您的位置:外语教育网 > 英语文化视窗 > 文学与艺术 > 诗歌 正文
  • 站内搜索:


2005-07-13 10:11

  三、 诗的体式


  1. 十四行诗 (Sonnet),源于中世纪民间抒情短诗,十三、十四世纪流行于意大利,意大利彼特拉克(Petrarch)为代表人物,每行十一个音节,全诗一节八行,加一节六行,韵脚用abba, abba, cdcdcd (cdecde)。前八行提问,后六行回答。

  后来,怀亚特(Thomas Wyatt,1503-1542)将十四行诗引人英国,五音步抑扬格,全诗三个四行一个二行,前三节提问,后二句结论。斯宾塞(Edmund Spenser,1552-1599)用韵脚 abab, bcbc,cdcd,ee.莎士比亚(William Shakespeare,1564-1616)用韵脚abab,cdcd,dfdf,gg,称英国式或莎士比亚式。举例见本文第四部分。

  2. 打油诗(Limericks):通常是小笑话甚至是胡诌,一般没有标题也无作者姓名,含有幽默讽刺性,常运用双关,内韵等手法。每首诗五个诗行,押韵为aabba,格律以抑扬格和抑抑扬格为主。

  1) There was a young lady of Nigger

  Who smiled as she rode on a tiger;

  They returned from the ride

  With the lady inside,

  And the smile on the face of the tiger.

  2) A tutor who taught on the flute

  Tried to teach two tooters to toot,

  “Is it harder to toot, or

  Said the two to the tutor,

  To tutor two tooters to toot?“

  3. 无韵体(Blank Verse):五音步抑扬格,不押韵诗体。

  Across the watery bale , and shout again,

  Responsive to his call, - with quivering peals,

  And long halloos, and screams, and echoes loud.

  Redoubled and redoubled:concourse wild

  Of jocund din!…

  William Wordsworth: There Was a Boy

  4. 自由诗(Free Verse):现代诗中常见的体式,长短不同的诗行存在于同一首诗中,不讲究押韵与格律,只注重诗歌所表达的意象和传递的情感。美国诗人Walt Whitman的>(Leaves of Grass)中,就采用此格式。例子见第四部分。

  四、 诗的评判



  1. That Time of Year

  That time of year thou may‘st in me behold

  When yellow leaves,or none,or few, do hang

  Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,

  Bare ruined choirs where late the sweet birds sang,

  In me thou see‘st the twilight of such day

  As after sunset fadeth in the west,

  When by and by black night doth take away,

  Death‘s second self, that seals up all in rest.

  In me thou see‘st the glowing of such fire,

  That on the ashes of his youth doth lie.

  As the deathbed whereon it must expire,

  Consumed with that which it was nourished by.

  This you perceivest, which makes thy love more strong,

  To love that well which thou must leave ere long.

  Notes:may‘st:may behold:see late:no long ago thou:you see’st:see

  fadeth:fades doth:does seals up all at rest:彻底埋葬

  thy:your perceivest: perceive ere long: before long

  此诗是莎士比亚(William Shakespeare, 1564-1616)的一首十四行诗。作为英国文学巨匠,他以37部剧作和154首十四行诗屹立于世界文坛。



  2. The Daffodils

  I wandered lonely as a cloud

  That floats on high o‘er vales and hills,

  When all at once I saw a crowd,

  A host of golden daffodils;

  Beside the lake, beneath the trees,

  Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.

  Continuous as the stars that shine

  And twinkle on the Milky Way,

  They stretched in never-ending line

  Along the margin of a bay:

  Ten thousand saw I at a glance,

  Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.

  The waves beside them danced; but they

  Outdid the sparkling waves in glee:

  A poet could not but be gay,

  In such a jocund company:

  I gazed - and gazed - but little thought

  What wealth the show to me had brought:

  For oft, when on my couch I lie

  In vacant or in pensive mood,

  They flash upon that inward eye

  Which is the bliss of solitude;

  Ans then my heart with pleasure fills,

  And dances with the daffodils.

  Notes: a crowd, a host of: many sprightly:happy glee:joy

  jocund:happy bliss:complete happiness pensive:sadly thoughtful

  华兹华斯(William Wordsworth,1770-1850),十九世纪初英格兰北部湖区三大“湖畔派诗人”(浪漫主义)之一。此诗向我们描绘了一幅美好的自然景象,同时抒发作者对自然美景的喜欢。黄水仙据说是威尔士国花(1282年,威尔士归顺英格兰,被封公国),在英国广泛栽种,春季开花,花期不长。有许多关于黄水仙的诗歌,这首诗无疑是脱颖而出的。


  3. Song of Myself

  I celebrate myself, and sing myself,

  And what I assume you shall assume,

  For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you.

  I loafe and invite my soul,

  I learn and loafe at my ease observing a spear of summer grass.

  My tongue, every atom of my blood, form‘d from this soil, this air,

  Born ere of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same,

  I, now thirty seven years old in perfect health begin,

  Hoping to cease not till death.

  Creeds and schools in abeyance,

  Retiring back a while sufficed at what they are, but never forgotten.

  I harbor for good or bad, I permit to speak at every hazard.

  Nature without check with original energy.

  Notes: a spear of: a piece of school:学说,流派 hazard:chance

  abeyance: the condition of not being in use for a certain time

  惠特曼(Walt Whitman,1819-1892),美国诗人。此诗选自其巨著。本文是Song of Myself 一诗的第一部分,采用自由诗体,语言接近当时的美国口语。



相关热词:诗歌 欣赏
科目名称 主讲老师 课时 免费试听 优惠价 购买课程
英语零起点 郭俊霞 30课时 试听 150元/门 购买
综艺乐园 ------ 15课时 试听 100元/门 购买
边玩边学 ------ 10课时 试听 60元/门 购买
情景喜剧 ------ 15课时 试听 100元/门 购买
欢乐课堂 ------ 35课时 试听 150元/门 购买
趣味英语速成 钟 平 18课时 试听 179元/门 购买
剑桥少儿英语预备级 (Pre-Starters) ------ ------ 试听 200元/门 购买
剑桥少儿英语一级 (Starters) ------ ------ 试听 200元/门 购买
剑桥少儿英语二级 (Movers) ------ ------ 试听 200元/门 购买
剑桥少儿英语三级 (Flyers) ------ ------ 试听 200元/门 购买
初级英语口语 ------ 55课时 ------ 350元/门 购买
中级英语口语 ------ 83课时 ------ 350元/门 购买
高级英语口语 ------ 122课时 ------ 350元/门 购买
郭俊霞 北京语言大学毕业,国内某知名中学英语教研组长,教学标兵……详情>>
钟平 北大才俊,英语辅导专家,累计从事英语教学八年,机械化翻译公式发明人……详情>>

  1、凡本网注明 “来源:外语教育网”的所有作品,版权均属外语教育网所有,未经本网授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式使用;已经本网授权的,应在授权范围内使用,且必须注明“来源:外语教育网”。违反上述声明者,本网将追究其法律责任。