The aim of the teacher is to get his pupils as quickly as possible over the period in which each printed symbol is looked at for its shape, and arrive at the stage when the pupil looks at words a phrases, for their meaning, almost without noticing the shapes of these separate letters.
When a good reader is at work, he does not look at letters, nor even at words, one by or however quickly; he takes in the meaning of two, three, or four words at a time, in a single moment. Watch carefully the eyes of a person who is reading, and it will be seen that they do not travel smoothly along the lines of print, but they move by jumps separated by very short stops. The eyes a very good reader move quickly, taking long jumps and making very short halts (停顿 ); the eyes of a poor reader move more slowly, taking only short jumps and stopping longer at each halt. Some times, when he meets a difficulty, he even goes backwards to see again what has already be looked at once.
The teacher ' 9 task is therefore clear: it is to train his pupils to take in several words at a glance (one "eye jump") and remove the necessity forgoing backwards to read something a second time.
This shows at once that letter-by-letter, or syllable-by-syllable (音节) , or word-by-word reading, with the finger pointing to the word, carefully fixing each one in turn, is wrong. It is wrong because such a method ties the pupil' s eye down to a very short jump. Moreover, a very. short jump too short to provide any meaning or sense; and it will be found that having struggled with three four words separately, the pupil has to look at them again, all together and in one group, in order get the meaning of the whole phrase.
56. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the first paragraph?
[ A ] Pupils should be trained to reach quickly the stage of reading without having to
concentrate on the separate symbols.
[B] Pupils should look at each printed symbol for its meaning as well as for its shape.
[ C ] Teachers should help their pupils avoid looking at the shape of the printed symbols.
[D] Teachers should tell their pupils the different stages of their study.
57. In a single moment, a good reader picks up_________.
[ A ] several words [ B ] several phrases
[ C ] several sentences [ D ] several lines
58. According to the passage, which of the following is FALSE?
[A] The eyes of a good reader make short halts and long jumps.
[ B] The eyes of a bad reader take in the meaning of one word at a time.
[ C] The eyes of a bad reader take only short jumps.
[D] The eyes of a good reader move steadily.
59. One may have to read something a second time if_________.
[ A ] there is enough time [ B ] one reads too fast
[ C ] the passage is very long [D] one reads word by word
60. The main idea of the last paragraph is that _________.
[A] word-by-word reading is highly inefficient
[ B ] the pupil ' s eyes should focus on groups of syllables instead of single syllables
[ C ] pupils have to move their eyes back and forth when reading
[D] finger-pointing in reading helps the pupil concentrate on meaning
Read the following article in which five people talk about their ideas of marriage. For questions 61 to 65 , match name of each speaker to one of the statements (A to G) given below. Mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
Sometimes I think that successful marriages are an endangered societal species. It seems as though every time I turn around, another couple I know is getting divorced. It' s a shame because marriage is very important. I believe that if people put more effort into making their marriages work, there would be fewer divorces. Marriage takes certain qualities to make it a success, such as responsibility and a sense of humor. If partners all understand this, more happy marriages will be maintained.
One thing I think that is important to successful marriage is that you should not always think of yourself. My husband and I have stayed happily for about ten years. He makes me want to do things for him because of his generous nature. I know there are many times he would rather be reading, relaxing , or working on the car, but he only does something for himself when all the household chores are done and the kids have been taken care of. In return, I bake him all his favorite home-made cakes and cookies and try to go out of my way to do special things for him. I feel very fortunate to have married him.
My husband is my best friend, with whom I share most of my thought. We find it easy to talk about most things, so we don ' t have many secrets from each other. When my mother makes him upset , he tells me about it. Things like that are easier to deal with when they ' re out in the open than when they're kept inside. Thus, we have a very open, comfortable relationship.
I feel sorry for what my divorced friends have lost. No matter how earnestly the former spouses try to "keep in touch", no matter how generous the visiting privileges for the parent who does not win custody of the children, the continuity of their lives has been broken. The years they spent together have been cut off from the rest of their lives; they are an isolated memory, no more integral to their past than a snapshot.
The very first trick to a happy marriage is to be a person of yourself who does not imagine a husband is necessary to make you magically complete. Successful partnerships are not between those who cannot live without each other, but between those who can live with each other. There is no room even in daydreams for the stupid idea that there is on earth only one mate intended for another.
Now match each of the persons to the appropriate statement.
Note: there are two extra statements.
61. Lisa [A] Being unselfish is very important to make a marriage work.
62. Wendy [B] Becoming a person of independence and pride leads to
[C] Being able to communicate makes our marriage happy.
[D] Divorced people will live an incomplete life.
[E] Marriage is the result of extended love.
[F] Divorce results from a lack of responsibility.
65. Keller [G] Divorces can be avoided.
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