Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (40 min)
In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your Coloured Answer Sheet.
SECTION A TALK
Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section .At the end of the talk you w ill be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now list en to the talk.
1. The rules for the first private library in the US were drawn up by ___.
A. the legislature B. the librarian C. John Harvard D. the faculty members
2. The earliest public library was also called a subscription library because books ___.
A. could be lent to everyone
B. could be lent by book stores
C. were lent to students and the faculty
D. were lent on a membership basis
3. Which of the following is NOT stated as one of the purposes of free public libraries?
A. To provide readers with comfortable reading rooms.
B. To provide adults with opportunities of further education.
C. To serve the community's cultural and recreational needs.
D. To supply technical literature on specialized subjects.
4. The major difference between modem private and public libraries lies i n ___.
A. readership B. content C. service D. function
5. The main purpose of the talk is ___.
A. to introduce categories of books in US libraries
B. to demonstrate the importance of US libraries
C. to explain the roles of different US libraries
D. to define the circulation system of US libraries
SECTION B INTERVIEW
Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you wil l be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the interview.
6. Nancy became a taxi driver because ___.
A. she owned a car
B. she drove well
C. she liked drivers' uniforms
D. it was her childhood dream
7. According to her, what was the most difficult about becoming a taxi dr iver?
A. The right sense of direction.
B. The sense of judgment.
C. The skill of maneuvering.
D. The size of vehicles.
8. What does Nancy like best about her job?
A. Seeing interesting buildings in the city.
B. Being able to enjoy the world of nature.
C. Driving in unsettled weather.
D. Taking long drives outside the city.
9. It can be inferred from the interview that Nancy in a(n) ___ moth er.
A. uncaring B. strict C. affectionate D. perm issive
10. The people Nancy meets are
A. rather difficult to please
B. rude to women drivers
C. talkative and generous with tips
D. different in personality
SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST
Question 11 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you wil l be given 15 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.
11. The primary purpose of the US anti-smoking legislation is ___.
A. to tighten control on tobacco advertising
B. to impose penalties on tobacco companies
C. to start a national anti-smoking campaign
D. to ensure the health of American children
Questions 12 and 13 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item , you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
12. The French President's visit to Japan aims at ___.
A. making more investments in Japan
B. stimulating Japanese businesses in France
C. helping boost the Japanese economy
D. launching a film festival in Japan
13. This is Jacques Chirac's ___ visit to Japan.
A. second B. fourteenth C. fortieth D. forty-first
Questions 14 and 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item , you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
14. Afghan people are suffering from starvation because ___.
A. melting snow begins to block the mountain paths
B. the Taliban have destroyed existing food stocks
C. the Taliban are hindering food deliveries
D. an emergency air-lift of food was cancelled
15. people in Afghanistan are facing starvation.
A. 160,000 B. 16,000 C. 1,000,000 D. 100 ,000
SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING
Fill each of gaps with ONE word. You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable.
On Public Speaking
When people are asked to give a speech in public for the first time, they usually feel terrified no matter how well they speak in informal situations. In fact, public speaking is the same as any other form of (1)___ 1.___ that people are usually engaged in. Public speaking is a way for a speaker to (2)___ his thoughts with the audience. Moreover, the speaker is free 2.___ to decide on the (3)___ of his speech. 3.___ Two key points to achieve success in public speaking: -(4)___ of the subject matter. 4.___ -good preparation of the speech. To facilitate their understanding, inform your audience beforehand of the (5)___ of your speech, and end it with a summary. 5.___ Other key points to bear in mind: -be aware of your audience through eye contact. -vary the speed of (6)___ 6.___ -use the microphone skillfully to (7)___ yourself in speech. 7.___ -be brief in speech; always try to make your message (8)___ 8.___ Example: the best remembered inaugural speeches of the US presidents are the (9)___ ones. 9.___ Therefore, brevity is essential to the (10)___ of a speech. 10.___
Part Ⅱ Proofreading and Error Correction (15 min)
The following passage contains TEN errors. Each line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way. For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and wri te the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line. For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "∧" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line. For an unnecessary word cross out the unnecessary word with a slash "/' and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.
When∧art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an
it never／ buys things in finished form and hangs (2) never
them on the wall. When a natural history museum
wants an exhibition, it must often build it. (3) exhibit
The grammatical words which play so large a part in English
grammar are for the most part sharply and obviously different 1.___
from the lexical words. A rough and ready difference which may
seem the most obvious is that grammatical words have "less
meaning", but in fact some grammarians have called them 2.___
"empty" words as opposed in the "full" words of vocabulary. 3.___
But this is a rather misled way of expressing the distinction. 4.___
Although a word like the is not the name of something as man is,
it is very far away from being meaningless; there is a sharp 5.___
difference in meaning between "man is vile" and "the man is
vile", yet the is the single vehicle of this difference in meaning. 6.___
Moreover, grammatical words differ considerably among
themselves as the amount of meaning they have, even in the 7.___
lexical sense. Another name for the grammatical words has been
"little words". But size is by no mean a good criterion for 8.___
distinguishing the grammatical words of English, when we
consider that we have lexical words as go, man, say, car. Apart 9.___
from this, however, there is a good deal of truth in what some
people say: we certainly do create a great number of obscurity 10.___
when we omit them. This is illustrated not only in the poetry of
Robert Browning but in the prose of telegrams and newspaper headlines.
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 min)
SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION (30 min)
In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your Coloured Answer Sheet.
Despite Denmark's manifest virtues, Danes never talk about how proud they a re to be Danes. This would sound weird in Danish. When Danes talk to foreigners about Denmark, they always begin by commenting on its tininess, its unimportance , the difficulty of its language, the general small-mindedness and self-indulgen ce of their countrymen and the high taxes. No Dane would look you in the eye and say, "Denmark is a great country." You're supposed to figure this out for yo urself.
It is the land of the silk safety net, where almost half the national budg et goes toward smoothing out life's inequalities, and there is plenty of money f or schools, day care, retraining programmes, job seminars-Danes love seminars: t hree days at a study centre hearing about waste management is almost as good as a ski trip. It is a culture bombarded by English, in advertising, pop music, the Internet, and despite all the English that Danish absorbs-there is no Danish Academy to defend against it -old dialects persist in Jutland that can barel y be understood by Copenhageners. It is the land where, as the saying goes," Fe w have too much and fewer have too little, "and a foreigner is struck by the swe e t egalitarianism that prevails, where the lowliest clerk gives you a level gaze, where Sir and Madame have disappeared from common usage, even Mr. and Mrs. It' s a nation of recyclers-about 55 % of Danish garbage gets made into something new- and no nuclear power plants. It's a nation of tireless planner. Trains run on time. Things operate well in general.
Such a nation of overachievers - a brochure from the Ministry of Busines s and Industry says, "Denmark is one of the world's cleanest and most organize d countries, with virtually no pollution, crime, or poverty. Denmark is the most c orruption-free society in the Northern Hemisphere. "So, of course, one's heart l ifts at any sighting of Danish sleaze: skinhead graffiti on buildings("Foreigne r s Out of Denmark! "), broken beer bottles in the gutters, drunken teenagers slu mped in the park.
Nonetheless, it is an orderly land. You drive through a Danish town, it co mes to an end at a stone wall, and on the other side is a field of barley, a nic e clean line: town here, country there. It is not a nation of jay-walkers. Peopl e stand on the curb and wait for the red light to change, even if it's 2 a.m. a n d there's not a car in sight. However, Danes don' t think of themselves as a w ai nting-at-2-a.m.-for-the-green-light people——that's how they see Swedes and Ge r mans. Danes see themselves as jazzy people, improvisers, more free spirited than Swedes, but the truth is( though one should not say it)that Danes are very much like Germans and Swedes. Orderliness is a main selling point. Denmark has few n atural resources, limited manufacturing capability; its future in Europe will be as a broker, banker, and distributor of goods. You send your goods by container ship to Copenhagen, and these bright, young, English-speaking, utterly honest, highly disciplined people will get your goods around to Scandinavia, the Baltic States, and Russia. Airports, seaports, highways, and rail lines are ultramodern and well-maintained.
The orderliness of the society doesn't mean that Danish lives are less me s sy or lonely than yours or mine, and no Dane would tell you so. You can hear ple nty about bitter family feuds and the sorrows of alcoholism and about perfectly sensible people who went off one day and killed themselves. An orderly society c an not exempt its members from the hazards of life.
But there is a sense of entitlement and security that Danes grow up with. Certain things are yours by virtue of citizenship, and you shouldn't feel bad f o r taking what you're entitled to, you're as good as anyone else. The rules of th e welfare system are clear to everyone, the benefits you get if you lose your jo b, the steps you take to get a new one; and the orderliness of the system makes it possible for the country to weather high unemployment and social unrest witho ut a sense of crisis.
16. The author thinks that Danes adopt a ___ attitude towards their country.
A. boastful B. modest C. deprecating D. mysterious
17. Which of the following is NOT a Danish characteristic cited in the pa ssage?
A. Fondness of foreign culture. B. Equality in society. C. Linguistic tolerance. D. Persistent planning.
18. The author's reaction to the statement by the Ministry of Business a nd Industry is ___.
A. disapproving B. approving C. noncommittal D. doubtful
19. According to the passage, Danish orderliness ___.
A. sets the people apart from Germans and Swedes
B. spares Danes social troubles besetting other people
C. is considered economically essential to the country
D. prevents Danes from acknowledging existing troubles
20. At the end of the passage the author states all the following EXCEPT that ___.
A. Danes are clearly informed of their social benefits
B. Danes take for granted what is given to them
C. the open system helps to tide the country over
D. orderliness has alleviated unemployment
But if language habits do not represent classes, a social stratification in to something as bygone as "aristocracy" and "commons", they do still of cour se s erve to identify social groups. This is something that seems fundamental in the use of language. As we see in relation to political and national movements, lang uage is used as a badge or a barrier depending on which way we look at it. The n ew boy at school feels out of it at first because he does not know the fight wor ds for things, and awe-inspiring pundits of six or seven look down on him for no t being aware that racksy means "dilapidated", or hairy "out first ball". Th e mi ner takes a certain pride in being "one up on the visitor or novice who calls t h e cage a "lift" or who thinks that men working in a warm seam are in their "u nde rpants" when anyone ought to know that the garments are called hoggers. The "i ns ider" is seldom displeased that his language distinguishes him from the "outsi der".
Quite apart from specialized terms of this kind in groups, trades and profe ssions, there are all kinds of standards of correctness at which mast of us feel more or less obliged to aim, because we know that certain kinds of English invi te irritation or downright condemnation. On the other hand, we know that other k inds convey some kind of prestige and bear a welcome cachet.
In relation to the social aspects of language, it may well be suggested tha t English speakers fall into three categories: the assured, the anxious and the in different. At one end of this scale, we have the people who have "position" an d "status", and who therefore do not feel they need worry much about their use o f English. Their education and occupation make them confident of speaking an uni mpeachable form of English: no fear of being criticized or corrected is likely t o cross their minds, and this gives their speech that characteristically unself c onscious and easy flow which is often envied.
At the other end of the scale, we have an equally imperturbable band, speak ing with a similar degree of careless ease, because even if they are aware that their English is condemned by others, they are supremely indifferent to the fact . The Mrs Mops of this world have active and efficient tongues in their heads, a nd if we happened not to like the/r ways of saying things, well, we "can lump i t ". That is their attitude. Curiously enough, writers are inclined to represent t he speech of both these extreme parties with -in' for ing. On the one hand, "w e're goin' huntin', my dear sir"; on the other, "we're goin' racin' , ma te."
In between, according to this view, we have a far less fortunate group, th e anxious. These actively try to suppress what they believe to be bad English an d assiduously cultivate what they hope to be good English. They live their lives in some degree of nervousness over their grammar, their pronunciation, and thei r choice of words: sensitive, and fearful of betraying themselves. Keeping up wi th the Joneses is measured not only in houses, furniture, refrigerators, cars, a nd clothes, but also in speech.
And the misfortune of the "anxious" does not end with their inner anxiet y. Their lot is also the open or veiled contempt of the "assured" on one side of them and of the "indifferent" on the other.
It is all too easy to raise an unworthy laugh at the anxious. The people t hus uncomfortably stilted on linguistic high heels so often form part of what is, in many ways, the most admirable section of any society: the ambitious, tense, inner-driven people, who are bent on" going places and doing things". The grea te r the pity, then, if a disproportionate amount of their energy goes into what Mr Sharpless called" this shabby obsession" with variant forms of English- espe ci ally if the net result is(as so often)merely to sound affected and ridiculous. " Here", according to Bacon, "is the first distemper of learning, when men study w ords and not matter …. It seems to me that Pygmalion' s frenzy is a good emble m …of this vanity: for words axe but the images of matter; and except they have l ife of reason and invention, to fall in love with them is to fall in love with a picture."
21. The attitude held by the assured towards language is ___.
A. critical B. anxious C. self-conscious D. nonchalant
22. The anxious are considered a less fortunate group because ___.
A. they feel they are socially looked down upon
B. they suffer from internal anxiety and external attack
C. they are inherently nervous and anxious people
D. they are unable to meet standards of correctness
23. The author thinks that the efforts made by the anxious to cultivate w hat they believe is good English are ___.
A. worthwhile B. meaningless C. praiseworthy D. irrational
Fred Cooke of Salford turned 90 two days ago and the world has been beating a path to his door. If you haven't noticed, the backstreet boy educated at Bla c kpool grammar styles himself more grandly as Alastair Cooke, broadcaster extraor dinaire. An honorable KBE, he would be Sir Alastair if he had not taken American citizenship more than half a century ago.
If it sounds snobbish to draw attention to his humble origins, it should be reflected that the real snob is Cooke himself, who has spent a lifetime disguis ing them. But the fact that he opted to renounce his British passport in 1941 - just when his country needed all the wartime help it could get-is hardly a ma tter for congratulation.
Cooke has made a fortune out of his love affair with America, entrancing l isteners with a weekly monologue that has won Radio 4 many devoted adherents. Pa rt of the pull is the developed drawl. This is the man who gave the world "mida tlantic", the language of the disc jockey and public relations man.
He sounds American to us and English to them, while in reality he has for decades belonged to neither. Cooke's world is an America that exists largely in the imagination. He took ages to acknowledge the disaster that was Vietnam and e ven longer to wake up to Watergate. His politics have drifted to the right with age, and most of his opinions have been acquired on the golf course with fellow celebrities.
He chased after stars on arrival in America, Fixing up an interview with Ch arlie Chaplin and briefly becoming his friend. He told Cooke he could turn him i nto a fine light comedian; instead he is an impressionist's dream.
Cooke liked the sound of his first wife's name almost as much as he admir e d her good looks. But he found bringing up baby difficult and left her for the w ife of his landlord. Women listeners were unimpressed when, in 1996, he declared on air that th e fact that 4% of women in the American armed forces were raped showed remarkabl e self-restraint on the part of Uncle Sam's soldiers. His arrogance in not allo w ing BBC editors to see his script in advance worked, not for the first time, to his detriment. His defenders said he could not help living with the 1930s values he had acquired and somewhat dubiously went on to cite "gallantry" as chief a mo ng them. Cooke's raconteur style encouraged a whole generation of BBC men to th i nk of themselves as more important than the story. His treacly tones were the mo del for the regular World Service reports From Our Own Correspondent, known as F OOCs in the business. They may yet be his epitaph.
24. At the beginning of the passage the writer sounds critical of ___.
A. Cooke's obscure origins
B. Cooke's broadcasting style
C. Cooke's American citizenship
D. Cooke's fondness of America
25. The following adjectives can be suitably applied to Cooke EXCEPT ___.
A. old-fashioned B. sincere C. arrogant D. popular 26. The writer comments on Cooke's life and career in a slightly ___ tone.
A. ironic B. detached C. scathing D. indifferent
Mr Duffy raised his eyes from the paper and gazed out of his window on the cheerless evening landscape. The river lay quiet beside the empty distillery and from time to time a light appeared in some house on Lucan Road. What an end! Th e whole narrative of her death revolted him and it revolted him to think that he had ever spoken to her of what he held sacred. The cautious words of a reporter won over to conceal the details of a commonplace vulgar death attacked his stom ach. Not merely had she degraded herself, she had degraded him. His soul's comp a nion! He thought of the hobbling wretches whom he had seen carrying cans and bot tles to be filled by the barman. Just God, what an end! Evidently she had been u nfit to live, without any strength of purpose, an easy prey to habits, one of th e wrecks on which civilization has been reared. But that she could have sunk so low! Was it possible he had deceived himself so utterly about her? He remembered her outburst of that night and interpreted it in a harsher sense than he had ev er done. He had no difficulty now in approving of the course he had taken.
As the light failed and his memory began to wander he thought her hand tou ched his. The shock which had first attacked his stomach was now attacking his n erves. He put on his overcoat and hat quickly and went out. The cold air met him on the threshold; it crept into the sleeves of his coat. When he came to the pu blic house at Chapel Bridge he went in and ordered a hot punch.
The proprietor served him obsequiously but did not venture to talk. There were five or six working-men in the shop discussing the value of a gentleman's e state in County Kildare. They drank at intervals from their huge pint tumblers, and smoked, spitting often on the floor and sometimes dragging the sawdust over their heavy boots. Mr Duffy sat on his stool and gazed at them, without seeing o r hearing them. After a while they went out and he called for another punch. He sat a long time over it. The shop was very quiet. The proprietor sprawled on the counter reading the newspaper and yawning. Now and again a tram was heard swish ing along the lonely road outside.
As he sat there, living over his life with her and evoking alternately the two images on which he now conceived her, he realized that she was dead, that s he had ceased to exist, that she had become a memory. He began to feel ill at ea se. He asked himself what else could he have done. He could not have lived with her openly. He had done what seemed to him best. How was he to blame? Now that s he was gone he understood how lonely her life must have been, sitting night afte r night alone in that room. His life would be lonely too until he, too, died, ce ased to exist, became a memory-if anyone remembered him.
27. Mr Duffy's immediate reaction to the report of the woman's death wa s that of ___.
A. disgust B. guilt C. grief D. compassion
28. It can be inferred from the passage that the reporter wrote about the woman's death in a ___ manner.
A. detailed B. provocative C. discreet D. sens ational
29. We can infer from the last paragraph that Mr Duffy was in a(n) ___ mood.
A. angry B. fretful C. irritable D. remorseful
30. According to the passage , which of the following statements is NOT t rue?
A. Mr Duffy once confided in the woman.
B. Mr Duffy felt an intense sense of shame.
C. The woman wanted to end the relationship.
D. They became estranged probably after a quarrel.
SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING ( 10 min)
In this section there are seven passages followed by ten multiple -choice q uestions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on the Colour ed Answer Sheet.
First read the following question.
31. In the passage Bill Gates mainly discusses ___.
A. a person's opportunity of a lifetime
B. the success of the computer industry
C. the importance of education
D. high school education in the US
Now go through TEXT E quickly and answer question 31.
Hundreds of students send me e-mail each year asking for advice about educa tion. They want to know what to study, or whether it's OK to drop out of colleg e since that's what I did.
My basic advice is simple and heartfelt." Get the best education you can. Take advantage of high school and college. Learn how to learn."
It's true that I dropped out of college to start Microsoft, but I was at H a rvard for three years before dropping out-and I'd love to have the time to go b a ck. As I've said before, nobody should drop out of college unless they believe they face the opportunity of a lifetime. And even then they should reconsider.
The computer industry has lots of people who didn't finish college, but I 'm not aware of any success stories that began with somebody dropping out of high school. I actually don't know any high school dropouts, let alone any successfu l ones.
In my company's early years we had a bright part-time programmer who threa tened to drop out of high school to work full-time. We told him no.
Quite a few of our people didn't finish college, but we discourage droppin g out.
College isn't the only place where information exist. You can learn in a l i brary. But somebody handing you a book doesn't automatically foster learning. Y o u want to learn with other people, ask questions, try out ideas and have a way t o test your ability. It usually takes more than just a book.
Education should be broad, although it's fine to have deep interests, too.
In high school there were periods when I was highly focused on writing soft ware, but for most of my high school years I had wide-ranging academic interests . My parents encouraged this, and I'm grateful that they did.
One parent wrote me that her 15-year old son "lost himself in the hole of t he computer. "He got an A in Web site design, but other grades were sinking, sh e said.
This boy is making a mistake. High school and college offer you the best ch ance to learn broadly-math, history, various sciences-and to do projects with ot her kids that teach you firsthand about group dynamics. It's fine to take a dee p interest in computers, dance, language or any other discipline, but not if it j eopardizes breadth.
In college it's appropriate to think about specialization. Getting real e x pertise in an area of interest can lead to success. Graduate school is one way t o get specialized knowledge. Choosing a specialty isn't something high school s t udents should worry about. They should worry about getting a strong academic sta rt.
There's not a perfect correlation between attitudes in high school and su c cess in later life, of course. But it's a real mistake not to take the opportun i ty to learn a huge range of subjects, to learn to work with people in high schoo l, and to get the grades that will help you get into a good college.
First read the following question.
32. The passage focuses on ___.
A. the history and future of London
B. London's manufacturing skills
C. London's status as a financial centrer
D. the past and present roles of London
Now go through Text F quickly and answer question 32.
What is London for? To put the question another way, why was London, by 190 0, incomparably the largest city in the world, which it remained until the bomba rdments of the Luftwaffe? There could be many answers to this question, but any history of London will rehearse three broad explanations. One is the importance of its life as a port. When the Thames turned to ice in February 1855,50,000 men were put out of work, and there were bread riots from those whose liveliboods h ad been frozen with the river. Today, the Thames could be frozen for a year with out endangering the livelihoods of any but a few pleasure-boatmen.
The second major cause of London's wealth and success was that it was easi l y the biggest manufacturing centre in Europe. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, Dutch looms and the stocking knitting frame were first pioneered in London. The vast range of London's manufacturing skills is another fact; almos t any item you can name was manufactured in London during the days of its prosper ity. In 1851, 13.75 percent of the manufacturing work-force of Great Britain was based in London. By 1961, this had dramatically reduced. By 1993, there were a mere 328,000 Londoners engaged in manufacturing. In other words, by our own time s, two of the chief reasons for London's very existence-its life as a pert and as a centre of manufacture-had dwindled out of existence.
London's third great function, since the seventeenth century, has been tha t of national and international bourse: the exchange of stocks and shares, bankin g, commerce and, increasingly, insurance. Both In wood and Francis Sheppard, in London: A history, manage to make these potentially dry matters vivid to the gen eral reader, and both authors assure us that "The City" in the financial sense i s still as important as ever it was. Both, however, record the diminution of the City as an architectural and demographic entity, with the emptying of many city offices (since the advent of the computer much of the work can be done anywhere ) and the removal of many distinctive landmarks.
First read the following question.
33. The primary purpose of the passage is to ___.
A. discuss the impact of the internet
B. forecast the future roles of the bookstore
C. compare the publisher with the editor
D. evaluate the limitations of the printed page
Now go through TEXT G quickly and answer question 33.
Since the advent of television people have been prophesying the death of the book. Now the rise of the World Wide Web seems to have revived this smolderi ng controversy from the ashes. The very existence of paper copy has been brought into question once more. It might be the bookstore, rather than the book itself, that is on the br ink of extinction. Many of you will have noted tom of bookseller websites poppin g up. They provide lists of books and let you read sample chapters, reviews from other customers and interviews with authors.
What does all this mean? Browsing a virtual bookstore may not afford you the same dusty pleasure as browsing round a real shop, but as far as service, pr ice and convenience are concerned there is really no competition. This may chang e before long, as publishers' websites begin to offer direct access to new publ ications.
Perhaps it is actually the publisher who is endangered by the relentless advance of the Internet. There are a remarkable number of sites republishing tex ts online——an extensive virtual library of materials that used to be handled pri marily by publishing companies.
From the profusion of electronic-text sites available, it looks as if thi s virtual library is here to stay unless a proposed revision to copyright law ta kes many publications out of the public domain. However, can electronic texts st ill be considered books?
Then again, it might be the editor at risk, in danger of being cut out of the publishing process. The Web not only makes it possible for just about anyon e to publish whatever they like whenever they like-there are virtually no costs involved. The editors would then be the millions of Internet users. And there is little censor ship, either.
So possibly it is the printed page, with its many limitations, that is pe rishing as the implications of new technologies begin to be fully realized. Last year Stanford University published the equivalent of a 6,000 page Business Engl ish dictionary, online. There seem to be quite obvious benefits to housing these multi-volume reference sets on the Web. The perceived benefits for other books, such as the novel, are perhaps less obvious.
First read the following question.
34. The reviewer's attitude towards the books is ___.
A. ambiguous B. objective C. doubtful D. ho stile
Now go through TEXT H quickly and answer question 34.
The 1990s have witnessed a striking revival of the idea that liberal democr atic political system are the best basis for international peace. Western states men and scholars have witnessed worldwide process of democratization, and tend t o see it as a sounder basis for peace than anything we have had in the past.
Central to the vision of a peaceful democratic world bas been the proposit ion that liberal democracies do not fight each other; that they may and frequent ly do get into fights with illiberal states, but not with other countries that a re basically similar in their political systems. The proposition appeals to poli tical leaders and scholars as well.
Yet it is doubtful whether the proposition is strong enough to bear the va st weight of generalization that has been placed on it. Among the many difficult ies it poses, two stand out: first there are many possible exceptions to the rul e that democracies do not fight each other; and second, there is much uncertaint y about why democracies have, for the most part, not fought each other.
Liberal Peace, Liberal War: American politics and international security b y John M. Owen is an attempt to explain the twin phenomena of liberal peace (why democracies do not fight each other) and liberal war (why they fight other sta tes, sometimes with the intent of making them liberal).
Owen's analysis in the book strongly suggests that political leaders on a l l sides judged a given foreign country largely on the basis of its political sys tem; and this heavily influenced decisions on whether or not to wage war against it. However, be also shows that military factors, including calculations of the cost of going to war, were often influential in tipping the balance against war . In other words, democratic peace does not mean the end of power politics.
Owen hints at, but never addresses directly, a sinister aspect of democrat ic peace theory: its assumption that there would be peace if only everybody else was like us. This can lead only too easily to attempts to impose the favoured s ystem on benighted foreigners by force-regardless of the circumstances and sensi bilities that make the undertaking hazardous, Owen's central argument is not st r engthened by the occasional repetition nor by the remorselessly academic tone of the more theoretical chapters. However, most of the writing is succinct; the hi storical accounts are clear and to the point; and the investigation of the causa l links between liberalism and war is admirably thorough.
There are several grounds on which the book's thesis might be criticized. The most obvious is that some twentieth-century experience goes against the argu ment that liberal states ally with others, above all, because they perceive them as fellow liberals. In our own time, several liberal democracies have maintaine d long and close relations with autocracies. However, Owen's argument for a deg r ee of solidarity between liberal states provides at least part of the explanatio n for the continuation and even expansion of NATO in the post-Cold War era.
First read the following questions.
35. In ___, the table of contents of the magazine was placed on its back cover.
A. 1922 B. 1948 C. the 1930s D. the 1960s
36. The magazine was criticized for failing to ___.
A. appeal to the young B. attract old people C. interest readers aged 47 D. captivate rea ders in their 50s
Now go through TEXT I quickly and answer questions 35 and 36.
New York-Reader's Digest, the most widely read magazine in the world, will get a new look in a bid to attract younger readers, Reader' Digest Association Inc. announced on March 29. Beginning with the May issue, the world's largest- circulation magazine will move its table of contents off the front cover to mode rnize its look and make it easier for readers to navigate, editor in chief Chris top her Willcox said. "When you have the table of contents on the cover, it limits w hat you can say about what's in the magazine, "Willcox said. The magazine's f ami liar table of contents will be replaced with a photograph. The small size and fo cus of the editorial content will be unchanged, publisher Gregory Coleman said. "It will be a much more visual magazine, with more photography and less illustr ation," he said in an interview.
Reader's digest was first published in 1922, with line drawings on the c o vers, and in the 1930s began listing the contents on the front. For a couple of years in the 1960s, Willcox said,the table of contents was shifted to the back c over. The May issue will feature a cover photo of a woman firefighter in San Fra ncisco for an except from a new book," Fighting Fire. "The names of a few arti cl es are listed on the cover, but the full table of contents will be on papes 2 an d 3. The issue began reaching subscribers on April 10 and will be on newsstands two weeks later. All 48 of the Digest's worldwide editions-27 million copies in 19 languages-are making the change. Publisher Gregory Coleman said he expe cted the redesign to boost advertising sales. "We've done a lot of research, a nd have tested the concept in the US, Sweden, and New Zealand," Coleman said.
The move comes as Reader's Digest Association Inc. has struggled to boost profits. But industry analysts said its problems stretch beyond changes that wer e needed at the magazine. Publishing industry executives and Wall Street analyst s have criticized the magazine for failing to attract the next generation of rea ders. The company says its average reader is about 47,the same as the age for th e weekly new magazines, "They've been looking for ways to make the magazine a li ttle bit more the '90s than the '50s," said Doug Arthur at Morgan Stanley Dea n W itter & Co. "The company has to be addressing the response rate on its direct m a rketing campaign, "where its main problems lie. The company earned USD 133.5 mi l lion on sales of USD 2.8 billion in the year which ended last June. But it said, when it reported results, that profits would fall in the current year.
In answer to a question, Coleman said the redesign was not done because of advertisers, although they were enthusiastic about the changes. "This is being done from a reader-driven standpoint, "he said.
First read the following questions.
37. Words in both the OWF and Longman Activator are ___.
A. listed according to alphabetical order
B. listed according to use frequency
C. grouped according to similarities only
D. grouped according to differences only
38. To know the correct word for "boiling with a low heat", you will pr obably turn to first ___.
A. page 10 B. page 99 C. page 100 D. page 448
Now go through TEXT J quickly and answer questions 37 and 38.
The Oxford Wordfinder (OWF)is a "production dictionary" designed for learn er s of English at Intermediate level and above, It is a useful tool with which to discover and encode (produce) meaning, rather than just to simply check the mean ing, grammar and pronunciation of words. The OWF encourages a reversal of the tr aditional role of the language learners' dictionary, which is normally to help decode and explain aspects of words that appear in a text.
The OWF is based upon similar lines to the ground breaking Longman Activato r in that words in each dictionary are not simply listed in alphabetical order. Instead, they are grouped according to their similarities and differences in bot h meaning and use. Twenty-three main groups of 630 "keywords" (concepts) in al ph abetical order, assist the learner in exploring semantic areas such as: "People " , "Food and drink", and "Language and Communication". Each of these rather l arge areas contains cross-referencing in order to provide further helpful lexical in formation. Some of the keywords helpfully direct the learner to another keyword. Most keywords, however, have an index that shows how lexical items and their re lated terms are organized. Other keywords point to smaller sub-section headings whilst a few contain sections labeled "More", which deal with less frequently occurring vocabulary.
The majority of words in the OWF are grouped together because they are clea rly related in meaning. Examples include: rucksack, "suitcase", trunk and hol d- all, on page 28, under the keyword "Bag". Other words are grouped together bec au se statistically they tend to "collocate", i.e. appear in English very near, i f not next to each other. The reader would, more often than not, find them in the same sentence or phrase. Examples include those for "butter", "spread" and "melt ", and those for Television on page 448: "watching", "turn on/off" and "pr ogramme".
The OWF is an ideal supplementary resource for learners to engage in word-b uilding activities during topic based lessons. How is it best used? Let's say t h e learner wishes to know the correct word for "boiling with a low heat". The i nt ermediate learner, who will probably begin her search under "Cook" on page 99, l ocates the sub-section: "heating food in order to cook it" on page 100,then th e further sub-section "cooking food in water" and finally finds the definition f ol lowed by the word:-to boil slowly and gently: simmer. With the help of the OWF teachers could design a variety of such vocabulary exercises for a class, or eve n go on to designing a vocabulary-based syllabus.
Definitions in the OWF are, as with all good dictionaries, concise but cle ar. They are obviously written according to a controlled defining vocabulary. Li nguistic varieties are also taken into consideration: formal/in formal labels ar e provided and, where it occurs, American English (AmE) is pointed out, e. g. fo r alcohol, liquor in AmE on page 10. The OWF also contains many drawings that ou tline meaning where words could not possibly do so or would require too much spa ce. Items chosen for inclusion in the OWF, along with example phrases outlining meaning are, it is assumed, based on evidence of frequency from a carefully cons tructed linguistic corpus, although this is not made clear.
First read the following questions.
39. Students who wish to take courses in Dutch or French ___.
A. should pass the TOEFL test first
B. must speak Dutch or French fluently
C. may receive language training
D. must have a good command of English
40. Belgian universities do NOT offer courses on ___.
A. medical sciences
B. computer science
C. political and social sciences
D. archaeology and art sciences
Now go through TEXT K quickly and answer questions 39 and 40.
To qualify to study in Belgium, it is essential to meet relevant requireme nts in (1) academic credentials, (2)linguistic skills, (3) academic objectives and (4) financial resources. Let us review these four points:
1. Academic credentials
Equivalence and admissibility of degrees will be assessed according to Belgian l aw and individual university regulations. Please submit a copy of your degree wi th a translation to the chosen university's admission board.
2. Language skills
Chinese students who wish to follow courses in Dutch or French must realize that a superficial knowledge of the language will not do. The ability to speak Dutch or French is imperative in order to follow lectures and to pass examinations. A preparatory year of language instruction is available in some universities for already enrolled students. Please apply for information at the university of you r choice. Students who wish to attend lectures in English (post-academic trainin g international courses)must of course have a good command of that language. Uni versities will inform you about their individual TOEFL requirements.
Belgian universities offer basic academic courses, advance academic training cou rses, doctoral programmes, post-academic training and various international stud y programmes (Master's) in the field of technology, law, economics and applied e conomics, political and social sciences, dentistry, pharmaceutical sciences, lan guage and literature/history, archaeology and art sciences, psychology and educa tional sciences, medical sciences, engineering and applied biological sciences.
Although precise determination of study and living expenses depends on individua l life style, one can assess that about 350,000 Belgian Francs (BEF)( about 88,0 00 RMB) is necessary for one year's study. This amount should include books, ho u sing, food, transport, and health insurance. It does not include registration fe es which can vary from about 25,000 BEF for a student under scholarship to 290,0 00 BEF for a self-financing student, according to the chosen study program.
试卷二 (120 min)
Part Ⅳ Translation (60 min)
SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH
Translate the following underlined part of the text into English. Write your tra nslation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
中国科技馆的诞生来之不易。与国际著名科技馆和其他博物馆相比，它先天有些不足， 后天也常缺乏营养，但是它成长的步伐却是坚实而有力的。它在国际上已被公认为后起之秀 。
世界上第一代博物馆属于自然博物馆，它是通过化石、标本等向人们介绍地球和各种生 物的演化历史。第二代属于工业技术博物馆，它所展示的是工业文明带来的各种阶段性结果 。这两代博物馆虽然起到了传播科学知识的作用，但是，它们把参观者当成了被动的旁观者 。
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SH EET THREE.
If people mean anything at all by the expression "untimely death", they m us t believe that some deaths nm on a better schedule than others. Death in old age is rarely called untimely-a long life is thought to be a full one. But with th e passing of a young person, one assumes that the best years lay ahead and the m easure of that life was still to be taken.
History denies this, of course. Among prominent summer deaths, one recalls those of MariLarry Monroe and James Deans, whose lives seemed equally brief and co mplete. Writers cannot bear the fact that poet John Keats died at 26, and only h alf playfully judge their own lives as failures when they pass that year. The id ea that the life cut short is unfulfilled is illogical because lives are measure d by the impressions they leave on the world and by their intensity and virtue.
Part Ⅴ Writing (60 min)
Some people simply see education as going to schools or colleges, or as a m eans to secure good jobs; most people view education as a lifelong process. In y our opinion, how important is education to modem man?
Write a composition of about 300 words on the following topic:
EDUCATION AS A LIFELONG PROCESS
In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement, and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate deta ils. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclu sion or a summary.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failur e to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
Write your composition on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.