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GRE北美试题13

2006-01-23 00:00

    1. Even though six players had been injured, the coach announced to the assembled reporters that the team would ---- the championship.

    (A) ignore

    (B) win

    (C) overcome

    (D) demand

    (E) refuse

    2. Although Jungius detected Galileo's ---- in thinking that the curve assumed by a chain hanging freely between two supports was a parabola, he did not ---- what the true form might be.

    (A) wisdom.. question

    (B) rationale.. prove

    (C) error.. discover

    (D) sincerity.. conceal

    (E) ingenuity.. understand

    3. Perhaps----, since an ability to communicate effectively is an important trait of any great leader, it has been the ---- Presidents who have delivered the most notable inaugural addresses.

    (A) predictably.. exceptional

    (B) invariable.. famous

    (C) undeniably.. indomitable

    (D) reciprocally.. traditionalist

    (E) impractically.. influential

    4. Her remarkable----, which first became apparent when she repeatedly defeated the older children at school, eventually earned for her some---- rewards, including a full athletic scholarship and several first-place trophies.

    (A) sportsmanship.. academic

    (B) agility.. monetary

    (C) modesty.. unanticipated

    (D) speed.. tangible

    (E) patience.. well-deserved

    5. An example of an illegitimate method of argument is to lump----cases together deliberately under the ---- that the same principles apply to each.

    (A) unsuitable.. impression

    (B) disputable.. stipulation

    (C) irrelevant.. assumption

    (D) dissimilar.. pretense

    (E) indeterminate.. rationale

    6. The ---- of her career was her achievement of her greatest intellectual authority at the very moment when she was ---- of a compelling subject.

    (A) irony.. assured

    (B) dilemma.. certain

    (C) enigma.. cognizant

    (D) paradox.. bereft

    (E) epitome.. despairing

    7. Although ordinarily skeptical about the purity of Robinson's motives, in this instance Jenkins did not consider Robinson's generosity to be

  ---- consideration of personal gain.

    (A) lacking in

    (B) contrary to

    (C) alloyed with

    (D) mitigated by

    (E) repudiated by

    8. GALLEY: SHIP::

    (A) entry: restaurant

    (B) market: mall

    (C) picnic: park

    (D) kitchen: house

    (E) banquet: hall

    9. LETHARGIC: STIMULATE::

    (A) pompous: boast

    (B) skeptical: convince

    (C) diligent: succeed

    (D) erudite: teach

    (E) impervious: disregard

    10. SHRINE: PILGRIM::

    (A) peak: climber

    (B) election: pollster

    (C) defeat: loser

    (D) route: driver

    (E) rescue: swimmer

    11. SPLINT: MOBILITY::

    (A) lubricant: friction

    (B) foundation: stability

    (C) exercise: activity

    (D) food: weight

    (E) antiseptic: sterility

    12. RIG: CONTEST::

    (A) repudiate: thesis

    (B) predict: race

    (C) gerrymander: district

    (D) solve: conundrum

    (E) incriminate: evidence

    13. CREEEK: RIVER::

    (A) fuel: log

    (B) pebble: rock

    (C) leg: desk

    (D) island: water

    (E) beach: desert

    14. SEMINARY: THEOLOGIAN:

    (A) academy: cadet

    (B) courtroom: witness

    (C) hospital: patient

    (D) conservatory: artist

    (E) library: researcher

    15. RIVAL: COMPETITION::

    (A) mentor: praise

    (B) mendicant: confusion

    (C) sycophant: flattery

    (D) litigant: morality

    (E) maverick: cooperation

    16. COURAGEOUS: BRAVADO::

    (A) wary: prudence

    (B) horrific: panic

    (C) honorable: veracity

    (D) self-centered: conceit

    (E) complimentary: fulsomeness

    The Food and Drug Administration has recently proposed severe restrictions on the use of antibiotics to promote the health and growth of meat animals. Medications added to feeds kill many microorganisms but also encourage the appearance of bacterial strains that are resistant to anti-infective drugs. Already, for example, penicillin and the tetracvlines are not as effective therapeutically as they once were. The drug resistance is chiefly conferred by tiny circlets of genes, called plasmids, that can be exchanged between dif- ferent strains and even different species of bacteria. Plasmids are also one of the two kinds of vehicles (the other being viruses) that molecular biologists depend of when performing gene transplant experiments. Even present guidelines forbid the laboratory use of plasmids bearing genes for resistance to antibiotics. Yet, while congressional debate rages over whether or not to toughen these restrictions on scientists in their laboratories, little congressional attention has been focused on an ill-advised agricultural practice that produces known deleterious effects.

    17. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with

    (A) discovering methods of eliminating harmful microorganisms without subsequently generation drug-resistant bacterial

    (B) explaining reasons for congressional inac- tion on the regulation of gene transplant experiments

    (C) describing a problematic agricultural prac- tice and its serious genetic consequences

    (D) verifying the therapeutic ineffectiveness of anti-infective drugs

    (E) evaluating recently proposed restrictions intended to promote the growth of meat animals

    18. According to the passage, the exchange of plas- mids between different bacteria can result in which of the following?

    (A) Microorganisms resistant to drugs

    (B) Therapeutically useful circlets of genes.

    (C) Anti-infective drugs like penicillin

    (D) Viruses for use by molecular biologists

    (E) Vehicles for performing gene transplant experiments

    19. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that those in favor of stiffening the restrictions on gene transplant research should logically also

    (A) encourage experiments with any plasmids except those bearing genes for antibiotic resistance

    (B) question the addition of anti-infective drugs to livestock feeds

    (C) resist the use of penicillin and tetracyclines to kill microorganisms

    (D) agree to the development of meatier live- stock through the use of antibiotics

    (E) favor congressional debate and discussion of all science and health issues

    20. The author's attitude toward the development of bacterial strains that render antibiotic drugs ineffective can best be described as

    (A) indifferent

    (B) perplexed

    (C) pretentious

    (D) insincere

    (E) apprehensive

    During adolescence, the development of polit- ical ideology becomes apparent in the individual; ideology here is defined as the presence of roughly consistent attitudes, more or less orga- (5) nized in reference to a more encompassing, though perhaps tacit, set of general principles. As such, political ideology is dim or absent at the beginning of adolescence. Its acquisition by the adolescent, in even the most modest sense, (10)requires the acquisition of relatively sophisticated cognitive skills: the ability to manage abstract- ness to synthesize and generalize, to imagine the future. These are accompanied by a steady advance in the ability to understand principles. (15)   The child's rapid acquisition of political knowledge also promotes the growth of political ideology during adolescence. By knowledge I mean more than the dreary "facts," such as the composition of county government that the child (20)is exposed to in the conventional ninth-grade civics course. Nor do I mean only information on current political realities. These are facets of knowledge, but they are less critical than the adolescents absorption, often unwitting, of a (25)feeling for those many unspoken assumptions about the political system that comprise the common ground of understanding-for example, what the state can "appropriately" demand of its citizens, and vice versa, or the "proper" relation- (30)ship of government to subsidiary social institu- tions, such as the schools and churches. Thus, political knowledge is the awareness of social assumptions and relationships as well as of objective facts. Much of the naivete that charac- (35)terizes the younger adolescent's grasp of politics stems not from an ignorance of "fact" but from an incomplete comprehension of the common conventions of the system, of what is and is not customarily done, and of how and why it is or is (40)not done.

    Yet I do not want to overemphasize the sig- nificance of increased political knowledge in forming adolescent ideology. Over the years I have become progressively disenchanted about (45)the centrality of such knowledge and have come to believe that much current work in political socialization, by relying too heavily on its apparent acquisition, has been misled about the tempo of political understanding in adolescence (50)Just as young children can count numbers in series without grasping the principle of ordina- tion, young adolescents may have in their heads many random bits of political information with- out a secure understanding of those concepts (55)that would give order and meaning to the information.

    Like magpies, children's minds pick up bits and pieces of data. if you encourage them, they will drop these at your feet-Republicans and (60)Democrats, the tripartite division of the federal system, perhaps even the capital of Massachu- setts. But until the adolescent has grasped the integumental function that concepts and prin- ciples provide, the data remain fragmented, random, disordered.

    21. The author's primary purpose in the passage is to

    (A) clarify the kinds of understanding an ado- lescent must have in order to develop a political ideology

    (B) dispute the theory that a political ideology can be acquired during adolescence

    (C) explain why adolescents are generally uninterested in political arguments

    (D) suggest various means of encouraging adolescents to develop personal political ideologies

    (E) explain why an adolescent's political ideol- ogy usually appears more sophisticated than it actually is

    22. According to the author, which of the following contributes to the development of political ideology during adolescence?

    (A) Conscious recognition by the adolescent of his or her own naivete

    (B) Thorough comprehension of the concept of ordination

    (C) Evaluation by the adolescent of the general principles encompassing his or her specific political ideas

    (D) Intuitive understanding of relationships among various components of society

    (E) Rejection of abstract reasoning in favor of involvement with pragmatic situations

    23. The author uses the term "common ground of understanding" (line 27) to refer to

    (A) familiar legislation regarding political activity

    (B) the experiences that all adolescents share

    (C) a society's general sense of its own political activity

    (D) a society's willingness to resolve political tensions

    (E) the assumption that the state controls social institutions

    24. The passage suggests that, during early adoles- cence, a child would find which of the following most difficult to understand?

    (A) A book chronicling the ways in which the presidential inauguration ceremony has changed over the years

    (B) An essay in which an incident in British history is used to explain the system of monarchic succession

    (C) A summary of the respective responsi- bilities of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government

    (D) A debate in which the participants argue, respectively, that the federal government should or should not support private schools

    (E) An article detailing the specific religious groups that founded American colonies and the guiding principles of each one

    25. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about schools?

    (A) They should present political information according to carefully planned, schematic arrangements.

    (B) They themselves constitute part of a general sociopolitical system that adolescents are learning to understand.

    (C) If they were to introduce political subject matter in the primary grades, students would understand current political realities a an earlier age.

    (D) They are ineffectual to the degree that they disregard adolescents political naivete.

    (E) Because they are subsidiary to government, their contribution to the political under- standing of adolescents must be limited.

    26. Which of the following best summarizes the author's evaluation of the accumulation of political knowledge by adolescents?

    (A) It is unquestionably necessary, but its significance can easily be overestimated.

    (B) It is important, but not as important as is the ability to appear knowledgeable.

    (C) It delays the necessity of considering underlying principles.

    (D) It is primarily relevant to an understanding of limited, local concerns, such as country politics.

    (E) It is primarily dependent on information gleaned from high school courses such as civics.

    27. Which of the following statements best describes the organization of the author's discussion of the role of political knowledge in the formation of political ideology during adolescence?

    (A) He acknowledges its importance, but then modifies his initial assertion of that importance.

    (B) He consistently resists the idea that it is important, using a series of examples to support his stand.

    (C) He wavers in evaluating it and finally uses analogies to explain why he is indecisive.

    (D) He beings by questioning conventional ideas about its importance, but finally concedes that they are correct.

    (E) He carefully refrains from making an initial judgment about it, but later confirms its critical role.

    28. NOMADIC:

    (A) contented

    (B) settled

    (C) factual

    (D) relaxed

    (E) boring

    29. MUTE:

    (A) amplify

    (B) harmonize

    (C) attune

    (D) synthesize

    (E) register

    30. TEDIOUS:

    (A) rare

    (B) ambitious

    (C) serene

    (D) consistent

    (E) stimulating

    31. JUDICIOUS:

    (A) insecure

    (B) unwise

    (C) inept

    (D) lacking consequence

    (E) without probability

    32. MOTILITY:

    (A) liquidity

    (B) stasis

    (C) ascent

    (D) propinquity

    (E) tension

    33. MUNIFICENCE:

    (A) appreciation

    (B) deception

    (C) modesty

    (D) stinginess

    (E) anxiety

    34. PROPONENT:

    (A) detractor

    (B) skeptic

    (C) agent

    (D) disciple

    (E) enemy

    35. ABDICATE:

    (A) condone

    (B) affiliate

    (C) promote

    (D) attack

    (E) usurp

    36. ABEYANCE:

    (A) fulfillment

    (B) activity

    (C) renascence

    (D) resistance

    (E) continuance

    37. DISSEMINATE:

    (A) deceive

    (B) garner

    (C) constrain

    (D) confirm

    (E) conjoin

    38. SATURNINE:

    (A) genial

    (B) devout

    (C) distinguished

    (D) quick-witted

    (E) heavy-handed

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