1. Unlike a judge, who must act alone, a jury discusses a case and then reaches its decision as a group, thus minimizing the effect of ---bias.
2. One reason why pertinent fossils are ---is that crucial stages of evolution occurred in the tropics where it is difficult to explore for fossils, and so their discovery has ----.
(A) unique... resulted
(B) unconcealable.. declined
(C) uncommon.. lagged
(D) recent.. resumed
(E) prominent .. failed
3. The harmonious accommodation reached by the warring factions exemplifies the axiom that --is possible among people of goodwill, even when they have previously held quite ---perspectives.
(A) candor.. indistinguishable
(B) tension.. congenial
(C) agreement.. unequivocal
(D) compromise.. antagonistic
(E) coexistence.. fixed
4. The prime minister tried to act but the plans were ---by her cabinet.
5. Amid the collapsing or out-of-control mechanical devices, the belching volcano had a disturbingly---quality, like a character who has stumbled onstage by mistake.
6. It is an error to regard the imagination as a mainly ---force; if it destroys and alters, it also---hitherto isolated beliefs, insights, and mental habits into strongly unified systems.
(A) visionary.. conjures
(B) beneficial.. converts
(C) revolutionary.. fuses
(D) negative.. shunts
(E) synthetic.. integrates
7. The semantic ---of ancient documents is not unique; even in our own time, many documents are difficult to decipher.
8. SCYTHE: REAPER::
(A) pipe: plumber
(B) crop: farmer
(C) grease: mechanic
(D) game: hunter
(E) axe: woodcutter
9. DISCOMBOBULATED: ORDER::
(A) political.. anarchy
(B) promiscuous: chaos
(C) rumpled: wrinkle
(D) strategic: logic
(E) erratic: consistency
10. FERVOR: ZEALOT::
(A) anger: critic
(B) wisdom: convert
(C) doubt: skeptic
(D) caution: philosopher
(E) fearlessness: investor
11. COLTISH: DISCIPLINE::
(A) selfish: ego
(B) mindless: memory
(C) loutish: grace
(D) fiendish: patience
(E) comely: rancor
12. AWL: PIERCE::
(A) lathe: penetrate
(B) drill: flatten
(C) pestle: hash
(D) sickle: smooth
(E) sifter: bake
13. COMPLIMENT: FLATTERY::
(A) eulogy: excoriation
(B) deference: subservience
(C) wisdom: wit
(D) sincerity: hypocrisy
(E) pride: obsequiousness
14. TAXONOMIST: CLASSIFY::
(A) carpenter: build
(B) parodist: laugh
(C) physician: study
(D) spy: equivocate
(E) neophyte: pray
15. UPBRAID: DISAPPROVAL::
(A) rankle: resentment
(B) mortify: distress
(C) beg: favor
(D) stifle: concealment
(E) lament: grief
(A) charity: saint
(B) pagan: magic
(C) bishop: vestment
(D) prayer: sin
(E) theocracy: state
Although scientists observe that an organism's behavior falls into rhythmic patterns, they disagree about how these patterns are affected when the organism is transported to a (5) new environment. One experimenter, Brown, brought oysters from Connecticut waters to Illinois waters. She noted that the oysters initially opened their shells widest when it was high tide in Connecticut, but that after fourteen (10)days their rhythms had adapted to the tide schedule in Illinois. Although she could not posit an unequivocal causal relationship between behavior and environmental change, Brown concluded that a change in tide schedule (15)is one of several possible exogenous influences (those outside the organism) on the oysters' rhythms. Another experimenter, Hamner, however, discovered that hamsters from California maintain their original rhythms even (20)at the South Pole. He concluded that endogenous influences (those inside the organism) seem to affect an organism's rhythmic behavior.
17. All of the following could be considered examples of exogenous influences on an organism EXCEPT the influence of the
(A) level of a hormone on a field mouse's readiness for mating
(B) temperature of a region on a bear's hibernation
(C) salt level of a river on a fish's migration
(D) humidity of an area on a cat's shedding of its fur
(E) proximity of an owl on a lizard's searching for food
18. Which of the following statements best describes the conclusion drawn by Brown (lines 14-17)?
(A) A change in tide schedule is the primary influence on an oyster's rhythms.
(B) A change in tide schedule may be an important exogenous influence on an oyster's rhythms.
(C) Exogenous influences, such as a change in tide schedule, seldom affect an oyster's rhythms.
(D) Endogenous influences have no effect on an oyster's rhythms.
(E) Endogenous influences are the only influences on an oyster's rhythms.
19. The passage suggests that Brown's study was similar to Hamner's in which of the following ways?
Ⅰ. Both experimenters discovered that a new environment had a significant effect on an organism's behavioral rhythms.
Ⅱ. Both experimenters observed an organism's behavioral rhythms after the organism had been transported to a new environment.
Ⅲ. Both experimenters knew a organism's rhythmic patterns in its original environment.
(C)Ⅰand Ⅱ only
(D)Ⅱand Ⅲ only
20. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken Brown's conclusion?
(A) The oysters gradually closed their shells after high tide in Illinois had passed.
(B) The oysters' behavioral rhythms maintained their adaptation to the tide schedule in Illinois throughout thirty days of observation.
(C) Sixteen days after they were moved to Illinois, the oysters opened their shells widest when it was high tide in Connecticut.
(D) A scientist who brought Maryland oysters to Maine found that the oysters opened their shells widest when it was high tide in Maine.
(E) In an experiment similar to Brown's, a scientist was able to establish a clear causal relationship between environmental change and behavioral rhythms.
Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world and for expressing the singular self. Photographs depict objective realities that already exist, though only the camera can disclose them. And they depict an individual photographer's temperament discovering itself through the camera's cropping of reality. That is, photography has two antithetical ideals: in the first, photography is about the world and the photographer is a mere observer who counts for little; but in the second, photography is the instrument of intrepid, questing subjectivity and the photographer is all.
These conflicting ideals arise from a fundamental uneasiness on the part of both photographers and viewers of photographs toward the aggressive component in "taking" a picture. Accordingly, the ideal of a photographer as observer is attractive because it implicitly denies that picture-taking is an aggressive act. The issue, of course, is not so clear-cut. What photographers do cannot be characterized as simply predatory or as simply, and essentially, benevolent. As a consequence, one ideal of picture-taking or the other is always being rediscovered and championed.
An important result of the coexistence of these two ideals is a recurrent ambivalence toward photography's means. Whatever the claims that photography might make to be a form of personal expression on a par with painting, its originality is inextricably linked to the powers of a machine. The steady growth of these powers has made possible the extraordinary informativeness and imaginative formal beauty of many photographs, like Harold Edgerton's high-speed photographs of a bullet hitting its target or of the swirls and eddies of a tennis stroke. But as cameras become more sophisticated, more automated, some photographers are tempted to disarm themselves or to suggest that they are not really armed, preferring to submit themselves to the limits imposed by pre-modern camera technology because a cruder, less high-powered machine is thought to give more interesting or emotive results, to leave more room for creative accident. For example, it has been virtually a point of honor for many photographers, including Walker Evans and Cartier-Bresson, to refuse to use modern equipment. These photographers have come to doubt the value of the camera a an instrument of "fast seeing." Cartier Bresson, in fact, claims that the modern camera may see too fast.
This ambivalence toward photographic means determines trends in taste. The cult of the future (of faster and faster seeing) alternates over time with the wish to return to a purer past-when images had a handmade quality. This nostalgia for some pristine state of the photographic enterprise is currently widespread and underlies the present-day enthusiasm for daguerreotypes and the work of forgotten nineteenth century provincial photographers. Photographers and viewers of photographs, it seems, need periodically to resist their own knowingness.
21. According to the passage, interest among photographers in each of photography's two ideals can be described as
(A) rapidly changing
(B) cyclically recurring
(C) steadily growing
(D) unimportant to the viewers of photographs
(E) unrelated to changes in technology
22. The author is primarily concerned with
(A) establishing new technical standards for contemporary photography
(B) analyzing the influence of photographic ideals on picture-taking
(C) tracing the development of camera technology in the twentieth century
(D) describing how photographers' individual temperaments are reflected in their work
(E) explaining how the technical limitations imposed by certain photographers on themselves affect their work
23. The passage states all of the following about photographs EXCEPT:
(A) They can display a cropped reality.
(B) They can convey information.
(C) They can depict the photographer's temperament.
(D) They can possess great formal beauty.
(E) They can change the viewer's sensibilities.
24. The author mentions the work of Harold Edgerton in order to provide an example of
(A) how a controlled ambivalence toward photography's means can produce outstanding pictures
(B) how the content of photographs has changed from the nineteenth century to the twentieth
(C) the popularity of high-speed photography in the twentieth century
(D) the relationship between photographic originality and technology
(E) the primacy of formal beauty over emotional content
25. The passage suggests that photographers such as Walker Evans prefer old-fashioned techniques and equipment because these photographers
(A) admire instruments of fast seeing
(B) need to feel armed by technology
(C) strive for intense formal beauty in their photographs
(D) like the discipline that comes from self-imposed limitations
(E) dislike the dependence of photographic effectiveness on the powers of a machine
26. According to the passage, the two antithetical ideals of photography differ primarily in the
(A) value that each places on the beauty of the finished product
(B) emphasis that each places on the emotional impact of the finished product
(C) degree of technical knowledge that each requires of the photographer
(D) extent of the power that each requires of the photographer's equipment
(E) way in which each defines the role of the photographer
27. Which of the following statements would be most likely to begin the paragraph immediately following the passage?
(A) Photographers, as a result of their heightened awareness of time, are constantly trying to capture events and actions that are fleeting.
(B) Thus the cult of the future, the worship of machines and spend, is firmly established in spite of efforts to the contrary by some photographers.
(C) The rejection of technical knowledge, however, can never be complete and photography cannot for any length of time pretend that it has no weapons.
(D) The point of honor involved in rejecting complex equipment is, however, of no significance to the viewer of a photograph.
(E) Consequently the impulse to return to the past through images that suggest a handwrought quality is nothing more than a passing fad.
Directions: Each question below consists of a word printed in capital letters, followed by five lettered words or phrases. Choose the lettered word or phrase that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the word in capital letters.
Since some of the questions require you to distinguish fine shades of meaning, be sure to consider all the choices before deciding which one is best.
(D) stand still
(E) add on
(A) complete slowly
(B) balance carefully
(C) focus accurately
(A) tentative conclusion
(B) laudatory speech
(C) disordered presentation
(D) confirming evidence
(E) ethical ambiguity
(D) subsume completely
(E) placate lovingly