compulsory licensing — For patents: when the authorities license companies or individuals other than the patent owner to use the rights of the patent — to make, use, sell or import a product under patent（i.e. a patented product or a product made by a patented process）— without the permission of the patent owner. Allowed under the TRIPS Agreement provided certain procedures and conditions are fulfilled. See also government use.
counterfeit — Unauthorized representation of a registered trademark carried on goods identical or similar to goods for which the trademark is registered, with a view to deceiving the purchaser into believing that he/she is buying the original goods.
exhaustion — The principle that once a product has been sold on a market, the intellectual property owner no longer has any rights over it.（A debate among WTO member governments is whether this applies to products put on the market under compulsory licences.）Countries' laws vary as to whether the right continues to be exhausted if the product is imported from one market into another, which affects the owner’s rights over trade in the protected product. See also parallel imports.