In a study of five brands of pain reliever, P, Q, R, S, and T, the brands were tested and ranked against each other as more or less effective per dose. The following results were obtained:
(1) P was more effective than Q.
(2) The effectiveness of R was less than that of S.
(3) T was the least effective brand tested.
(4) Q and R were equally effective.
(5) The effectiveness of S was greater than that of Q.
1. If the statements above giving the results of the study are true, which of the following must also be true?
(A) P and S were equally effective.
(B) P was the most effective brand tested.
(C) S was the most effective brand tested.
(D) R was less effective than P.
(E) T did not relieve pain.
2. All of the information in the results given above can be derived from which of the following groups of statements?
(A) Statements 1, 2, and 3
(B) Statements 1, 3, and 4
(C) Statements 2, 3, and 4
(D) Statements 1, 2, 3, and 4
(E) Statements 2, 3, 4, and 5
3. If a sixth brand, M, is tested and is found to be more effective than S, then which of the following must be true if the findings of the study are correct?
(A) M is the most effective of the six brands tested.
(B) At least four of the six brands tested are less effective that M.
(C) M is more effective than P.
(D) M is less effective than P.
(E) No more than four of the six brands tested are more effective than T.
4. If R is more expensive per dose than P, and T is less expensive per does than R, which of the following must be true, according to the study, for a consumer who wishes to buy a pain reliever with the greatest effectiveness for the amount spent per dose?
(A) P should be purchase instead of R.
(B) P should be purchased instead of T.
(C) T should be purchased instead of R.
(D) Q should be purchased instead of R if Q is the same price as S.
(E) Q should be purchased instead of T if Q is the same price as R.
5. If Q contains the same amount of an ingredient, X, as S does and more of that ingredient than T does, which of the following is consistent with the results of the study?
(A) The relative effectiveness of the five brands of pain reliever is due to the amount of X the brands contain.
(B) R does not contain X, and brands of pain reliever in which X is absent do not have any measurable effectiveness.
(C) Brands of pain reliever containing X do not have any measurable effectiveness.
(D) The absence of X in R would account for R's being more effective than T, Q, and S.
(E) The presence of X contributes to the effectiveness of T, Q, and S in relieving pain.
6. For life to develop on another planet, two conditions, at least, are necessary: (1) moderate temperature, as the result of suitable distance from a heat source, and (2) a range of temperature that is stable over a period of at least 3.7 billion years. The unlikelihood that such conditions are often to be found in the universe makes it highly probably that exists only on Earth.
The argument above assumes that
(A) a certain temperature range is the only condition essential to the development of life on a planet
(B) life cannot exist on planets other than Earth
(C) forms of life on other planets would require some of the same conditions as do earthly forms of life
(D) there is no satisfactory explanation of why life development on Earth and not on other planets
(E) signs of extinct life forms are likely to be found of many planets with extreme temperatures
7. Ⅰ. When a person dies, that person's brain waves, as measured by the electroencephalograph (EEG), no longer show a positive reading but remain flat.
Ⅱ. A positive EEG reading can be obtained from a bowl of cherry gelatin.
Which of the following conclusions can most logically be drawn from the information above?
(A) The EEG is not a reliable test to use in the measurement of human brain waves.
(B) Some changes in a person's EEG can be viewed as a signal of death, but life is not defined by a positive EEG.
(C) Whatever characteristics a human brain and a bowl of cherry gelatin have in common are important factors in life and death.
(D) If a person's brain waves become flat, as measured by the EEG, that person is less alive than is a bowl of cherry gelatin.
(E) Whether a person's EEG readings change or not is irrelevant in determining whether or not that person is alive.
8. Child abuse could be eliminated if prospective parents were certain they wanted children before they had them. The assertion above can be true only if which of the following is also true?
(A) Prospective parents change their minds about wanting children once they have them.
(B) Those who love children do not abuse them.
(C) Those who did not want to have their children often keep them.
(D) Only those who do not love their children abuse children.
(E) Only those who were not sure they wanted to have their children abuse children.
Every morning five commuters, M, N, O, P, and Q, go to one railroad station and board a train that stops at exactly six subsequent stations, numbered 1-6; the train stops first at station 1 and proceeds in Numerical order to station 6.
M always gets off either at station 1 or at station 2.
O always gets off the station before or one station after Q's station.
P always gets off at station 3.
Q always gets off at station 4, 5, or 6.
No one reboards the morning train after getting off.
9. On a morning when no one gets off at stations 5 and 6, which of the following must be true?
(A) M gets off at station 2.
(B) N gets off at station 2.
(C) O gets off at station 4.
(D) N and P get off at the same station.
(E) O and P get off at the same station.
10. On a morning when Q gets off at station 4, and no more than two of the commuters get off at any one station, which of the following must be true?
(A) If N gets off at station 2, M gets off at station 1.
(B) If N gets off at station 3, O gets off at station 5.
(C) If N gets off at station 4, O gets off at station 5.
(D) If O gets off at station 3, N gets off at station 2.
(E) If O gets off at station 3, N gets off at station 5.
11. Stations at which it is possible for N and O to be the only commuters getting off the morning train include which of the following?
Ⅰ. Station 3
Ⅱ. Station 4
Ⅲ. Station 5
(B) Ⅲ only
(C) Ⅰand Ⅱ only
(D) Ⅱ and Ⅲ
(E) Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ
12. On a morning when no one gets off at station 1, and each of the five commuters gets off at a different station, which of the following GANNOT he true?
(A) N gets off one station before Q.
(B) P gets off one station before O.
(C) M gets off at station 2.
(D) N gets off at station 5.
(E) Q gets off at station 6.
13. A new commuter, R, joins the group and gets off every morning at station 5. On a morning when two commuters gets off at the same station and all other commuters get off alone, which of the following could be the station at which the two commuters get off?
(A) Station 1
(B) Station 2
(C) Station 3
(D) Station 4
(E) Station 6
Two families are planning to go on a canoe trip together. The families consist of the following people:
Robert and Mary Henderson and their three sons, Tommy, Dan, and William;
Jerome and Ellen Penick and their two daughters, Kate and Susan.
There will be three canoes, with three people in each canoe.
At least one of the four parents must be in each canoe.
At least one person from each family must be each canoe.
14. If the two mothers ride together in the same canoe, and the three brothers each ride in a different canoe, which of the following must be true?
(A) Each canoe has both only male and females in.
(B) One of the canoes has only females in it.
(C) One of the canoes has only males in it.
(D) The sisters ride in the same canoe.
(E) The fathers ride in the same canoe.
15. If Ellen and Susan are together in one of the canoes, which of the following could be a list of the people together in another canoe?
(A) Dan, Jerome, Kate
(B) Dan, Jerome, William
(C) Dan, Kate, Tommy
(D) Jerome, Kate, Mary
(E) Mary, Robert, Tommy
16. If Jerome and Mary are together in one of the canoes, each of the following could be a list of the people together in another canoe
(A)Dan, Ellen, Susan
(B) Ellen, Robert, Tommy
(C)Ellen, Susan, William
(D)Ellen, Tommy, Wiliam
(E)Kate, Robert, Susan
17. If each of the Henderson children rides in a different canoe, which of the following must be true?
Ⅰ.The Penick children do not rode together.
Ⅱ.The Penick parents do not ride together.
Ⅲ. The Henderson parents do not ride together.
(D)Ⅰand Ⅲ only
(E)Ⅰ,Ⅱ, and Ⅲ
18. On one of the days of the trip, while the canoeists go over rapids, Jerome chooses to go hiking with two of the children rather than canoeing, and there are six people in the canoes, two in each canoe. If the other conditions still hold for the canoeists, which of the following could be a list of the children in the canoes?
(A) Dan, Kate, Susan
(B) Dan, Kate, William
(C) Dan, Tommy, William
(D) Dan, William. Susan
(E) Susan, Tommy, William
M, N, O, P, Q, and R are perfectly straight one- way streets.
Each street in this group is parallel to two of the other streets in the group, with no intervening parallel streets other than streets in the group.
Each street in the group intersects three of the other streets in the group.
Traffic moves in opposite directions on alternate streets.
P and R intersect.
O and Q are parallel.
Traffic moves in the same direction on R and N.
Traffic moves south on M.
Traffic moves east on two of the streets.
19. Which of the following streets intersect?
(A) M and R
(B) N and M
(C) O and P
(D) Q and N
(E) Q and P
20. It must be true that traffic moves in
(A) opposite directions on M and R
(B) opposite directions on P and Q
(C) the same direction on O and P
(D) the same direction on O and Q
(E) the same direction on O and R
21. If traffic moves east on Q, which of the following must be true?
Ⅰ.Traffic on M can make a left turn onto Q.
Ⅱ. Traffic on R can make a left turn onto Q.
Ⅲ. Traffic moves east on O.
(C)Ⅰand Ⅱ only
(D)Ⅱand Ⅲ only
(E)Ⅰ,Ⅱ, and Ⅲ
22. If traffic moves west on P, which of the following must be true?
(A) Traffic can proceed on P across M and then make a right turn onto N without first leaving P.
(B) Traffic can proceed on R across P and then make a right turn onto Q without first leaving R.
(C) Traffic can proceed on R scores M and then make a right turn onto N without first leaving R.
(D) Traffic on R that reaches the intersection of R and O can make a left turn onto O without first leaving R.
(E) Traffic on P that reaches the intersection of P and R can make a right onto R without first leaving P.
23. The newly discovered moon of Jupiter has an orbit around the planet that is well within the Roche limit for Jupiter. The Roche limit is the distance within which satellites with a liquid core break up because of the strength of a planet's gravitational pull.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?
(A) The newly discovered satellite bas begun to break up.
(B) The object called a newly discovered moon of Jupiter is not in fact a moon of Jupiter.
(C) The newly discovered moon of Jupiter does not have a liquid core.
(D) The Roche limit for Jupiter is farther away from the planet than is the Roche limit for other planets.
(E) Jupiter has a weak gravitational pull.
24. Choose the most logical completion for the following paragraph.
A pluralist society takes into account the claims of recognized groups, with their conflicting interests, and attempts to mediate between them. But no group that is not sufficiently well organized to be recognized can make its claims count for anything at all. Its advocates will be treated as extremists or foreign agents. Thus the net effect of government action taken along pluralist principles will be to __________.
(A) strike the best possible compromises
(B) suppress the freedom of speech
(C) give everyone part of what he or she claims
(D) reinforce existing social structures
(E) resolve conflicts of interest
25. If we believe that the Earth moves, even though we do not feel it move, and that the Sun does not move around the Earth, even though we see that it does, we might as well completely give up trusting our five senses.
The argument above is vulnerable to which of the following objections?
(A) Why should sight be any less trustworthy than the other senses, when it appears to be the most accurate?
(B) How can we say that an object we know to be large, such as the Sun, revolves around a much smaller object, such as the Earth?
(C) What authority o the sense perceptions of a single person have, when contrasted with the objective system of scientific knowledge?
(D) Why should we refuse to say that the Earth moves, when we see the Sun rise and set every day?
(E) How do we know that the Earth moves around the Sun, if it is not from evidence gained through the senses?