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考研英语选考题型之语段选搭题

2005-12-12 14:46 索玉柱 

  第一节选考题型之一——语段选搭题

  一、大纲解读

  语段选搭题考一篇500~600词的文章,该节共5题,每题两分,共10分。该部分的测试重点在于把握文章结构,主要考察考生对诸如连贯性、一致性、逻辑联系等语篇、语段整体特征的理解,即要求考生在理解全文的基础上弄清文章的整体和微观结构。

  该节分为两个部分:主干部分和选项部分。主干部分的原文约600词,其中有5段空白处,空白处的位置可能在段首、段落中间、段未,但不会是文章的第一句,一般情况下

  也不会是最后一句。选项部分为6或7段文字,每段可能是一个句子,可能是两三个短句,

  也有可能是完整的段落。其中5段分属于主干部分的空白处。要求考生依据自己对文章的理解从选项中选择5段文字放回到文章中相应的5段空白处。

  二、基础知识必备

  语段选搭题题型本身的特点决定了阅读文章的体裁以论说文和说明文为主。不同的问题有不同的叙述和展开方式,如按时间顺序、逻辑顺序展开;或按不同的论证角度,如事例论证、因果分析、对比比较等展开;或按不同的说明方式,如定义法、引述法、列举法等展开。展开方式决定了文章的行文结构和层次,因此,准确地把握展开方式的特点,有助于将选项放到原文最恰如其分的位置,以保持全文的组织严密、结构完整。例如文章运用例证法展开时,通常在提出观点后,会引用严谨的数据或事件作为佐证,而引用的部分往往被抽出作为选择项。考生必须在读懂选项内容后,回顾原文,寻找到需要支持的上下文,在空白处迅速定位,而对其他细节或结论性的章节空白处,可以不加考虑,这样有助于提高做题的效率。因此在考试准备期间,考生应重点训练对文章总体篇章结构的掌握,做到阅读时心中有数,对上下文段落的逻辑组织关系有一个清晰的认识。

  考生需要认真搞清楚主干内容和结构上的关系和布局,从而分辨出选项部分从结构和内容上看是属于文章的哪个部分,并可以与空白处的上下文有机地衔接起来。一般情况下不可能有特别明显的词汇、句子等语言方面的提示,也并不要求考生过分关注某一具体的细节;而是要着眼于全文,在理解全文内容、文章结构、逻辑关系(如时间、地点、因果关系、从属关系等)的基础之上方能做出正确选择。

  一是考查对文章整体结构的把握。语段选搭题的特点是组织结构逻辑性强,段落内部句子之间联系紧密,整篇文章围绕一个中心展开,句子较长且结构复杂,强调对通篇文章的透彻理解,不同选项之间也有较强的关联性,某一项选配错误可能会导致二项三项甚至全盘皆输。它一般要求考生能够把握所读的文章的总体结构,能够理清文章一般的结构,看懂段落之间的起承转合关系。因此要求考生具备从整体上把握文章的逻辑结构及主线内容并具备运用语法知识分析长难句的能力。

  二是考查段落内部的一致性。段落的一致性是指某段落的所有句子都围绕着一个中心主题。每个段落都会有一个主题句,所有的扩展句都是为主题句服务的,或陈述原因,或罗列事实、情节和步骤,主题句与扩展句在意义上始终保持一致。按段落结构的一般规律来说,其结构都是主题句,扩展句和结论句。段落的一致性指的是某段落的所有句子都围绕一个中心主题。它是整个段落的指导思想,所有扩展句都是为主题句服务的,主题句与扩展句在意义上始终保持一致。主题句往往出现在段落的首句中,但有时也会出现在段落中间或结尾处。

  三是考查段落内部的连贯性。段落的连贯性是指段落内部的论点和各论据之间的逻辑联系,段落内部句与句之间的衔接必须条理清楚、合乎逻辑。指的是段落中各句子之间的结构、句子之间的衔接必须条理清楚、合乎逻辑。转折、过渡应自然、流畅。篇章句子的连贯性一般是通过重复使用某些关键词、词组,或使用对等结构、代词呼应(尤其需要大家清楚it, this, these, that, those; he, she; here, there等词具体指代的是什么)、人称和数的一致或使用表示转折意义的词或词组等这样一些技巧来实现的。

  特别提示:注意文章中句子和句子之间、段落和段落之间的逻辑关系和起承转合的标志词语和线索提示语(见下表)。

  表示逻辑关系以及起承转合的标志词语和线索提示语分类归纳一览表

  时空关系

  afterwards; as soon as; at last; before; but not the least; eventually; every; finally seeing……; first; first of all; for a start; meanwhile; next; not…… until; on the left/right; previously; prior to; second; since then; since; subsequently; till; time; to begin with; to end with; to start with; when

  因果关系

  ……and so……; another important factor/reason of……; as a consequence; as a result; as a result of this; as; because of this; because; being that; consequently; due to; for the reason that……; for this reason; for; hence; in consequence; in that……; in view of; owing to; since; so;……so that……; the reason seems to be obvious: there are about……; therefore; thus

  转折关系

  and yet; but; unless; despite that; even so; even though; however; in spite of that; independent of; reckless of; regardless of; though; yet……

  并列关系

  also; and; as well as; both……and…… ; either……, or……; neither…… nor……; not only…… but also; too

  递进关系

  accordingly; along this line of consideration; as a popular saying goes……; as far as…… is concerned; at the same time; besides; even; further; furthermore; in addition; in order to do it……; in other words; in the first place……, in the second place……; in this way; meanwhile; moreover; not only……, but also……; not……but……; on the one hand……, on the other hand……; still

  比较关系

  apart from (doing)……; by the same token; compared with; in comparison with; in the same vein; like……; likewise;…… rather than……; by doing so; similarly; similarly important; when compared with; when in fact……

  对比关系

  as opposed to; as opposed to this; but on the other hand; by way of; contrary to; conversely; unlike; different from this; however; in contrast; nevertheless; on the contrary; opposed to; something is just the other way around; whereas; while

  举例关系

  a case in point is……; a good example (of……) would be…… ; according to; as an illustration, I will say……; as for; as he explains; as regards; as to; as you know; consider……; for example; for instance; for one thing……, for another……; in particular; including……; it is interesting to note that……; like; namely; notably; put it simply; stated roughly; such as; take as example (something); to detail this, I would like to……; you may ask/say

  强调关系

  believe it or not; by definition; especially; in fact; in particular; in reality; indeed; it is certain/sure that……; moreover; not to mention……; other thing being equal; particularly; to be strict; to be true; what is more important

  条件关系

  as long as; even if; even though; if it is the case in this sense; if necessary; if not all; if possible; if so; if; lest; once……; provided that; unless

  归纳总结类

  accordingly; altogether; as a result; consequently; hence; in a word; in brief; in other words; in short; in summary; on the whole; overall; the conclusion can be drawn that……; therefore; to conclude; to sum up

  三、 解题思路指引

  1语段选搭题所选文章一般没有标题,而文章的首段甚至是首句往往是了解文章的窗口,通过首段(或第一、二句)判断出文章的大意,在答题时考生应牢记每一个空格处的句子都是为主题服务的,从而保证不偏离主旨。

  2仔细阅读文章选项空缺处附近的语句,锁定目标答案可能具有的特征(重点关注出现频率较高的信息线索词)。

  3阅读语段选择,寻找特征词(即在上面提到的信息线索词),利用我们前面基础知识必备中所讲的结构一致、语篇连贯、词汇衔接等技巧寻找线索,结合备选项的特征及其中的线索强调词进行搭配,锁定目标答案。

  提示:①选项中出现时间年代时,往往要注意与原文中年代的前后对应关系。

  ②选项中出现代词时,该选项往往不能放在首句,并要注意指代成立的条件。

  it可指代前面的单数名词或整个句子;

  they或them指代前面的复数名词;

  one指代前面的单数可数名词;

  that指代前面的不可数名词或句子;

  this指代前面的单数名词或句子。

  4再细看语篇原文,明确五个空缺位应填入的选项,并最后将答案嵌入文章,通读全文,检查文章是否主题一致,各段落是否符合统一性(unity)和连贯性(coherence),从而印证所选答案的正确性。这一步与前三步同等重要,切不可忽视。

  四、 大纲样题及2005年真题解析

  (一)大纲样题

  Directions:

  In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now.

  41) . Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. The kind of rock in which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the original land, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate.

  42) . Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks formed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or near water. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, and insects, of which we know nothing.

  43) . There were also crab-like creatures, whose bodies were covered with a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They were usually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet.

  44) . Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important. They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary home of the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed off the previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the Dorset Coast.

  45) . About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over and most of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can trace the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many of the later mammals, though now extinct, were known to primitive man and were featured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings.

  [A] The shell fish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known.

  [B] Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils. From them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate.

  [C] The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first known in the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago the amphibians, the animals were able to live both on land and in water, appeared. They were giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy pools in which our coal seam, or layer, or formed. The amphilbians gave rise to the reptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the air.

  [D] The best index fossils tend to be marine creatures. These animals evolved rapidly and spread over large areas of the world.

  [E] The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forms are more complex, and among these are the sea-lilies, relations of the starfishes, which had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks.

  [F] When an animal dies the body, its bones, or shell, may often be carried away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud. If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with mud. More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become embedded and preserved.

  [G] Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks. Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidic solution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stable form.

  考纲链接

  本文严格按照考试大纲的精神选材、设题,文章主干部分总字数为342字,而选项部分总字数为327词,即所有的给出信息总阅读量高达669词。相当于传统阅读题型的一篇半或将近两篇文章的阅读量,因此,该题型要求我们要有较好的阅读方法和一定的阅读理解能力。

  文章导读

  本文的文章结构脉络非常清晰,其主题是化石和早期生物的进化。文章首先介绍了什么是史前动物,接下来谈论了化石是什么以及化石形成的过程。文章又谈论了化石中保存的生物种类,以及这些生物是如何进化的:首先是简单的生命形式,如贝类动物,然后是脊椎动物,如两栖动物与哺乳动物。爬行动物的时代结束后,包括人类在内的哺乳动物占据了统治地位。

  答案与解析

  41【答案】B

  【解析】文章的第一段中出现的空白处,最有可能的就是让补充主旨句。在做出选择之前,我们必须通读全文至少一遍,并动用自己的归纳总结的能力,尽可能选出最能够涵盖全文内容的选项。在读文章的过程中,我们要学会抓关键词,比如,第二段中有:rock, skin, accurate picture, climate……主要讲动植物在岩石上留下的印记能够让人了解它们的模样甚至所处的气候。第四、五、六段虽不完整,但是我们也能抓一些关键词:fossil, kinds, horny substance, two pairs of legs, shield with a pair of compound eyes, an inch or two long, shell……大致是说通过化石,我们可以知道一些动植物的具体模样,比如第五段就对某一生物进行了具体描述,有几条腿、几只眼等等。由此可见,最能够体现全文内容的只有B。

  42【答案】F

  【解析】本题是第二段的段首部分,应该是既能与第一段的内容有一定的连贯性,又能与第二段中的重点提示信息相关联的选项。第二段中要点提示线索指出,几乎我们所知道的所有化石都是由于水的作用而被保存在了石头中,而且大多都是生活在水里或水边的动物。选项F末尾的衔接成分"more and more"(越来越多的)与空白之后的"nearly all"(几乎所有的)相互呼应。所以F是正确选项。

  43【答案】E

  【解析】要选出本题的正确答案必须明确讨论的重心已经转移到了对螃蟹般的复杂动物的描述上。这些生物之前又是什么呢?只有选项E回答了这个问题。人们发现的最早的动物遗骸都是些非常简单的物种,而且都生活在海洋里。后来的物种比较复杂,其中包括海百合,它们是海星的亲戚,海星有长长的触手,可以通过其长柄吸附在海底或石头上。本题的正确选项是E。

  44【答案】A

  【解析】本题是第四段的段首部分,应该是此段的主题句,在此句中,单词shell起到了举足轻重的承上启下的作用。A谈到了贝类动物及其种类。空白之后的第一个段落里的"Of these"(其中)连接起了贝类与菊石(ammonites)。因此,本题的正确答案应是A。

  45【答案】C

  【解析】本题是选择一个段落,我们必须从全文的整体结构着手。根据上下文内容提示以及文章第一句,我们知道,此段内容应该既能够承接有壳的水生动物,又能够引出下文爬行动物时代结束这样的内容,因此,所选答案应该是介绍这两种动物之间的生物过渡群种。只有C,它既说到了"鱼类是最先有脊柱的动物"又说到"之后出现的两栖动物"这正好起到了在"低等动物"和"高等动物"之间的联系作用,因此答案是C。

  全文精译

  人类生活在地球上的很久以前,地球上有鱼、爬虫、鸟、昆虫和一些哺乳动物。尽管这些动物里有些是现代生物的祖先,但其他的却已灭绝了,也就是说,它们现在已经没有后代了。41)然而,我们对它们了解很多是因为它们的骨骼和外壳作为化石保存在了岩石里,从这些岩石中我们可以看出它们的尺寸和形状,以及它们是如何行走的,以及他们所吃的食物的种类。有时,我们通过岩石的表皮及其颜色精确地描述出死于几百万年前的动物的形象。这些包裹动物尸体的岩石能告知我们这片土地、生长在这片土地上的植物及其气候等特征。

  42)当一个动物死亡,它的尸体、骨骼和外壳常常被溪流带进湖泊海洋,之后由泥土覆盖。如果是生活在海里的动物,那么它的尸体可能会下沉.被泥十覆盖.越来越多的泥土跌落覆盖在上面,盲到骨骼或者外壳完全被包围保存起来。几乎所有我们知道的化石都是保存在由水作用形成的岩石里。这些化石里的动物大多数生活在水里或者靠近水的地区。因此,必然有许多我们还一无所知的动物、鸟类和昆虫生活在它左右。

  43)已发现的遗留物中最早期的都是生活在海洋中的相当简单的物种。后来的形状更复杂,当中有海合,有着长手臂、由一根通向海底或岩石的长茎吸附的星鱼亲系。也有蟹类生物,它们的身体由角状物覆盖。身体部分每边有两对脚。一对是用来在沙底行走,另一对用来游泳。头是一种防护物,上面有一双复合眼,通常有成千上万个透镜。

  44)甲壳类动物在岩石里有很长的历史,许多不同的种类已为人类所知。这当中,菊石是很有趣和重要的种类。它们有一个由许多小室组成的壳,每一个代表它临时的家。当一个年幼的菊石长大,它就自己生成一个新室而封存原先那个。在多西特海滩的岩石里可见到成千上万个这样的东西。

  45)最初真正的脊椎动物是鱼,最早被发现的生活于三亿七千五百万年前。大约在三百百万年前,两栖动物即既能生活在陆地又能生活在水里的动物出现了。它们很大,有时有八英尺长。许多生活在沼泽地里,那里也是煤炭断层形成的地方。两栖动物滋生了爬虫动物。在近一百五十百万年里这些是生活在陆地海洋和空气里的生物的最初形式。

  在约七十五百万年前,爬虫纪过去,许多种类灭绝。哺乳动物迅速发展,我们可以追溯出许多熟悉动物的进化轨迹如大象和马。许多后来的哺乳动物尽管现在已经灭绝,但却为原始人所知,这在他们的壁画和骨骼雕刻中可以发现。

  (二)2005年真题解析

  Directions:

  In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Canada's premiers (the leaders of provincial governments), if they have any breath left after complaining about Ottawa at their late July annual meeting, might spare a moment to do something, together, to reduce health-care costs.

  They're all groaning about soaring health budgets, the fastest-growing component of which are pharmaceutical costs.

  41.

  What to do? Both the Romanow commission and the Kirby committee on health care-to say nothing of reports from other experts-recommended the creation of a national drug agency. Instead of each province having its own list of approved drugs, bureaucracy, procedures and limited bargaining power, all would pool resources, work with Ottawa, and create a national institution.

  42.

  But "national"doesn't have to mean that. "National" could mean interprovincial-provinces combining efforts to create one body. Either way, one benefit of a "national" organization would be to negotiate better prices, if possible, with drug manufacturers. Instead of having one province-or a series of hospitals within a province-negotiate a price for a given drug on the provincial list, the national agency would negotiate on behalf of all provinces. Rather than, say, Quebec, negotiating on behalf of seven million people, the national agency would negotiate on behalf of 31 million people. Basic economics suggests the greater the potential consumers, the higher the likelihood of a better price.

  43.

  A small step has been taken in the direction of a national agency with the creation of the Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment, funded by Ottawa and the provinces. Under it, a Common Drug Review recommends to provincial lists which new drugs should be included. Predictably, and regrettably, Quebec refused to join.

  A few premiers are suspicious of any federal-provincial deal-making. They (particularly Quebec and Alberta) just want Ottawa to fork over additional billions with few, if any, strings attached. That's one reason why the idea of a national list hasn't gone anywhere, while drug costs keep rising fast.

  44.

  Premiers love to quote Mr. Romanow's report selectively, especially the parts about more federal money. Perhaps they should read what he had to say about drugs.

  "A national drug agency would provide governments more influence on pharmaceutical companies in order to try to constrain the ever-increasing cost of drugs."

  45.

  So when the premiers gather in Niagara Falls to assemble their usual complaint list, they should also get cracking about something in their jurisdiction that would help their budgets and patients.

  [A] Quebec's resistance to a national agency is provincialist ideology. One of the first advocates for a national list was a researcher at Laval University. Quebec's Drug Insurance Fund has seen its costs skyrocket with annual increases from 14.3 per cent to 26.8 per cent!

  [B] Or they could read Mr. Kirby's report: "The substantial buying power of such an agency would strengthen the public prescription drug insurance plans to negotiate the lowest possible purchase prices from drug companies."

  [C] What does "national" mean? Roy Romanow and Senator Michael Kirby recommended a federal-provincial body much like the recently created National Health Council.

  [D] The problem is simple and stark: health-care costs have been, are, and will continue to increase faster than government revenues.

  [E] According to the Canadian Institute for Health Information, prescription drug costs have risen since 1997 at twice the rate of overall health-care spending. Part of the increase comes from drugs being used to replace other kinds of treatments. Part of it arises from new drugs costing more than older kinds. Part of it is higher prices.

  [F] So, if the provinces want to run the health-care show, they should prove they can run it, starting with an interprovincial health list that would end duplication, save administrative costs, prevent one province from being played off against another, and bargain for better drug prices.

  [G] Of course, the pharmaceutical companies will scream. They like divided buyers, they can lobby better that way. They can use the threat of removing jobs from one province to another. They can hope that, if one province includes a drug on its list, the pressure will cause others to include it on theirs. They wouldn't like a national agency, but self-interest would lead them to deal with it.

  答案与解析

  41【答案】E

  【解析】

  本题上面一段讲的中心是药品价钱,经过分析这七个选项发觉,选项E在归纳句子,和上面的也有连贯性,哪一个选项当中包含了药价这个概念呢?E选项说根据某某机构的观点,自从1997年以来,处方药价格的增长速率是全国健康福利支出增长速度的2倍。这种增长一部分是因为药物代替了某些治疗手段,一部分是因为新药品的价格总是比原来药品价格高。那么这个选项说的就是这样一个事实,所以E为正确答案。

  42【答案】C

  【解析】如果只要上下一加就很明显发现,句中出现最多的就是国家这个词,空后文字非常典型,提到But "national" doesn't have to mean that。很明显这是一个转折,表明空处所填的选项,要和这一句话形成转折关系,而且空里面要出现"national"的定义,就是说很有可能要出现"national"这个词儿。哪一个选项里面包含这个词呢?C选项提到national为正确答案。

  43【答案】G

  【解析】在上一段所讲的是国家要对药品进行一种控制,空前文字举例说明全国性代理机构的好处,举了魁北克的例子,选项应该围绕着这个问题来选,正确答案选G,很好的保持了文章的一致性,G选项说"当然药厂不会同意,他们喜欢散客买家,那样他们可以暗中运作,他们甚至可能会威胁着要把一个省的工作机会转移到另一个省,但是,处于利益的驱使,他们又不得不这样做。

  44【答案】F

  【解析】有两个选择可以选进去的,我们可以根据这篇文章总体的情感来判断,前面一段直接讲的就是,人们对于整体药品的价格,以及国家的机构都是抱怨的态度,空前有两段文字,第一段最后提到魁北克拒绝加入全国性代理机构。而第二段提到有很多省府官员对于这种全国性代理机构持怀疑态度,可以发现这里仍然推行全国性代理机构的设想所遇到的阻力,接下来当然会谈到怎么处理这个阻力?F选项,非常明确的说明了"所以如果某些省想完成健康福利的任务,他们就必须有完成这个任务的能力,他们还必须节约管理成本,防止一个省和另一个省之间的斗争,而且还要尽量争取更好的药价。"所以选项A和F相比,F要更符合这篇文章情感的一致性,所以选F,这个空很多同学填的都是A,A选项说:"魁北克抵制全国性代理机构,是这个省自己的意识形态问题"。

  45【答案】B

  【解析】上面出现了一个"人们怎么样说"最后一段也讲了,他们聚在首都,不断谈论这个事情,这个一致性,本题应该选B。空前文字提到也许这些官员们应该看一看罗马诺的关于药品的论述,当然这个空应该接着谈,还可以读一读前面文章提到的另外一个人科尔比的关于药品的报告,这两个人在前面的文章里面都是同时被提到的,而且他们都提倡说建立一个这样全国性机构非常不错。

  全文精译

  在七月底的年度会议上对渥太华大发牢骚之后,加拿大的省府官员们如果还有力气的话,他们可能会抽出时间坐到一块儿,力图降低医疗费用。

  他们所有人都在抱怨高涨的医疗预算,这其中增长最快的是药品费用。

  41)加拿大医疗信息协会的资料表明,自1997年以来,处方药费用的增长速度是整个医疗费用增长速度的两倍。其中部分增长是由于药物使用替代了其他的治疗手段。部分是由于使用了高于原来药品价格的新药,部分是由于药品价格涨了。

  该怎么办呢?许多专家提出了报告,这自不必说。罗马诺医疗委员会和科尔比医疗委员会则建议设立一个国家药物机构。由现在每个省出台自己的药物清单,有自己的机构、程序和有限的议价能力这种情况,变更为资源共享,一同与渥太华合作创建一个国家机构。

  42)这里所说的国家机构是指什么呢?罗伊·罗马诺和迈克尔·科尔比议员建议成立一个联邦政府和省政府一体化的机构,就像最近成立的国家医疗委员会一样。

  但是国家机构的含义不一定是指这一点。它还可意味着各省之间联合起来创建一个机构。不管是何种含义,如果可能的话,成立一个国家机构的好处之一就是能够通过谈判从医药生产商那里获得更优惠的价格。原来是一个省或省内的几家医院针对该省清单上的某种药物议价,而现在这个国家机构可以代表各省来议价。比方说,魁北克省只能代表700万公民议价,取而代之的是这个国家机构代表3,100万加拿大人进行谈判。基础经济学表明,潜在的客户越多,获得更优惠价格的可能性就越大。

  43)当然,医药公司就会高声欢呼了。他们喜欢散客买家,那样他们可以更好地为自己的利益而进行游说。他们可能会以要把一个省的工作机会转移到另一个省来进行威胁。他们可能会认为如果一个省的药单上包括了一种药,就会迫使其他的省把这种药也填在药单上,他们不会喜欢全国性代理机构。但是,由于利益的驱使,他们又不得不与它打交道。

  由渥太华和各省出资成立了加拿大医疗技术评估协调办公室,这意味着向成立国家机构迈进了一小步。在这个办公室下有一个公共药品评估机构,它向各省推荐应该在清单上增加的新药。不出所料,魁北克省拒绝加入这个机构,这是个遗憾。

  一些省府官员们对于联邦政府和省之间的交易感到怀疑。他们(尤其是魁北克省和阿尔伯特省)只想让渥太华额外支付上几十亿加元,但自己却不承担任何责任(如果他们有责任的话)。这就是为什么提出一个国家药物清单的想法得不到落实,而药品价格却不断上涨。

  44)所以如果某些省想操控医疗福利事业,他们就必须证明自己有这种能力,他们必须开一张省际单子来终止重复,他们还必须节约管理成本,防止各省之间的争斗,而且还要尽量争取更合理的药价。

  官员们喜欢有选择地引用罗马诺先生的报告,特别是有关联邦资金的部分。也许他们应该读读他们不得不说的有关药物的部分了:"为了抑制不断上涨的药价,一个国家药物机构会让政府对医药公司施加更大的影响。"

  45)或者他们可以看一看科尔比的报告:"这样一个机构的巨大购买力,会进一步加强实施公众处方药保险计划,以保证以可能的最低价格从药厂买药。"

  因此当官员们聚集在尼亚加拉瀑布城开会陈述他们的抱怨清单时,他们应该在自己的权限范围内开始做些有利于他们的预算及病人的事情。

  五、 语段选搭题专项突破练习

  Exercise 1

  Part B

  Directions:

  In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  We might marvel at the process made in every field of study, but the methods of testing a person's knowledge and ability remain as primitive as ever they were. It really is extraordinary that after all these years; educationists have still failed to devise anything more efficient and reliable than examinations. For all the pious claim that examinations text what you know, it is common knowledge that they more often do the exact opposite.

  41) . As anxiety makers, examinations are second to none. That is because so much depends on them. They are the mark of success of failure in our society. Your whole future may be decided in one fateful day.

  42) . No one can give off his best when he is in mortal terror, or after a sleepless night, yet this is precisely what the examination system expects him to do.

  43) . A good education should, among other things, train you to think for yourself. The examination system does anything but that. What has to be learnt is rigidly laid down by a syllabus, so the student is encouraged to memorize. Examinations do not motivate a student to read widely, but to restrict his reading; they do not enable him to seek more and more knowledge, but induce cramming. They lower the standards of teaching, for they deprive the teacher of all freedoms.

  44) . The results on which so much depends are often nothing more than a subjective assessment by some anonymous examiner. Examiners are only human. They get tired and hungry; they make mistakes. Yet they have to mark stacks of hastily scrawled scripts in a limited amount of time. They work under the same sort of pressure as the candidates. And their word carries weight. After a judge's decision you have the right of appeal, but not after an examiner's.

  45) . Is it cynical to suggest that examinations are merely a profitable business for the institutions that run them? This is what it boils down to in the last analysis. The best comment on the system is this illiterate message recently scrawled on a wall: "I were a teenage drop-out and now I are a teenage millionaire."

  [A] Every class at school requires homework, quizzes, tests, and finally, a final exam. We take exams to prove ourselves - to prove we have advanced our education.

  [B] There must surely be many simpler and more effective ways of assessing a person's true abilities.

  [C] Stress has hit an eleven on the one-to-ten scale during examinations. Stress is not healthy, and it makes everyone angry. The last thing I remember when I go back to school is exams. Is the school trying aversion therapy on its student?

  [D] The moment a child begins school, he enters a world of vicious competition where success and failure are clearly defined and measured. Can we wonder at the increasing number of drop-outs: young people who are written off as utter failures before they have even embarked on a career? Can we be surprised at the suicide rate among students?

  [E] It doesn't matter that you weren't feeling very well, or that your mother died. Little things like that don't count: the exam goes on.

  [F] They may be a good means of testing memory, or the knack of working rapidly under extreme pressure, but they can tell you nothing about a person's true ability and aptitude.

  [G] Teachers themselves are often judged by examination results and instead of teaching their subjects, they are reduced to training their students in exam techniques which they despise. The most successful candidates are not always the best educated; they are the best trained in the technique of working under stress.

  答案与解析


  41【答案】F

  【解析】第41题位于文章第一段的末尾。这同样是一篇结构规范的短文,作者在第一段叙述一些事实后必然要表明自己的立场,而根据全文内容,作者是不赞成用考试来衡量个人能力的,选项F中的"……, but ……"正是前文"opposite"所表示的具体内容。由此可见正确答案是F,"考试可能是检验记忆力,或者在极度紧张的情况下发现快速工作窍门的好方法。但是它不能告诉你一个人的真正能力和智能究竟怎样。"

  42【答案】E

  【解析】第42题位于文章第二段的段中。做本题的关键时把握空白处所处的上下文语境。本段是在对考试进行贬责,而且一定需要大家抓住的是空白之后的文字有一层批评的意味,由此可见只有E是最合适的。"

  43【答案】D

  【解析】第43题是文章的第三段。从选项来观察,好像没有一个能够承上启下的句子,因此可以依据先难后易的原则暂时搁置本题,最后通读全文即得出答案D。

  44【答案】G

  【解析】第44题在文章的第四段段中。这很明显的是要求大家观察上下文,找出中心词。那么根据本段内容可以比较容易的得出正确答案是G。

  45【答案】B

  【解析】第45题位于文章最后一段的段首,这是对文章主旨的再加工,那么作者在"考试不是最佳检验手段"这一观点的基础上得出B,"这样的观点是很自然的,评判一个人真实的能力肯定有很多更简单和跟有效的方法。"

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