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2006考研英语单词易混词辨析

2005-8-10 14:10  
  1.adherence和adhesion

  这两个词都是“粘附的”意思。

  adherence用于比喻的意思。例如:His adherence to the strict letter of the law.

  adhesion是指物质上的。

  2. adjacent,adjoining,和contiguous

  这些词都有next to“紧挨”的意思。

  adjacent“毗邻的,邻近的”,但它们可能并不相互直接接触。

  adjoining和contiguous指相互接触,通常之间有一个edge或boundary.

  3.admission和admittance

  它们都有“the act of entering”的意思。

  但admission用于公共场合。

  The price of admission to the gallery is£5.

  admittance不指公共场合,一般指私人的住所。

  4. adopted和adoptive

  adopted“收养的,过继的”

  an adopted son(daughter)养子(女);my adopted country我所入籍的国家;adopted words外来语。

  adoptive“收养的”,我们说adoptive parents,但很少说adoptive child;

  “采用的”,“假冒的”an adoptive courage假充勇敢。

  5.averse和adverse

  adverse“不利的,反对的”,用于事,不用于人。adverse weather conditions;an adverse reaction.

  averse“嫌恶的,反对的,不乐意的”,常和“to”一起使用,而且用否定形式。

  6.advise和advice

  advise“劝告”(动词);advice“劝告”(名词)。

  7.affect和effect

  affect“影响”vt.,它的第二个意思是“假装”,Though she affected indifference,I knew she was really very upset.

  effect n.“结果”,“效力”。vt.“产生”,“导致”,它比“to cause,to bring out”更为正式。His aim was to effect a radical change in the party structure.

  8.all ready和already

  all ready意思是“completely prepared”

  already“已经”。He had already had his lunch.

  9.altogether和all together

  altogether(in total)“总共”

  all together意思是“in a group”。如:We put the sheep all together in one field.这两个词还可以分开。We put all the sheep together in one field.

  10. allude和elude

  allude“暗指”,“暗示”,“(婉转)提到”。

  elude(to avoid or escape)“闪避,躲避”。如:to elude sb.'s grasp逃脱,没有被逮住;to elude the law规避法律。The meaning eludes me.那个意义我摸不透。

  11.illusion和delusion

  illusion“幻觉,错觉”be under no illusion about sth.对某事不存幻想。

  delusion“欺骗,迷惑”He suffers from the delusion that he's attractive to women.他糊里糊涂地认为自己对女人很有吸引力。

  12.amended和emend

  amended(to alter or add to something)“订正,改正”,“修正(议案等)”。an amended bill修正案;amend one's ways改过自新。

  emend(to correct errors in)“校订”。emend the text of a book校勘某书;He emended the typescript before sending it to the printers.在交付印刷之前他校正文稿。

  13.amicable和amiable

  这两个词都是指“友好的”意思。

  amicable“友好的,亲切的”指行为或情景。The discussions were amicable,though business like.讨论虽然是商业形式,但也是友好的。

  amiable“可爱的,和蔼可亲的”多用于修饰人。Many people are afraid of him,though I found him to be perfectly amiable.虽然我发现他特别和蔼可亲,但还是有很多人害怕他。

  14.assent和ascent

  assent可用作“agreement”“同意”或“agree”“同意”。

  ascent n.“上升,晋升”。the ascent of mountain登山。

  15.avert和avoid

  avert“防止,避免”。

  avoid“回避,逃避”。avoid bad company避免和坏人来往;I cannot avoid seeing him.我不能不见他。

  16.besides和beside

  besides意思是“in addition to”“加之,还有,另外”;而beside“在……旁边”,“在……一侧”。Duncan is the tall man standing beside my father.站在我爸爸旁边的高个子男子是邓肯。

  17.coherence和cohesion

  coherence“统一,一致性”;cohesion“结合力,团结”。the cohesion of molecules分子的结合力。

  18. compare with和compare to

  compare with“和……比起来”

  compare to“好比”。He compared the moon to a silver plate.他把月亮比成一个大银盘。

  19.impel和compel

  impel“推动,驱使,激励”。impel sb. to do sth.激励某人做某事;

  compel“强迫,胁迫,迫使”。compel sb. to one‘s will强迫人服从自己。

  20.complement和compliment

  complement“补足(物),补全”,“补足语”。

  compliment“恭维话,赞辞,敬意”;Your presence is a great compliment.承蒙光临,不胜荣幸。

  21.confident和confidant

  confident“深信,确信,自信”。

  confidant“心腹朋友”。She has no close confidant to whom she can turn for advice or help.她没有知心朋友来帮助或是劝告她。

  22.continual和continuous

  continual“连续,继续”:“频繁的”;continual bouts of toothache一阵接一阵的牙痛。(这中间可能有停顿或间断。)

  continuous“连续”(指从不间断的);We've had three weeks of continuous rain.我们这里连续三周下雨不停。

  23.might和could

  might表明“possibility”。

  could用来表明“permission”。Mum said we could(might)go to the football match.

  24.council和counsel

  council“议事机构”,委员会;a cabinet council内阁会议。

  counsel“商议,劝告”;follow sb.'s counsel close牢记某人忠告。

  25.creditable和credible

  creditable“声誉好的,可称许(赞扬)的”;credible“可信的,可靠的”He's the only one without a credible alibi(辩解,托辞)。他是唯一一个没有可信托辞的人。

  26.decisive和decided

  decisive“果断的,断然的”;decisive measures断然的措施。

  decided“明确的,无疑的”;a decided success明显的成功。

  27.defective和deficient

  defective(having a fault or flaw)“有缺陷的”。

  deficient(lacking in what is needed)“不足的”;be deficient in欠缺。

  28.definite和definitive

  definite(certain or clear,not vague)“明确的,一定的”。

  definitive(authoritative,that cannot be improved)“限定的,决定性的,最后的”;definitive host宿主;definitive organs定形器官;definitive sentence最后判决。

  29.dependant和dependent

  dependant n.(one who depends on another for support)受赡养者。

  dependent adj.“依靠的,依赖的”;He's still dependent on state benefit. The rate of relief is dependent on one's income.

  30.discreet和discrete

  discreet“考虑周到的,慎重的”。

  discrete“分离的,分裂的”;On closer examination,we find that the pattern is formed from thousands of discrete dots of colours.

  31.distinctive和distinct

  distinctive“有特色的”,“独特的”;

  distinct“清楚的,明显的”;a distinct smell of alcohol on his breath;the distinctive stripes of the zebra.

  32.dual和duel

  dual“二重的”;dual personality双重人格;dual control双重管辖;

  duel“决斗,竞争”;fight a duel with sb.与某人决斗;challenge sb. to a duel向某人提出决斗;a duel of wits斗智

  33.eatable和edible

  eatable a.“可食用的,可吃的”;n.[pl.]“食物、食品”。

  edible a.“适合食用的,可以吃的”;n.[pl.]“食品”。

  在指吃的时候二者可通用:The toast was burnt and barely eatable/edible.但在其他情况下不一样。If something is eatable,it may be eaten(though it may not be safe or desirable to do so);but,if something is edible it is safe to eat.

  34.economical和economic

  economic“经济学的,经济上的”an economic survey of Scotland苏格兰经济调查;an economic blockade经济封锁;economical“节俭的,经济的”;He's had to learn to be more economical now that his only income is a small pension.

  35.evoke和invoke

  evoke“唤起,引起”;evoke admiration引起羡慕。

  invoke“祈求(神灵)保佑,乞灵于”,行使(法权);The shaman invokes the spirits of their ancestors. If our case fails in the national courts we will invoke the European Declaration on Human Rights.

  36.fatal和fateful

  fatal“causing death or disaster”“致命的”;a fatal disease不治之症;a fatal wound致命伤。

  fateful“crucial,significant,deciding one's fate”“重大的”,“决定性的,决定命运的”;On that one fateful day in October,millions of pounds were wiped off the value of shares.

  37.fictional和fictitious

  fictional“虚构的,小说的”。

  fictitious“虚构的,编造的”(denotes something that is not real and has been created with the intention of deceiving others);He gave the police a fictitious name.

  38.historical和historic

  historical“有关历史的”,“历史的”,the historical period历史阶段;historical personage历史人物。

  historic“历史上有名的,有历史意义的”,historic town历史名城。

  39.impassable和impassible

  impassable“不能通行的”,“不可逾越的”;an impassable swamp不能通行的沼泽地。

  impassible“不感疼痛的;无动于衷的”;an impassible God无动于衷的神。

  40.infer和imply

  infer“猜想,臆测”,“推断”;infer a motive from an effect从效果推知动机。

  imply“含有……的意思”;Do you realize what his words imply?你领会他说话的含意吗?I do not imply that you are wrong.我的意思不是说你错了。

  41.impractical和impracticable

  impractical(not sensible or efficient or not actually possible)“不切实际的,不现实的”。

  impracticable(not able to be done or used)“不能实行的,行不通的”;With a river on one side and a steep drop on the other,it is impracticable to widen the road.

  42.incredible和incredulous

  incredible“不可相信的,难以置信的”;incredible energy惊人的能量,精力。

  incredulous“不相信的,表示怀疑的”;be incredulous of hearsay不相信道听途说;an incredulous look怀疑的目光。

  43.ingenious和ingenuos

  ingenious“机灵的”;an ingenious mind机灵的头脑;an ingenious machine精巧的机器。

  ingenuous“直率的,坦白的”。

  44.intense和intensive

  intense“激烈的,强烈的”,“紧张的”an intense light强烈的灯光;intense heat酷热;an intense life奋发图强的生活。

  intensive“加强的,集中的”:“深入细致的,彻底的”;an intensive bombardment密集炮击;an intensive study彻底的研究;an intensive reading精读(opp. extensive reading泛读)。

  45.junction和juncture

  junction“接合,连接”,“(河流的)汇合处”;make a junction取得联络,连接起来junction box接线盒。

  juncture(a particular point in time or in a sequence of events)“接合,连接”,“时机,关头”;an important juncture in a man's career人生历程中的重要关头;at this juncture在这个时候;in the present critical juncture of things在目前这一危急关头下。

  46.apt和prone

  它们都具有“tending to or in the habit of”的意思,但是prone只用于人。Elderly people are prone to falls,often because of arthritic joints or dizziness.

  47.loose和lose

  loose“松的,宽的”。

  lose“丢失”;lose one's balance失去平衡,跌倒;lose one's head被搞糊涂。

  48.luxuriant和luxurious

  luxuriant(growing strongly or vigorously;abundant,prolific)“繁茂的;多产的;丰富的”;

  His luxuriant beard was red.

  luxurious“豪华的,奢侈的”;a luxurious table奢侈的饭菜。

  49.magical和magic

  它们都和magic有关系,但是magical也有“wonderful,entrancing”的意思。

  50.masterly和masterful

  masterly(showing great skill or the skill of a master)“熟练的;名家的”。

  masterful(showing power or authority)“主人派头的,专横的”;You're so strong and masterful.

  51.obsolete和obsolescent

  obsolete(no longer in use or already out of date)“已废弃的,已不用的”;an obsolete vessel废舰;an obsolete word已废的词。

  obsolescent(going out of use or becoming out of date)“逐渐被废弃的,快要不用的”;Do you think that faxes are obsolescent?

  52. officious和official

  officious“爱管闲事的”,“非正式的”;an officious statement非正式声明。

  official“官方的”,“公务上的”;an official gazette官方通报;an official letter公函,公文;an official record正式记录

  53.peaceable和peaceful

  peaceable(peaceloving,mild,placid,not inclined to quarrel or fight or existing in peace)“平和的”:“温和的”:“温顺的”。

  peaceful“和平的,太平的”:“宁静的”:“爱好和平的”;a peaceful night's sleep;

  peaceful coexistence和平共处;peaceful uses of atomic energy原子能的和平应用。

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