IPRs — Intellectual property rights.
Lisbon Agreement — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the protection of geographical indications and their international registration.
Madrid Agreement — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the repression of false or deceptive indications of source on goods.
mailbox — Refers to the requirement of the TRIPS Agreement applying to WTO members which do not yet provide product patent protection for pharmaceuticals and for agricultural chemicals. Since 1 January 1995, when the WTO agreements entered into force, these countries have to establish a means by which applications of patents for these products can be filed. （An additional requirement says they must also put in place a system for granting “exclusive marketing rights” for the products whose patent applications have been filed.）