7 情态动词+ have +过去分词
1） may（might） have + done sth， can （could） have + done sth 表示过去，推测过去时间里可能发生的事情。
Philip may （might） have been hurt seriously in the car accident.
Philip can （could） have been hurt seriously in the car accident.
2） must have +done sth，对过去时间里可能发生的事情的推测，语气较强，具有“肯定”，“谅必”的意思。
- Linda has gone to work， but her bicycle is still here.
-She must have gone by bus.
3） ought to have done sth， should have done sth
You ought to （should） have been more careful in this experiment.
He ought not to have thrown the old clothes away.（事实上已扔了。）
ought to 在语气上比should 要强。
4） needn't have done sth 本没必要做某事
I dressed very warmly for the trip，but I needn't have done so. The weather was hot.
5） would like to have done sth 本打算做某事
I would like to have read the article，but I was very busy then.
8 should 和ought to
should 和ought to 都为“应该”的意思，可用于各种人称。
-Ought he to go？
-Yes. I think he ought to.
表示要求，命令时，语气由 should（应该）、had better最好）、must（必须）渐强。