1. Although there are weeks of negotiations ahead, and perhaps setbacks and new surprises, leaders of both parties are ---that their differences can be resolved.
2. The losing animal in a struggle saves itself from destruction by an act of ----, an act usually recognized and ---by the winner.
(A) submission.. accepted
(B) hostility.. avoided
(C) bluffing .. reaffirmed
(D) anger.. condoned
(E) hatred.. duplicated
3. He never ---the wisdom I had claimed for him, and my friends quickly dismissed my estimate of his ability as ----.
(A) repudiated.. irony
(B) inhibited .. propaganda
(C) demonstrated.. hyperbole
(D) masked.. exaggeration
(E) vindicated.. understatement
4. It would seem that absolute qualities in art
---us, that we cannot escape viewing works
of art in ---of time and circumstance.
(A) enlighten.. a pattern
(B) frighten.. an absence
(C) confuse.. a welter
(D) elude .. a context
(E) deceive.. a milieu
5. This new government is faced not only with
---its economy but also with implementing
new rural development programs to ---the flow of farm workers to the city.
(A) managing.. stem
(B) offsetting.. harness
(C) bolstering.. transmit
(D) challenging.. measure
(E) modernizing.. subsidize
6. An analysis of the ideas in the novel compels an analysis of the form of the work, particularly when form and content are as ---as they are in The House of the Seven Gables.
7. The blueprints for the new automobile were
---at first glance, but the designer had been
basically too conservative to ---previous standards of beauty.
(A) striking.. flout
(B) impractical.. ignore
(C) impeccable.. dispel
(D) influential ..assess
(E) confusing.. incorporate
8. SNAKE: LEGS::
(A) fish: scales
(B) gorilla: cage
(C) lioness: cub
(D) horse: wings
(E) unicorn: horn
9. BOX: FIGHT::
(A) complain: annoy
(B) debate: argue
(C) compete: vie
(D) laugh: please
(E) muster: march
10. ITINERARY: TRIP::
(A) portfolio: document
(B) resume: job
(C) legend: map
(D) pledge: contribution
(E) syllabus: course
11. FREQUENCY: PITCH::
(A) wavelength: color
(B) radius: diameter
(C) perpendicular: angle
(D) generator: energy
(E) vibration: chord
12. RATIOCINATION: THINKING::
(A) supposition: theorizing
(B) emulation: idolizing
(C) jubilation: pleasing
(D) articulation: talking
(E) preposition: writing
13. NARCISSISM: LOVE::
(A) hostility: criticism
(B) empathy: pity
(C) meditation: thought
(D) guilt: blame
(E) cupidity: desire
14. PLACEBO: PAINKILLER::
(A) prescription: pill
(B) skeleton: body
(C) costume: person
(D) backdrop: vista
(E) mannequin: dummy
15. CAMOUFLAGE: DECEPTION::
(A) modernization: restoration
(B) analysis: experiment
(C) cajolery: amusement
(D) penance: transgression
(E) flattery: ingratiation
16. ADULTERATE: PURITY::
(A) modify: essence
(B) exonerate: crime
(C) ascertain: validity
(D) enervate: vigor
(E) tolerate: diversity
Four legal approaches may be followed in attempting to channel technological development in socially useful directions: specific directives, market incentive modifications, criminal prohi(5) bitions, and changes in decision-making structures. Specific directives involve the government's identifying one or more factors controlling research, development, or implementation of a given technology. Directives affecting such (10) factors may vary from administrative regulation of private activity to government ownership of a technological operation. Market incentive modifications are deliberate alterations of the market within which private decisions regarding the (15)development and implementation of technology are made. Such modifications may consist of imposing taxes to cover the costs to society of a given technology, granting subsidies to pay for social benefits of a technology, creating the right (20) to sue to prevent certain technological development, or easing procedural rules to enable the recovery of damages to compensate for harm caused by destructive technological activity. Criminal prohibitions may modify technological (25) activity in areas impinging on fundament social values, or they may modify human behavior likely to result from technological applications for example, the deactivation of automotive pollution control devices in order to improve (30) vehicle performance. Alteration of decision making structures includes all possible modifications in the authority, constitution, or responsibility of private and public entities deciding questions of technological development and (35) implementation. Such alterations include the addition of public-interest members to corporate boards, the imposition by statute of duties on governmental decision-makers, and the extension of warranties in response to consumer (40) action.
Effective use of these methods to control technology depends on whether or not the goal of regulation is the optimal allocation of resources. When the object is optimal resource (45) allocation, that combination of legal methods should be used that most nearly yields the allocation that would exist if there were no external costs resulting from allocating resources through market activity. There are external costs, when (50) the price set by buyers and sellers of goods fails to include some costs to anyone, that result from the production and use of the goods. Such costs are internalized when buyers pay them.
Air pollution from motor vehicles imposes (55) external costs on all those exposes to it, in the form of soiling, materials damage, and disease, these externalities result from failure to place a price on air, thus making it a free good, common to all. Such externalities lead to nonopti(60) mal resource allocation, because the private net product and the social net product of market activity are not often identical. If all externalities were internalized, transactions would occur until bargaining could no longer improve the (65) situation, thus giving an optimal allocation of resources at a given time.
17. The passage is primarily concerned with describing
(A) objectives and legal methods for directing technological development
(B) technical approaches to the problem of controlling market activity
(C) economic procedures for facilitating transactions between buyers and sellers
(D) reasons for slowing technological development in light of environmentalist objections
(E) technological innovations making it possible to achieve optimum allocation of resources
18. The author cites air pollution from motor vehicles in lines 54-56 in order to
(A) revise cost estimates calculated by including the costs of resources
(B) evaluate legal methods used to prevent technological developments
(C) give examples of costs not included in buyer-seller bargains
(D) refute hypotheses not made on the basis of monetary exchange values
(E) commend technological research undertaken for the common welfare
19. According to the passage, transactions between private buyers and sellers have effects on society that generally
(A) are harmful when all factors are considered
(B) give rise to ever-increasing resource costs
(C) reflect an optimal allocation of natural resources
(D) encompass more than the effects on the buyers and sellers alone
(E) are guided by legal controls on the development of technology
20. It can be inferred from the passage that the author does NOT favor which of the following?
(A) Protecting the environment for future use
(B) Changing the balance of power between opposing interests in business
(C) Intervening in the activity of the free market
(D) Making prices reflect costs to everyone in society
(E) Causing technological development to cease
21. A gasoline-conservation tax on the purchase of large automobiles, with the proceeds of the tax rebated to purchasers of small automobiles, is an example of
(A) a specific directive
(B) a market incentive modification
(C) an optimal resource allocation
(D) an alteration of a decision-making structure
(E) an external cost
22. If there were no external costs, as they are described in the passage, which of the following would be true?
(A) All technology-control methods would be effective.
(B) Some resource allocations would be illegal.
(C) Prices would include all costs to members of society.
(D) Some decision-making structures would be altered.
(E) The availability of common goods would increase.
23. The author assumes that, in determining what would be an optimal allocation of resources, it would be possible to
(A) assign monetary value to all damage resulting from the use of technology
(B) combine legal methods to yield theoretical optimum
(C) convince buyers to bear the burden of damage from technological developments
(D) predict the costs of new technological developments
(E) derive an equation making costs depend on prices
24. On the basis of the passage, it can be inferred that the author would agree with which of the following statements concerning technological development?
(A) The government should own technological operations.
(B) The effects of technological development cannot be controlled.
(C) Some technological developments are beneficial.
(D) The current states of technological development results in a good allocation of resources.
(E) Applications of technological development are criminally destructive.
The whole biosphere, like the individual organisms that live inside it, exists in a chemically dynamic states. In this homeostatic system, a great number of organic compounds are synthesized, transformed, and decomposed continuously; together, these processes constitute the major parts of the carbon cycle. For the smooth operation of this cycle, degradation is just as important as synthesis, the green plants produce great quantities of polymers, such as cellulose, and innumerable other compounds like alkaloids, terpenes, and fiavonoids, that green plants cannot use as sources of energy during respiration. The release of the carbon in these compounds for recycling depends almost entirely on the action of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and certain types of fungi. Some bacteria and fungi possess the unique and extremely important biochemical asset of being able to catalyze the oxidation of numerous inert products, thereby initiating reaction sequences that produce carbon dioxide and so return much carbon to a form that actively enters into life cycles once again.
25. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions about the carbon cycle?
Ⅰ What are some of the compounds that are broken down in the carbon cycle?
Ⅱ Why are some compounds that are involved in the carbon cycle less reactive than others?
Ⅲ What role do bacteria and fungi play in the carbon cycle?
(A) Ⅰ only
(B) Ⅱ only
(C) Ⅲ only
(D) Ⅰand Ⅱ only
(E) Ⅰand Ⅲ only
26. The author implies that which of the following is the primary reason that degradation is as important as synthesis to the smooth operation of the carbon cycle?
(A) Most of the polymers and organic compounds found in the plant kingdom are chemically unstable.
(B) The synthesis of some organic material deprives life processes of an energy source.
(C) Decomposition permits the recycling of carbon that would otherwise be fixed in certain substances.
(D) Many organisms cannot use plants as a source of food, but can feed on bacteria and fungi.
(E) Bacteria and fungi could not survive if some carbon compounds were not degraded.
27. The author's contention about the importance of bacteria and fungi in the production of energy for life processes would be most clearly strengthened if which of the following were found to be true?
(A) Both aerobes and anaerobes provide sources of energy through the decomposition of organic material.
(B) Most compounds containing carbon are unavailable as energy sources except to some bacteria and fungi.
(C) Bacteria and fungi break down inert material in ways that do not involve oxidation.
(D) Many compounds remain inert, even in the presence of bacteria and fungi.
(E) Bacteria and fungi assist in the synthesis of many organic compounds.
(A) avoid completely
(B) pronounce clearly
(C) oppose vigorously
(D) insist emphatically
(E) state repeatedly
(A) reflection of glory
(B) symbol of constancy
(C) notice of rejection
(D) mark of esteem
(E) sign of decline
(A) filled to capacity
(B) without offspring
(A) offer resistance
(B) resolve firmly
(C) employ force
(D) share property
(E) operate privately