject. _____ he knows about it is out of date and inaccurate.

  A)What little

  B)So much

  C)How much

  D)So little

  Although we feel dissatisfied with the election results, we have to become reconciled _____ the decision made by our fellow countrymen.

  A)for

  B)on

  C)to

  D)in

  Just as the value of a telephone network increases with each new phone _____ to the system, so does the value of a computer system increase with each program that turns out.

  A)adding

  B)to have added

  C)to add

  D)added

  The vocabulary and grammatical differences between British and American English are so trivial and few as hardly _____ .

  A)noticed

  B)to be noticed

  C)being noticed

  D)to notice

  Section B

  Directions: Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked A),B),C)andD). Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (5 points)

  Example:

  A number of A) foreign visitors were taken B) to the industrial exhibition  which C) they saw D) many new products.

  Part C) is wrong. The sentence should read, "A number of foreign visitors  were taken to the industrial exhibition where they saw many new products." So you should choose C).

  Although Professor Green's lectures usually ran over A) the fifty minute  B) period, but none C) of his students even D) objected as they found  his lectures both informative and interesting.

  When A) Edison died, it was proposed that the American people turned off  B) all power C) in their homes, streets, and factories for several minutes in honor of D) this great man.

  They pointed out A) the damage which B) they supposed that C) had been done by last night's D) storm.

  Because of A) the recent accidents, our parents forbid my brother and me from swimming B) in the river unless C) someone agrees to watch D) over us.

  A great many A) teachers firmly B) believe that English is one of the poorest taught C) subjects in high schools at present. D)

  In this way these insects show an efficient use of their soundproduced  A) ability, organizing B) two sounds delivered C) at a high rate as one call. D)

  I thought the technician was to blame

  A) for the blowing B) of the fuse, but I see now how C) I was D) mistaken.

  For him to be re elected, A) what is essential is not that his policy works, B) but that C) the public believe that it is. D)

  As far as A) I am concerned, his politics are B) rather conservative compared C) with other politicians. D)

  I'd say whenever you are going A) after something that is belonging B) to you, anyone who is depriving C) you of the right to have it is criminal. D)

  Sections C

  Directions:Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices  marked A),B),C)and D). Choose the one that best completes the sentence.

  Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding  letter in the brackets. (10 points)

  Example:

  The lost car of the Lees was found _____ in the woods off the highway.

  A)vanishedB)scattered C)abandonedD)rejected

  The sentence should read, "The lost car of the Lees was found abandoned in the woods off the highway." Therefore, you should choose C).

  When workers are organized in trade unions, employers find it hard to lay them _____.

  A)off

  B)aside

  C)out

  D)down

  The wealth of a country should be measured _____ the health and

  happiness of its people as well as the material goods it can produce.

  A)in line with

  B)in terms of

  C)in regard with

  D)by means of

  He has failed me so many times that I no longer place any _____ on what he promises.

  A)faith

  B)belief

  C)credit

  D)reliance

  My students found the book _____ it provided them with an abundance of information on the subject.

  A)enlightening

  B)confusing

  C)distracting

  D)amusing

  Nobody yet knows how long and how seriously the shakiness in the financial system will _____ down the economy.

  A)put

  B)settle

  C)drag

  D)knock

  In this factory the machines are not regulated _____ but are jointly controlled by a central computer system.

  A)independently

  B)individually

  C)irrespectively

  D)irregularly

  Every chemical change either results from energy being sued to produce the change, or causes energy to be _____ in some form.

  A)given off

  B)put out

  C)set off

  D)used up

  If businessmen are taxed too much, they will no longer be motivated to work hard, with the result that incomes from taxation might actually  _____ .

  A)shrink

  B)delay

  C)disperse

  D)sink

  American companies are evolving from massproduction manufacturing to  _____ enterprises.

  A)moveable

  B)changing

  C)flexible

  D)varying

  If you know what the trouble is, why don't you help them to _____ the situation?

  A)simplify

  B)modify

  C)verify

  D)rectify

  I can't _____ what has happened to the vegetables, for they were freshly picked this morning.

  A)figure out

  B)draw out

  C)look out

  D)work out

  I tried very hard to persuade him to join our group but I met with a flat _____ .

  A)disapproval

  B)rejection

  C)refusal

  D)decline

  From this material we can _____ hundreds of what you may call direct products.

  A)derive

  B)discern

  C)diminish

  D)displace

  She had clearly no _____ of doing any work, although she was very well paid.

  A)tendency

  B)ambition

  C)intention

  D)willingness

  What seems confusing or fragmented at first might well become _____ a third time.

  A)clean and measurable

  B)notable and systematic

  C)pure and wholesome

  D)clear and organic

  The public opinion was that the time was not _____ for the election of such a radical candidate as Mr. Jones.

  A)reasonable

  B)ripe

  C)ready

  D)practical

  Hudson said he could not kill a living thing except for the _____ of hunger.

  A)sensation

  B)cause

  C)purpose

  D)motive

  For the new country to survive, _____ for its people to enjoy

  prosperity, new economic policies will be required.

  A)to name a few

  B)let alone

  C)not to speak

  D)let's say

  Foreign disinvestment and the _____ of South Africa from world capital markets after 1985 further weakened its economy.

  A)displacement

  B)elimination

  C)exclusion

  D)exception

  When a number of people _____ together in a conversational knot, each individual expresses his position in the group by where he stands.

  A)pad

  B)pack

  C)squeeze

  D)cluster

  Part II Cloze Test

  Directions:For each numbered blank in the following passage, there are four choices marked A),B),C),D). Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (10 points)

  Manpower Inc., with 560,000 workers, is the world's largest temporary employment agency. Every morning, its people 41 into the offices and factories of America, seeking a day's work for a day's pay. One day at a time 42 industrial giants like General Motors and IBM struggle to survive 43 reducing the number of employees, Manpower, based in Milwaukee,  Wisconsin, is booming.

  44 its economy continues to recover, the US is increasingly  becoming a nation of part timers and temporary workers. This "45" work  force is the most important 46 in American business today, and it is 47 changing the relationship between people and their jobs. The phenomenon  provides a way for companies to remain globally competitive 48 avoiding market cycles and the growing burdens 49 by employment rules, healthcare  costs and pension plans. For workers it can mean an end to the security, benefits and sense of 50 that came from being a loyal employee.

  41. A)swarm    B)stride   C)separate    D)slip

  42. A)For     B)Because   C)As       D)Since

  43. A)from     B)in     C)on       D)by

  44. A)Even though B)Now that  C)If only    D)Provided that

  45. A)durable   B)disposable C)available   D)transferable

  46. A)approach   B)flow    C)fashion    D)trend

  47. A)instantly  B)reversely  C)fundamentally D)sufficiently

  48. A)but     B)while    C)and      D)whereas

  49. A)imposed   B)restricted C)illustrated  D)confined

  50. A)excitement  B)conviction C)enthusiasm   D)importance

  Part III Reading Comprehension

  Directions:Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For  each question there are four answers marked A),B),C) and D). Read the  passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions.

  Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding  letter in the brackets. (40 points)

  Passage 1

  It was 3:45 in the morning when the vote was finally taken. After six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates,

  Australia's Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die. The measure passed by the convincing vote of 15 to 10. Almost immediately word flashed on the Internet and was picked up, half a world away, by John Hofsess, executive director of the Right to Die Society of Canada. He sent it on via the group's on line service, Death NET. Says Hofsess: "We posted bulletins all day long, because of course this isn't just something that happened in Australia. It's world history."

  The full import may take a while to sink in. The NT Rights of the Terminally III law has left physicians and citizens alike trying to deal with its moral and practical implications. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right to life groups and the  Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste  of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back. In Australia where an aging population, life extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part - other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia. In the US and Canada, where the right to die movement is gathering strength, observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling.

  Under the new Northern Territory law, an adult patient can request death - probably by a deadly injection or pill - to put an end to suffering. The patient must be diagnosed as terminally ill by two doctors.

  After a "cooling off" period of seven days, the patient can sign a certificate of request. After 48 hours the wish for death can be met. For Lloyd Nickson, a 54 year old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer,the NT Rights of Terminally III law means he can get on with livingwithout the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from hisbreathing condition. "I'm not afraid of dying from a spiritual point ofview, but what I was afraid of was how I'd go, because I've watched people die in the hospital fighting for oxygen and clawing at their masks," he says.

  From the second paragraph we learn that _____ .

  A)the objection to euthanasia is slow to come in other countries

  B)physicians and citizens share the same view on euthanasia

  C)changing technology is chiefly responsible for the hasty passage of

  the law

  D)it takes time to realize the significance of the law's passage

  When the author says that observers are waiting for the dominoes tostart falling, he means _____.

  A)observers are taking a wait and see attitude towards the future of euthanasia

  B)similar bills are likely to be passed in the US, Canada and other  countries

  C)observers are waiting to see the result of the game of dominoes

  D)the effecttaking process of the passed bill may finally come to a stop

  When Lloyd Nickson dies, he will _____.

  A)face his death with calm characteristic of euthanasia

  B)experience the suffering of a lung cancer patient

  C)have an intense fear of terrible suffering

  D)undergo a cooling off period of seven days

  The author's attitude towards euthanasia seems to be that of _____.

  A)opposition

  B)suspicion

  C)approval

  D)indifference

  Passage 2

  A report consistently brought back by visitors to the US is howfriendly, courteous, and helpful most Americans were to them. To be fair,this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, andshould best be considered North American. There are, of course,exceptions. Small minded officials, rude waiters, and illmannered taxidrivers are hardly unknown in the US Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.

  For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence. Dullness and loneliness were common problems of the families who generally lived distant from one another. Strangers and travelers were welcome sources ofdiversion, and brought news of the outside world.The harsh realities of the frontier also shaped this tradition of hospitality. Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement. It was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers. It reflected the harshness of daily life: if you didn't take in the stranger and take care of him, there was no one else who would. And someday, remember, you might be in the same situation.

  Today there are many charitable organizations which specialize in helping the weary traveler. Yet, the old tradition of hospitality to strangers is still very strong in the US, especially in the smaller cities and towns away from the busy tourist trails. "I was just traveling  through, got talking with this American, and pretty soon he invited me home for dinner - amazing." Such observations reported by visitors to the US are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly. The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.

  As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships. And, of course, speaking a language does not  necessarily meant that someone understands social and cultural patterns.

  Visitors who fail to "translate" cultural meanings properly often draw wrong conclusions. For example, when an American uses the word "friend", the cultural implications of the word may be quite different from those it has in the visitor's language and culture. It takes more than a brief  encounter on a bus to distinguish between courteous convention and individual interest. Yet, being friendly is a virtue that many American value highly and expect from both neighbors and strangers.

  In the eyes of visitors from the outside world, _____.

  A)rude taxi drivers are rarely seen in the US

  B)small minded officials deserve a serious comment

  C)Canadians are not so friendly as their neighbors

  D)most Americans are ready to offer help

  It could be inferred from the last paragraph that _____.

  A)culture exercises an influence over social interrelationship

  B)courteous convention and individual interest are interrelated

  C)various virtues manifest themselves exclusively among friends

  D)social interrelationships equal the complex set of cultural

  conventions

  Families in frontier settlements used to entertain strangers _____.

  A)to improve their hard life

  B)in view of their long distance travel

  C)to add some flavor to their own daily life

  D)out of a charitable impulse

  The tradition of hospitality to strangers _____.

  A)tends to be superficial and artificial

  B)is generally well kept up in the United States

  C)is always understood properly

  D)was something to do with the busy tourist trails

  Passage 3

  Technically, any substance other than food that alters our bodily or mental functioning is a drug. Many people mistakenly believe the term drug refers only to some sort of medicine or an illegal chemical taken by  drug addicts. They don't realize that familiar substances such as alcohol  and tobacco are also drugs. This is why the more neutral term substance is now used by many physicians and psychologists. The phrase "substance  abuse" is often used instead of "drug abuse" to make clear that substances  such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and  cocaine.

  We live a society in which the medicinal and social use of  substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine  to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves. When do these socially acceptable and apparently constructive uses of a substance become misuses? First of all, most substances taken in excess will produce negative effects such as poisoning or intense  perceptual distortions. Repeated use of a substance can also lead to physical addiction or substance dependence. Dependence is marked first by  an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant  withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.

  Drugs (substances) that affect the central nervous system and alter perception, mood, and behavior are known as psychoactive substances.Psychoactive substances are commonly grouped according to whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogens. Stimulants initially speed up or activate the central nervous system, whereas depressants slow it down.

  Hallucinogens have their primary effect on perception, distorting and altering it in a variety of ways including producing hallucinations. Theseare the substances often called psychedelic (from the Greek word meaning "mindmanifesting") because they seemed to radically alter one's state of  consciousness.

  "Substance abuse" (Line 5, Paragraph 1) is preferable to "drug abuse" in that _____.

  A)substances can alter our bodily or mental functioning if illegally  used

  B)"drug abuse" is only related to a limited number of drug takers

  C)alcohol and tobacco are as fatal as heroin and cocaine

  D)many substances other than heroin or cocaine can also be poisonous

  The word "pervasive" (Line 1, Paragraph 2) might mean _____.

  A)widespread

  B)overwhelming

  C)piercing

  D)fashionable

  Physical dependence on certain substances results from _____.

  A)uncontrolled consumption of them over long periods of time

  B)exclusive use of them for social purposes

  C)quantitative application of them to the treatment of diseases

  D)careless employment of them for unpleasant symptoms

  From the last paragraph we can infer that _____.

  A)stimulants function positively on the mind

  B)hallucinogens are in themselves harmful to health

  C)depressants are the worst type of psychoactive substances

  D)the three types of psychoactive substances are commonly used in groups

  Passage 4

  No company likes to be told it is contributing to the moral decline of a nation. "Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers?" Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. "You  have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well?" At Time Warner, however, such questions are simply the latest manifestation of the soul searching that has involved the company ever since the company was born in 1990. It's a selfexamination that has, at various times, involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and  the corporate bottom line.

  At the core of this debate is chairman Gerald Levin, 56, who took over for the late Steve Ross in 1992. On the financial front, Levin is  under pressure to raise the stock price and reduce the company's mountainous debt, which will increase to 17.3 billion after two new cable  deals close. He has promised to sell off some of the property and  restructure the company, but investors are waiting impatiently.

  The flap over rap is not making life any easier for him. Levin has  consistently defended the company's rap music on the grounds of  expression. In 1992, when Time Warner was under fire for releasing Ice T's violent rap song Cop Killer, Levin described rap as a lawful expression of  street culture, which deserves an outlet. "The test of any democratic  society," he wrote in a Wall Streel Journal column, "lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and  expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating  the results may sometimes be. We won't retreat in the face of any  threats."

  Levin would not comment on the debate last week, but there were  signs that the chairman was backing off his hard line stand, at least to  some extent. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month's  stockholders' meeting, Levin asserted that "music is not the cause of  society's ills" and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York,  who uses rap to communicate with students. But he talked as well about the "balanced struggle" between creative freedom and social responsibility, and he announced that the company would launch a drive to develop  standards for distribution and labeling of potentially objectionable  music.

  The 15 member Time Warner board is generally supportive of Levin and his corporate strategy. But insiders say several of them have shown  their concerns in this matter. "Some of us have known for many, many years  that the freedoms under the First Amendment are not totally unlimited," says Luce. "I think it is perhaps the case that some people associated  with the company have only recently come to realize this."

  Senator Robert Dole criticized Time Warner for _____.

  A)its raising of the corporate stock price

  B)its selfexamination of soul

  C)its neglect of social responsibility

  D)its emphasis on creative freedom

  According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?

  A)Luce is a spokesman of Time Warner.

  B)Gerald Levin is liable to compromise.

  C)Time Warner is united as one in the face of the debate.

  D)Stever Ross is no longer alive

  In face of the recent attacks on the company, the chairman _____.

  A)stuck to a strong stand to defend freedom of expression

  B)softened his tone and adopted some new policy

  C)changed his attitude and yielded to objection

  D)received more support from the 15member board

  The best title for this passage could be _____.

  A)A Company under Fire

  B)A Debate on Moral Decline

  C)A Lawful Outlet of Street Culture

  D)A Form of Creative Freedom

  Passage 5

  Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as "steering the economy to a soft landing" or "a touch on the brakes", makes it sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth. The link between interest rates and inflation is uncertain. And there are  long, variable lags before policy changes have any effect on the economy.  Hence the analogy that likens the conduct of monetary policy to driving a car with a blackened windscreen, a cracked rear view mirror and a faulty  steering wheel.

  Given all these disadvantages, central bankers seem to have had

  much to boast about of late. Average inflation in the big seven industrial economies fell to a mere 2.3% last year, close to its lowest level in 30 years, before rising slightly to 2.5% this July. This is a long way below  the double digit rates which many countries experienced in the 1970s and  early 1980s.

  It is also less than most forecasters had predicated. In late 1994 the panel of economists which The Economist polls each month said that America's inflation rate would average 3.5% in 1995. In fact, it fell to 2.6% in August, and expected to average only about 3% for the year as a  whole. In Britain and Japan inflation is running half a percentage point below the rate predicted at the end of last year. This is no flash in the  pan; over the past couple of years, inflation has been consistently lower than expected in Britain and America.

  Economists have been particularly surprised by favorable inflation  figures in Britain and the United States, since conventional measures  suggest that both economies, and especially America's, have little productive slack. America's capacity utilization, for example, his  historically high levels earlier this year, and its jobless rate (5.6% in  August) has fallen bellow most estimates of the natural rate of  unemployment - the rate below which inflation has taken off in the past.

  Why has inflation proved so mild? The most thrilling explanation

  is, unfortunately, a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful  structural changes in the world have up ended the old economic models that  were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation.

  From the passage we learn that _____.

  A)there is a definite relationship between inflation and interest rates

  B)economy will always follow certain models

  C)the economic situation is better than expected

  D)economists had foreseen the present economic situation

  According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?

  A)Making monetary policies is comparable to driving a car

  B)An extremely low jobless rate will lead to inflation

  C)A high unemployment rate will result from inflation

  D)Interest rates have an immediate effect on the economy

  The sentence "This is no flash in the pan" (Line 5, Paragraph 3) means  that _____.

  A)the low inflation rate will last for some time

  B)the inflation rate will soon rise

  C)the inflation will disappear quickly

  D)there is no inflation at present

  The passage shows that the author is _____ the present situation.

  A)critical of

  B)puzzled by

  C)disappointed at

  D)amazed at

  Part IV English Chinese Translation

  Directions:Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation must be written  clearly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points).

  Do animals have rights? This is how the question is usually put. It  sounds like a useful, groundclearing way to start. 71) Actually, it isn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.

  On one view of rights, to be sure, it necessarily follows that animals have none. 72) Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements.

  Therefore, animals cannot have rights. The idea of punishing a tiger that kills somebody is absurd, for exactly the same reason, so is the idea thattigers have rights. However, this is only one account, and by no means an uncontested one. It denies rights not only to animals but also to some  people - for instance to infants, the mentally incapable and future generations. In addition, it is unclear what force a contract can have for people who never consented to it, how do you reply to somebody who says "I  don't like this contract"?

  The point is this: without agreement on the rights of people, arguing  about the rights of animals is fruitless. 73) It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans, or  with no consideration at all. This is a false choice. Better to start with another, more fundamental, question: is the way we treat animals a moral issue at all?

  Many deny it. 74) Arguing from the view that humans are different from  animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that  animals lie outside the area of moral choice. Any regard for the suffering  of animals is seen as a mistake - a sentimental displacement of feeling  that should properly be directed to other humans.

  This view which holds that torturing a monkey is morally equivalent to  chopping wood, may seem bravely "logical". In fact it is simply shallow:  the confused center is right to reject it. The most elementary form of moral reasoning - the ethical equivalent of learning to crawl - is to weigh others' interests against one's own. This in turn requires sympathy and imagination: without there is no capacity for moral thought. To see an animal in pain is enough, for most, to engage sympathy. 75) When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind's instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.

  71._____________________________________________________________.

  72._____________________________________________________________.

  73._____________________________________________________________.

  74._____________________________________________________________.

  75._____________________________________________________________.

  Part V Writing (15 points)

  Directions:

  A.Study the following set of pictures carefully and write an essay in no less than 120.

  B.Your essay must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.

  C.Your essay should cover all the information provided and meet the  requirements below:

  1. Interpret the following pictures.

  2.Predict the tendency of tobacco consumption and give your reason.

  参考答案:

  Part I Structure and Vocabulary

  Section A(1-10)

  BDADCBACDB

  Section B(11-20)

  CBCBCACDDB

  Section C(21-40)

  ABDACBAACDACACDBDBCD

  Part II Cloze Test(41-50)

  ACDABDCBAD

  Part III Reading Comprehension(51-70)

  DBACDACBDAABCDBACBAD

  Part IV English Chinese Translation

  71.事实并非如此,因为这种问法是以人们对人的权利有共同认识为基础的,而这种共同认识并不存在。

  72.有些哲学家论证说,权利只存在在于社会契约中,是责任与权益相交换的一部分。

  73.这种说法从一开始就将讨论引向两个极端,它使人们认为应这样对待动物:要么像对人类自身一样关切体谅,要么完全冷漠无情。

  74.这类人持极端看法,认为人与动物在各相关方面都不相同,对待动物无须考虑道德问题。

  75.这种反应并不错,这是人类用道德观念进行推理的本能在起作用,这种本能应得到鼓励,而不应遭到嘲弄。

  Part V Writing

  样题 1

  We meet smokers everywhere: in the streets, on college campuses and in shops. There are 5.8 billion people in the world, and the smokers are about 1.1 billion, which makes up 20 percent of the world's total population.

  Smoking is very harmful. I think there are two main aspects to the damage. First, smoking consumes a great deal of money. As is shown in the pictorial graph, smiling wastes 200 billion dollars each year in the world. Second, smoking does harm to the health of smokers, and it is the main cause of lung cancer. About 3 million people die because of the relevant diseases derived from smoking every year.

  Because more and more people are aware of the great harm of smoking to humans, the amount of tobacco consumption is on the decrease. From the following figures we can clearly see the tendency. The total amount of world tobacco production added up to 14.364 billion pounds in 1994, but it dropped to 14.2 billion pounds in 1995. At the same time, many countries call on people to give up smoking. So it is certain that the number of smokers is to decrease.

  样题 2

  About Tobacco Consumption

  From the above set of pictures, we can see that there were a total of 14.364 billion pounds of tobacco produced in 1994 and 14.2 billion pounds in 1995. Because the amount of tobacco production is falling yearly, it can be predicted that the tendency of tobacco consumption would also be falling yearly. There are many reasons. Firstly, smoking wastes money. Every year there are two hundred billion dollars "burnt" in the cigarette "fire". Secondly, smoking would hardly do people any good and it can even cause cancer. Every year there are three million people "buried" in the cigarette "tomb".

  Although tobacco consumption is falling, there are too many people who smoke. The population in the world is 5.8 billion, but about twenty percent of the population, that is to say 1.1 billion people, smoke. So the situation is serious and the movement against smoking is still a difficult task.

  评语:上边两篇作文内容符合要求,包括对各图的说明,对趋势的预测及理由,数字表达正确,语言较好,表达能力较强,长度符合要求。得14分

  样题 3

  The total product of tobacco was 14.364 billion pounds in 1994. In 1995 the total product of tobacco in the world decreased to 14.2 billion pounds. The population of the world is 5.8 billion. The number of smokers is 1.1 billion, which is 20% of the population in the world. Every year 200 billion dollars is wasted owing to smoking and 3 million people die of smoking.

  From the total product of tobacco in the world we can draw a conclusion that the tendency of tobacco consumption is decreased. I think that there are two reasons. One reason is that more and more people realize that smoking is harmful for health and give up smoking. The other one is that smoking is forbidden in the popular area in more and more countries. The two reasons lead to the decreasing tendency of tobacco consumption in the world.

  样题 4

  From the pictures, we first know that there are a lot of smoking people in the world. The number of the whole population in the world is 5.8 billion, and the number of smoking people is 1.1 billion. So the percentage of smoking person is about 20. It is a large ratio.

  Secondly we know from the pictures that tobacco gives us only disaster. Each year it devours 200 billion dollars and deprives 3 million people of their lives. It is horrible.

  Luckily nowadays more and more people begin to pay attention to their health. Thus I think the tendency of tobacco consumption will descend. From the pictures we also know that the output of the tobacco is declining, from 14.364 billion pounds in 1994 to 14.2 billion pounds in 1995.

  评语:上边样题 3和样题 4这两篇作文内容符合要求,包括对各图的说明,对趋势的预测及理由,数字表达正确,思想表达清楚,文字连贯,句式变化较多,结构与用词有少量一般性错误,长度符合要求。得11分

  样题 5

  As shown in the pictures, we can see that the total tobacco product is 14.364 billion pounds in 1994, while it is 14.2 billion pounds in 1995. The whole population of earth is 5.8 billion, but the human beings who keeps smoking is 1.1 billion, maintaining the proportion of 20 percent. Owing to the cigarette, 200 billion dollars were wasted, 3 million people die of smoking annually.

  From the figure given in the chart, we can come to a conclusion that the total tobacco consumption will decrease. There are reasons for the dropping consumption. First, more and more people believe smoking do harm to health, waste money. So a lot of people begin to give up smoking. Second, forbidding smoking in public areas cause people conscious that smoking is a bad habit. Therefor, I believe more and more will give up smoking with the advancement of society.

  样题 6

  From the pictures, we can draw a conclusion that the tobacco consumption in the world is rather high.

  In 1994, the total product of tobacco is 14.364 billion pounds and in 1995, is 14.2 billion pounds. There are a great number of smokers in the world - the number of 1.1 billion. That is to say, of the 5.8 billion people, 20 percent have the habit of smoking.

  For the sake of high tobacco consumption, 2000 billion dollars are lost and 3000 thousand people lose their lives every year.

  In my opinion, the consumption of tobacco will decrease as more and more people have come to know the damage of the tobacco. This can be found in the pictures. Smoking leads to many problems such as lung cancer, economic loss and pollution of the air.

  For abovementioned reasons. I believe the consumption of tobacco will decrease and all the problem it causes will be solved.

  评语:样题 5和样题 6这两篇作文内容符合要求,包括对各图的说明,对趋势的预测及理由,表达基本清楚,但结构与用词错误较多,数字表达有误,长度符合要求。得8分

  样题 7

  Today, many countries product all kinds of tobacco. Almost every shop has tobacco. In 1994, the tobacco consumption has get to 143.64 billion pounds. So much tobacco can be sell out every year. The population of the world is 58 million. But, smokers in the world have 11 million. It is about 20% of world population.

  We all know, smoking has a great harm to people. Every year about 300 million people died desease that deprive from smoking. Smoking use much money every year. About 2000 million dollars.

  We can see, smoking is so much harmness. So, we advocate all of people have't smoke.

  In 1995, the tobacco consumption has 142 million pounds, much less that in 1994. Because many people of smoking already think the smoking has no advantage, only bring illness.

  We hope all of the world, it is no people smoke in the future.

  样题 8

  On Smoking

  In the whole world the tobacco consumption has being decrease. According to the figure given in the data, we can see tobacco consumption was about 143.64 billion pounds in 1994, and about 142 billion pounds in 1995. Why are there on the decrease?

  I think there are two reasons. In the first place, smoking is do harm to people health. For example, it is may be responsible for lung cancer. There are about 300 thousand people died of smoking every year. Secondly, smoking cost a great deal. Every year money spend on smoking is about 200000000.

  As a result, when people realize this, they begin to give up smoking.

  But I must point out that smoker all over the world still account for 20%, about 11000000. So we must educate people give up smoking.

  评语:样题 7和样题 8内容基本符合要求,语句尚可理解,但结构与用词错误多,有些是严重错误,数字表达错误,长度符合要求。得5分

  样题 9

  In wave of economic reform, more and more people have realize the damage of smoking. It is obvious. Smoking has not any benefit to man's health, but as is know to all, everything has two sides. The taxs of tobacco are main resource of nation finasal. So the government of all country have to permit the product of tobacco. According to the figure, we can see the sum production of tobacco very great, 143.64 billion pounds in 1994, 142 billion pounds in 1995. The number of smoking man is 20% during world population. Smoking damages not only human's body but also waste lot of money. For example, there are 2000 billion dollar spending in tobacco and 300 million people die in smoking.

  I think the tendency of tobacco consumprion have be taken down. I should try my best to depress the damage of smoking.

  样题 10

  It is said that smoking do harm. I realy agree with it.

  Everyone in world know that smoking is not good habit, at the same time, so many warns with the words "No Smoking" everywhere. But on the other hand, there is lots of people are fond of smoking. as a result, every year about 200 billion dollars are to smoking, as well as 30 million people dies from it. How can these more than one billion people about one fifth ration give up smoking? It is always problem.

  In word, smoking is harmful, we should give up.

  评语:样题 9和样题 10这两篇作文内容与本题要求部分有关,除事先备好但与要求不符的语句外,结构与用词错误多且严重,词不达意,条理不清,不成篇章,数字表达混乱。得2分。

  样题 11

  The Tobacco Is Harmful To Us Some of us are favour of smoking and consider that is enjoyable. In actually, it isn't.

  The are fiftyeight million people in world, but the smoker is twenty percent, about eleven thousand million people. Because of this, the circle around of us is pollusion, the health of human is very had. There are three hundred million people die for smoking every year. Moreover 2000 thousand million lost every year.

  评语:语句几乎无一正确,数字表达混乱,长度不合要求。得0分。

  样题 12

  From the figures we can see smoking is harmful to people's health. On one hand, it cause many diseases; on the other, it costs a lot of money. But today people all over the world still smoke a lot. Some people smoke out of habit. Others enjoy smoking, and find it is good for their nerves when they are tired. And still others smoke to be sociable: they like to offer fridns cigarette when talking business with others.

  But as we all know doctors have warned people that tobacco is very dangerous to the smokers and may cause all kind of illness, including the cancer of lung. Many deaths are caused every year. And the government too are taking measures to prevent people from smoking.

  As far as I am concerned. I think smoking is a great evil that should be abolished. I think government should take stronger measures to eventually ban tobacco all together.

  评语:套用事先备好的文章,但文不对题,不能给分。得0分。

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