tariffs — Customs duties on merchandise imports. Levied either on an ad valorem basis（percentage of value）or on a specific basis （e.g. $7 per 100 kgs.）. Tariffs give price advantage to similar locally-produced goods and raise revenues for the government.
WCO — World Customs Organization, a multilateral body located in Brussels through which participating countries seek to simplify and rationalize customs procedures.
anti-dumping duties — Article VI of the GATT 1994 permits the imposition of anti-dumping duties against dumped goods, equal to the difference between their export price and their normal value, if dumping causes injury to producers of competing products in the importing country.
circumvention — Measures taken by exporters to evade anti-dumping or countervailing duties.