Section 1: Vocabulary and Grammar (25 Points)
This section consists of three parts. Read the directions for each part before answering the questions. The time for this section is 25 minutes.
Part 1 Vocabulary Selection
In this part, there are 20 incomplete sentences. Below each sentence, there are four words or phrases respectively marked by letters A, B, C, D. Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence. There is only one right answer. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
1. The streets of the Dual Springs neighborhood, a migrant-worker hub in northern Beijing, are ______. That's no surprise; more than 13,000 people have been quarantined in China's capital to halt the insidious spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
A. deserted B. vacated C. unlived in D. removed
2. In many ______ a lack of direction prompted the Republican Guard to call it a day.
A. occasions B. cases C. events D. days
3. They did considerable work to ______ the masses of the United States with the elementary problems of Latin America.
A. allow B. acquaint C. notify D. propagate
4. My mother says a teaching machine has to be _____ to fit the mind of each boy and girl it teaches and that each kid has to be taught differently.
A. modified B. considered C. adjusted D. remanufactured
5. The big retailers are starting to think small, too. Sainsbury's and Tesco have launched convenience-store chains, called Local and Express, respectively - that have fast become _____ in British towns.
A. ubiquitous B. established C. frequented D. known
6. The solidarity among the young, especially the 386 Generation, is so strong that it's helping to _____ the country's deep-rooted regional divide.
A. enhance B. dissolve C. weaken D. move
7. The Wright brothers continued their flying in France and _____ all who saw them.
A. saddened B. frightened C. astonished D. alarmed
8. We are will aware of the responsibilities that necessarily _____ to our office.
A. attach B. confronts C. given D. face
9. People say that what we are all _____ is a meaning for life, but I don't think that's what we all look for.
A. seeing B. seeking C. watching D. looking
10. When Joe was left to live with those people, he found that they were so ____ of life that he couldn't stay with them
A. painful B. disdainful C. meaningful D. fruitful
11. When you make the sacrifice in marriage, the psychologists say, you're sacrificing not to each other but to ______ in a relationship.
A. unity B. utility C. fraternity D. reality
12. The constant changes in fashion, _____ with a view to higher sales, made greater demands on women as a class.
A. predicted B. dictated C. stated D. related
13. It is easy to see why many little girls prefer to _____ with the male role, but the girl who does find the male role more attractive is faced with a dilemma.
A. beautify B. modify C. identify D. justify
14. If we can _____ any kind of killing in the name of religion, the door is opened for all kinds of other justifications.
A. purify B. satisfy C. justify D. verify
15. I could easily perceive that his heart burnt to relieve his starving kids, but he seemed ashamed to ______ his inability to me.
A. discover B. recover C. demonstrate D. impress
16. It is a dangerous thing nowadays if you do not _____ others at arm's length, for they may hit you below the belt any time.
A. bake B. keep C. take D. make
17. I will never _____ the experiences of the four years at Howard University, though there were unhappy encounters.
A. discharge B. recharge C. discard D. dispose
18. We should not _____ the West, nor should we praise it to the skies and think great of everything that belongs to the West.
A. forgive B. forsake C. forlorn D. forage
19. Bill Gates is one of those who are said to be _______, able to rack huge profits at every turn.
A. on the ship B. on the plane C. on the gravy train D. on the rocks
20. He aimed at finding some workable _____ with a man who was a celebrity not only in the inward-reflecting world of Oxford but in the larger world outside.
A. neighborhood B. workmanship C. relationship D. craftsmanship
Part 2 Vocabulary Replacement
This part consists of 15 sentences in which one word or phrase is underlined. Below each sentence, there are four choices respectively marked by letters A, B, C, D. You are to select the ONE choice that can replace the underlined word without causing any grammatical error or changing the principal meaning of the sentence. There is only one right answer. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
21. It wasn't long before Franks was a marked man. After he served in Desert Storm, directing helicopter and ground units, the Army's high command gave him the job of remaking the service for the post-cold war world.
A. a person whose conduct is watched with suspicion or hostility
B. a man destined to succeed
C. a remarkable person
D. a notable person
22. The most notorious expression of that change was last year's bootleg publication of "The Japan That Can Say No" - the book written by right-wing politician Shintaro Ishihara and Sony chairman Akio Morita.
A. free publication B. pirate publication
C. lawful publication D. commercial publication
23. "No," Kojima said, "the point is, he spoke out, he stood up to America. Japan is just getting tired of being pushed around."
A. he stood up and spoke to the American audience
B. he faced America boldly
C. he challenged America
D. he met the Americans' challenge proudly
24. Traffic with criminals is dangerous.
A. dealing with criminals B. tracking the criminals
C. fighting the criminals D. transporting criminals
25. Some - such as liquid oxygen - are so cold that they embrittle many constructional materials and evaporate continuously if not refrigerated.
A. weaken B. strengthen
C. reduce D. cause … to become brittle
26. A "Backgrounder" permits newspapermen to publish information given them though without attribution to the source.
A. a person who remains behind the scene
B. a person providing the background knowledge
C. a press conference
D. a news agency
27. Is it possible that the entire tale is but a garbled account of that voyage and Biarni another name for Leif?
A. detailed B. plausible C. distorted D. eye-witness
28. Isolated cases of disaffection - or harbingers of a mass cross-border movement that threatens Europe's economic stability? The question is pressing.
A. sign B. forerunner C. messenger D. vanguard
29. The man we met this morning grows many kinds of plants in his garden, most of which are flowers including succulents and cacti.
A. rises B. raises C. plants D. plows
30. The scientist contested the assumption of previous scientists that the fate of human beings could not be predicated.
A. respected B. supposed C. suspected D. assumed
31. One's knowledge of the world, according to humanists, is largely derived by observation, experience and their analysis of the things they observe and experience.
A. come from B. determined C. resulted in D. resulted from
32. In the last 10 years we have all witnessed an impressive growth in our knowledge about the environments.
A. imperative B. observable C. sustainable D. expressive
33. In our culture and in our eyes success all too often means simply outdoing other people by virtue of achievement judged by some single scale - income or honors - and coming out at "the top".
A. outfitting B. outbidding C. outraging D. outshining
34. Social taboos remained strong. Gambling was virtually prohibited except on the racecourses, and drinking of alcohol was discouraged by the closing of hotels at six o'clock and by the shortage of bottle beer.
A. factually B. eventually C. consequently D. significantly
35. Everyone must be responsible for their own behavior, and most of the young people today are interested, as far as I can perceive, in taking their knocks, just as adults must take theirs.
A. taking their jobs B. sharing their ideas
C. assuming their responsibilities D. shaking off their responsibilities
Part 3 Correcting Grammatical Errors
This part consists of 15 sentences in which there is an underlined part that indicates a grammatical error. Below each sentence, there are four choices respectively marked by letters A, B, C, D. You are to select the ONE choice and replace the underlined element(s) so that the error is erased and corrected. There is only one right answer. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
36. A survey asked British mums who work outside the home what they would most like for Mother's Day. And what did they reply? "Flowers? Chocolates? Dinner in Paris? " No, what 72% wanted was this: a little bit of time for mother.
A. to myself B. to mom C. for mom D. by myself
37. Of course, nobody ever thought the prime minister's job shall be easy.
A. would B. could C. will D. should
38. Downing Street is fighting fiercely for something it hopes it shall control: its reputation. "[The BBC] is now saying, 'Nobody ever said the prime minister told a lie,' but that's exactly what they're saying," Alastair Campbell, Blair's director of communications, told Newsweek. "That's pretty heavy."
A. could B. would C. can D. will
39. The made-in-America idea of the global brand has built a name that people will buy on faith, and the pioneer was Coca-Cola.
A. is building B. is to build C. was to build D. was building
40. For the least, American roots are no longer an easy selling point. Through much of the postwar period, US brands could play off this cachet; Levi's ad campaigns used wholesome themes of boy-meets-girl in a heartland American setting until the early 1990s.
A. At least B. At the least C. At most D. At the most
41. For me and my other classmates, trying to fathom what happened to our old school friend, we may never know if we really would grow up with a future terrorist.
A. grow up B. are growing up
C. grew up D. shall grow up
42. When I was an editor, I always preferred to apologise promptly, what the merits of the case, rather than face the expense and, importantly, the time consuming complexities and debilitating worry of litigation, libel being one of the least satisfactory branches of the law.
A. whichever, more importantly B. whatever, more important
C. whichever, more important C. whatever, more importantly
43. One morning my patience was growing thin during Mark talked once too often, and then I made a novice-teacher's mistake.
A. when B. as C. while D. whenever
44. One of the key features of CBI is the use of authentic "input" - in other words, "real" reading but listening material: magazine and newspaper articles, poems, short stories, brochures, excerpts from textbooks written for native speakers of English, radio interviews, lectures, and advertisements.
A. and B. or C. and/or D. Nil
45. In each person's life there are three stages. When one was young, people said, "He will do something." As he grew older and did nothing, they said, "He could do something if he found himself." When he was white-haired, people said of him, "He might do something if he could try anything."
A. He should have done something if he has tried something
B. He would have done something if he should have tried anything
C. He might do something if he would try something.
D. He might have done something if he had tried anything
46. China not only will endeavor to curb its population growth, but will also upgrade the education of its citizens.
A. will not only … but also will B. will not only … but also will
C. will not only … but also D. not only … but will also
47. Of course, the notion suspects that while people work 50 weeks a year, their output is greater than they work 46 or 47 weeks.
A. predicts … even if B. assumes … if
C. assumes … when D. predicts … when
48. If they will not be able to reach agreement before the conference, they shall lose a good opportunity of involving themselves to do the project.
A. will be unable … to involving B. are unable … to involve
C. are not be able … to involve D. will be able … to involving
49. I was standing behind him and I did see Sandra handing the letter to Joe.
A. hand B. has handed C. handed D. was handing
50. The President was talking to all the department heads while a group of unexpected important clients had arrived for a talk with him.
A. when … were arriving B. as … had arrived
C. when … arriving D. when … arrived
Section 2: Reading Comprehension (50 Points, 70 minutes)
In this section you will find after each of the passages a number of questions or unfinished statements about the passage, each with four (A. B. C and D) suggested answers or ways of finishing. You must choose the one which you think fits best. Then mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
Questions 51-55 are based on the following passage.
To Err Is Human
by Lewis Thomas
Everyone must have had at least one personal experience with a computer error by this time. Bank balances are suddenly reported to have jumped from $379 into the millions, appeals for charitable contributions are mailed over and over to people with crazy sounding names at your address, department stores send the wrong bills, utility companies write that they're turning everything off, that sort of thing. If you manage to get in touch with someone and complain, you then get instantaneously typed, guilty letters from the same computer, saying, "Our computer was in error, and an adjustment is being made in your account."
These are supposed to be the sheerest, blindest accidents. Mistakes are not believed to be the normal behavior of a good machine. If things go wrong, it must be a personal, human error, the result of fingering, tampering a button getting stuck, someone hitting the wrong key. The computer, at its normal best, is infallible.
I wonder whether this can be true. After all, the whole point of computers is that they represent an extension of the human brain, vastly improved upon but nonetheless human, superhuman maybe. A good computer can think clearly and quickly enough to beat you at chess, and some of them have even been programmed to write obscure verse. They can do anything we can do, and more besides.
It is not yet known whether a computer has its own consciousness, and it would be hard to find out about this. When you walk into one of those great halls now built for the huge machines, and standing listening, it is easy to imagine that the faint, distant noises are the sound of thinking, and the turning of the spools gives them the look of wild creatures rolling their eyes in the effort to concentrate, choking with information. But real thinking, and dreaming, are other matters. On the other hand, the evidence of something like an unconscious, equivalent to ours, are all around, in every mail. As extensions of the human brain, they have been constructed the same property of error, spontaneous, uncontrolled, and rich in possibilities.
51. The title of the writing "To Err Is Human" implies that
A. making mistakes is confined only to human beings.
B. every human being cannot avoid making mistakes.
C. all human beings are always making mistakes.
D. every human being is born to make bad mistakes.
52. The first paragraph implies that
A. computer errors are so obvious that one can hardly prevent it from happening.
B. the computer is so capable of making errors that none of them is avoidable.
C. computers make such errors as miscalculation and inaccurate reporting.
D. Computers can't think so their errors are natural and unavoidable.
53. The author uses his hypothesis that "computers represents an extension of the human brain" in order to indicate that
A. human beings are not infallible, nor are computers.
B. computers are bound to make as many errors as human beings.
C. errors made by computers can be avoided the same as human mistakes can be avoided.
D. computers are made by human beings and so are their errors.
54. The rhetoric the author employed in writing the third paragraph, especially the sentence "A good computer can think clearly and quickly enough to beat you at chess…" is usually referred to in writing as
55. The author compared the faint and distant sound of the computer to the sound of thinking and regarded it as the product of
A. dreaming and thinking
B. some property of errors
Questions 56-60 are based on the following passage.
The Frugal Gourmet Cooks American
by Jeff Smith
Our real American foods have come from our soil and have been used by many groups —— those who already lived here and those who have come here to live. The Native Americans already had developed an interesting cuisine using the abundant foods that were so prevalent.
The influence that the English had upon our national eating habits is easy to see. They were a tough lot, those English, and they ate in a tough manner. They wiped their mouths on the tablecloth, if there happened to be one, and they ate until you would expect them to burst. European travelers to this country in those days were most often shocked by American eating habits, which included too much fat and too much salt and too much liquor. Not much has changed! And, the Revolutionists refused to use the fork since it marked them as Europeans. The fork was not absolutely common on the American dinner table until about the time of the Civil War, the 1860s. Those English were a tough lot.
Other immigrant groups added their own touches to the preparation of our New World food products. The groups that came still have a special sense of self-identity through their ancestral heritage, but they see themselves as Americans. This special self-identity through your ancestors who came from other lands was supposed to disappear in this country. The term melting pot was first used in reference to America in the late 1700s, so this belief that we would all become the same has been with us for a long time. Thank goodness it has never worked. The various immigrant groups continue to add flavor to the pot, all right, but you can pick out the individual flavors easily.
The largest ancestry group in America is the English. There are more people in America who claim to have come from English blood than there are in England. But is their food English? Thanks be to God, it is not! It is American. The second largest group is the Germans, then the Irish, the Afro-Americans, the French, the Italians, the Scottish, and the Polish. The Mexican and American Indian groups are all smaller than any of the above, though they were the original cooks in this country.
56. Which of the following statements is nearly identical in meaning with the sentence "they ate until you would expect them to burst" in the second paragraph?
A. You bet they would never stop to eat till they are full.
B. What you can expect is that they would not stop eating unless there was no more food.
C. The only thing you would expect is that they wouldn't stop eating till they had had enough of the food.
D. the only thing is that they wouldn't stop eating till they felt sick.
57. Which of the following statements is Not true?
A. English people had bad table manners.
B. American food was exclusively unique in its flavors and varieties.
C. American diet contained a lot of fat, salt and liquor.
D. Europeans were not at all accustomed to the American way of eating.
58. The author's attitude towards the American food is that
A. American food is better than foods from other countries.
B. American food is superior to European foods.
C. the European food had helped enrich the flavors and varieties of the American foods.
D. people from other countries could still identify from the American foods the food that was unique to their countries.
59. Immigrant groups, when they got settled down in the United States, still have had their own sense of self-identity because
A. their foods are easily identified among all the foods Americans eat.
B. their foods stand out in sharp contrast to foods of other countries.
C. they know pretty well what elements of the American food are of their own countries' origin.
D. they know pretty well how their foods contribute to American cuisine.
60. Which of the following statements is true?
A. People from other cultures or nations start to lose their self-identity once they get settled down in America.
B. The "melting pot" is supposed to melt all the foods but in reality it doesn't.
C. The special sense of self-identity of people from other countries can't maintain once they become Americans.
D. The "melting pot" finds it capable of melting all the food traditions into the American tradition.
Questions 61-64 are based on the following passage.
"It's like being bitten to death by ducks." That's how one mother described her constant squabbles with her eleven-year-old daughter. And she's hardly alone in the experience. The arguments almost always involve mundane matters - taking out the garbage, coming home on time, cleaning up the bedroom. But despite its banality, this relentless bickering takes its adolescents - particularly mothers - report lower levels of life satisfaction, less marital happiness, and more general distress than parents of younger children. Is this continual arguing necessary?
For the past two years, my students and I have been examining the day-to-day relationships of parents and young teenagers to learn how and why family ties change during the transition from childhood into adolescence. Repeatedly, I am struck by the fact that, despite considerable love between most teens and their parents, they can't help sparring. Even in the closest of families, parents and teenagers squabble and bicker surprisingly often - so often, in fact, that we hear impassioned recountings of these arguments in virtually every discussion we have with parents or teenagers. One of the most frequently heard phrases on our interview tapes is, "We usually get along but …"
As psychologist Anne Petersen notes, the subject of parent-adolescent conflict has generated considerable controversy among researchers and clinicians. Until about twenty years ago, our views of such conflict were shaped by psychoanalytic clinicians and theorists, who argued that spite and revenge, passive aggressiveness and rebelliousness toward parents are all normal, even healthy, aspects of adolescence. But studies conducted during the 1970s on samples of average teenagers and their parents (rather than those who spent Wednesday afternoons on analysts' couches) challenged the view that family storm and stress was inevitable or pervasive. These surveys consistently showed that three-fourths of all teenagers and parents, here and abroad, feel quite close to each other and report getting along very well. Family relations appeared far more pacific than professionals and the public had believed.
61. According to the passage, parents and teenagers are always at loggerheads with each other over
A. the careless attitude of teenagers toward their parents' work pressure.
B. who should take the lion's share of the housework.
C. the finger-pointing attitude of the parents toward their children.
D. disagreements on each other's behavioral patterns.
62. The parents-children relationship changes from the relative positive to the relative negative when
A. the children reach 7 or 8 years of age.
B. the children reach 13 or 14 years of age.
C. the parents begin to have too many household responsibilities.
D. the parents begin to feel there is too much burden in the house.
63. Studies conducted during the 1970s on parents-children relationship indicated that
A. adolescence did not cause as much trouble as clinicians and theorists had stated.
B. Children's aggressiveness and rebelliousness were growing.
C. Children-parents relationship was declining.
D. teenagers became even more abhorrent of their parents.
64. The author's own discoveries from the day-to-day relationships of parents and young teenagers indicate that
A. storm and stress between the parents and the teenagers are normal.
B. storm and conflicts are unavoidable.
C. parents can never avoid the conflicts unless they love their children.
D. parents' strictness lead to their children's disapproval of them.
Questions 65-71 are based on the following passage.
Questions of education are frequently discussed as if they bore no relation to the social system in which and for which the education is carried on. This is one of the commonest reasons for the unsatisfactoriness of the answers. It is only within a particular social system that a system of education has any meaning. If education today seems to deteriorate, if it seems to become more and more chaotic and meaningless, it is primarily because we have no settled and satisfactory arrangement of society, and because we have both vague and diverse opinions about the kind of society we want. Education is a subject which cannot be discussed in a void: our questions raise other questions, social, economic, financial, political. And the bearings are on more ultimate problems even than these: to know what we want in education we must know what we want in general, we must derive our theory of education from our philosophy of life. The problem turns out to be a religious problem.
One might almost speak of a "crisis" of education. There are particular problems for each country, for each civilization, just as there are particular problems for each parent; but there is also a general problem for the whole of the civilized world, and for the uncivilized so far as it is being taught by its civilized superiors; a problem which may be as acute in Japan, in China or in India as in Britain or Europe or America. The progress (I do not mean extension) of education for several centuries has been from one aspect a drift, from another aspect a push; for it has tended to be dominated by the idea of "getting on". The individual wants more education, not as an aid to acquisition of wisdom but in order to get on; the nation wants more in order to get the better of other nations, the class wants to get the better of other classes, or at least to hold its own against them. Education is associated therefore with technical efficiency on the one hand, and with rising in society on the other. Education becomes something to which everybody has a "right", even irrespective of his capacity; and when everyone gets it - by that time, of course, in a diluted and adulterated form - then we naturally discover that education is no longer an infallible means of getting on, and people turn to another fallacy: that of "education for leisure" - without having revised their notions of "leisure". As soon as this precious motive of snobbery evaporates, the zest has gone out of education; for it is not going to mean more money, or more power over others, or a better social position, or at least a steady and respectable job, few people are going to take the trouble to acquire education. For deteriorate it as you may, education is still going to demand a good deal of drudgery. And the majority of people are incapable of enjoying leisure - that is, unemployment plus an income and a status responsibility - in any but pretty simple form - such as balls propelled by hand, by foot, and by engines or tools of various types; in playing cards; or in watching dogs, horses or other men engage in feats of speed and skill.
65. The commonest discussion on education usually ends with our dissatisfaction of the answers because
A. the discussions are seemingly facts-related.
B. people usually discuss the issue on too narrow a base.
C. the discussions are usually sidetracked by irrelevant issues.
D. the discussions are of little value educationally and socially.
66. The author suggests that the discussion of the problem of education, if one wishes it to be fruitful, must
A. not deviate from social evils that play a role in education.
B. combine the issues of education with the issues of social problems.
C. consider the purpose of educating the citizens.
D. consider the whole of the social system which education serves.
67. According to the passage, our education is seemingly going down hill and becoming a messy business because
A. our society is not properly governed.
B. we can't perfect our society in terms of its organization.
C. our society lacks a common goal and a well-knitted system.
D. the arrangement of our society is not education-oriented.
68. Satisfactory answers to educational issues cannot be found unless
A. the philosophy of life is seriously researched into.
B. we bring into consideration the political and economic significance.
C. the financial and economic issue are considered.
D. we can inclusively consider the general goal of education.
69. The "crisis" of education for the whole world, whatever the nations or countries, according to the author, results from
A. the misconception of the genuine role of education.
B. the lack of a common goal in the education system.
C. the lack of well-knitted social structures.
D. the incompetence of educators and society governors.
70. According to the author, the target of education should enable people to
A. gain an upper hand over other people.
B. acquire knowledge that may quench their thirst.
C. get leisure and choice rather than knowledge.
D. get wisdom rather than other elements.
71. Which of the following statement is NOT true?
A. Education is closely connected with the social demands.
B. Education deprives people of the political rights.
C. Education has many problems to be solved.
D. People get education because they want to take advantage of other people.
Questions 72-79 are based on the following passage.
Ask most people to list what makes them like someone on first meeting and they'll tell you personality, intelligence, sense of humor. But they're probably deceiving themselves. The characteristic that impresses people the most, when meeting anyone from a job applicant to a blind date, is appearance. And unfair and unenlightened as it may seem, attractive people are frequently preferred over their less attractive peers.
Research begun in the early 1970s has shown that not only do good looks influence such things as choice of friends, lovers, and mates, but that they can also affect school grades, selection for jobs, and even the outcome of a trial. Psychologist Ellen Berscheid of the University of Minnesota and psychologist Elaine Walster, then at the University of Wisconsin, were among the first researchers to deal with the topic of attractiveness. Their seminal 1974 paper on the subject showed that the more attractive a person, the more desirable characteristics others will attribute to him or her. Attractive people are viewed as being happier, more sensitive, more interesting, warmer, more poised, more sociable, and as having better character than their less attractive counterparts. Psychologist Karen Dion of the University of Toronto has dubbed this stereotypical view as: "What is beautiful is good."
Our current work at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia, with colleagues and students, focuses on the role that appearance plays in judgments made about people. Our studies have been done in a variety of settings: basic research laboratories, beauty and cosmetics industry labs, plastic and reconstructive surgery practices, psychiatric hospitals, and psychotherapeutic consulting rooms.
One topic that has led to many avenues of research is how attractiveness influences sex-typing - the tendency of people to attribute certain stereo-typical qualities to each sex. Besides being perceived as sensitive, kind, interesting, and generally happy, attractive people tend to fit easily into sexual stereotypes, according to a study done by Barry Gillen, a social psychologist in our department.
Gillen speculated that attractive people possess two types of "goodness," one related to and the other unrelated to their sex. To test this hypothesis he showed a group of students photographs of both men and women of high, moderate, and low attractiveness, as determined by the previous rankings of students according to a seven-point scale (contrary to popular belief, researchers usually don't use the Bo Derek scale of 10). The judges were asked to rate the subjects according to the masculinity, femininity, and social desirability scales of the Bern Sex Role Inventory. Gillen's study found that attractive women were perceived as being more feminine, and that attractive men were viewed as being more masculine than their less attractive counterparts. This suggests a second stereotype: "What is beautiful is sex-typed."
One implication of Gillen's work that we wanted to test was whether good looks are a disadvantage for some people, especially women, in work situations that conflict with sexual stereotypes. By the late 1970s, there was already a sizable body of literature documenting the problems women face because of sex-role stereotypes. We speculated that attractive women might be at a real disadvantage when they aspire to occupations in which stereotypically masculine traits - such as being strong, independent, and decisive - are thought to be required for success.
To test that possibility we did a study with Gillen and Steve Burns, a student in our department, in which professional personnel consultants were hired to rate a "job applicant's" suitability for six positions. We matched the positions for the skill required, the prestige offered, and the degree of supervisory independence allowed. Two jobs were stereotypically masculine (automobile salesperson and wholesale hardware shipping and receiving clerk), two feminine (telephone operator and office receptionist) and two were sex-neutral (motel desk clerk and photographic darkroom assistant).
Each of the seventy-two personnel consultants who participated received a resume package for an individual that contained the typical kinds of information that a job applicant might submit: academic standing, a list of hobbies and interests, specific skills and recommendations from teachers and counselors. All of the resumes were identical with the exception of the name ("John" vs. "Janet" Williams) and the inclusion of a photograph of the applicant. Photographs showed either an extremely attractive applicant or an unattractive one, previously judged on an attractiveness scale.
72. The author suggests that when most people instantly take to another person, it is usually the person's
A. appearance that hinders his/her inclination.
B. intelligence that triggers his/her interest.
C. appearance that touches off his/her inclination
D. sweet personality and sense of humor that arouses his/her interest.
73. It's obvious that the author strongly believes that
A. good-looking people face unexpected encounters.
B. attractive people gain more advantages than unattractive ones.
C. unattractive people find it hard to be expressive.
D. good-looking people can get the better of other people.
74. Karen Dion is one of those researchers who deem that
A. the most beautiful thing in the world is one's attractive appearance.
B. all beautiful things are good things.
C. attractive appearance is traditionally devalued.
D. it's an old-fashioned view to value attractive appearance.
75. The author in Paragraph 3 lists a variety of settings of their research in order to
A. show that they are concerned with the issue under discussion.
B. convince readers of all the effort they have put into the research.
C. convince readers of the validity of their research result.
D. demonstrate they have spent more time than other researchers.
76. Gillen assumes that people's perception of one's attractiveness is sex-related, and is not sex-related, but the test result of his hypothesis indicated that
A. sex plays a major role in people's perception of one's attractiveness
B. sex does not influence people's perception of one's attractiveness.
C. both sex and other elements play a role in one's perception of attractiveness.
D. elements other than sex play a role in people's perception of attractiveness.
77. The implication of Gillen's work is to find out
A. whether one's attractiveness influences people's judgement of their success.
B. how one's attractiveness has an impact on people's judgement of their success.
C. in what way one's attractiveness affects people's judgement of their chances to find better jobs.
D. whether one's attractiveness does have more advantages in gaining people's approval than unattractiveness.
78. The result of the author's attempt to co-study the possibilities with Gillen
A. did not show that attractiveness has advantages.
B. indicated that more attractive people get more chances to be hired for jobs.
C. gave no indication whether attractiveness influences one's chances to be hired for jobs.
D. did demonstrate that more attractive people have more chances to succeed.
79. What does "typical kinds of information" that a job applicant might submit mean?
A. It means the information most job applicants would usually include in their resume.
B. It refers to the information that a job applicant must submit to the personnel manager for his reference.
C. It stands for all the information required of a job applicant.
D. It means the kinds of information that may influence the personnel manager's decision.
Questions 80-83 are based on the following passage.
The Future of Warfare
The latest revolution in warfare is based on the application of information technology to weapons. It involves gathering huge amounts of data; processing them so that relevant information is displayed on a screen; and then destroying targets, at much greater distance and with much greater accuracy than was previously possible. These changes favor attacks rather than defense: large, easy-to-hit objects - whether military bases, ship, tanks or concentration of troops - are increasingly vulnerable to weapons such as cruise missiles steered by satellite beams.
All this is bad news for America's potential foes. Russia, a once and perhaps future rival, has neither the money nor the know-how to imitate the latest American advances. Other countries with more cash to spare aspire to master enough of the new technology to challenge American power locally. China, for instance, is plainly flexing its muscles in Asia. Iran wants to develop cruise missiles to allow it to keep other countries' ships away from the Gulf. But the American's mastery of the new warfare will make it increasingly foolish to make them on a high-intensity shooting war, as Saddam Hussein did. So if anyone wants to have a go at Uncle Sam, he will probably do so by other methods, such as ballistic missiles, biological weapons or terrorism.
The revolution also has implications for America's friends. By increasing American might, it may encourage the country's unilateralist element to think it can win wars without having to work with troublesome partners. In any event, working with allies will probably become more bothersome: their low-tech armies may be incapable of plugging into American information networks. Moreover, given the increasing vulnerability of military bases to missile attack, America may wish to withdraw its soldiers from Europe and Asia. When necessary, I will be able to strike its enemies with long-range weapons and more intervention forces.
80. According to the passage, the advantage of using information technology in warfare lies in
A. the longer distance the weapons can shoot.
B. the speed of winning a war.
C. the longer distance and more accuracy of the shooting.
D. the accurate calculation of the military data used in wars.
81. Large and observable targets such as military bases and ships are
A. more prone to be struck by modern weapons.
B. more easily found by enemies who want to attack them.
C. equipped with more power against missile attack.
D. stronger in counter-attacking cruise missiles.
82. According to the author, the trouble for the technological advances of America is that
A. their enemies can quickly imitate their weapons.
B. their allies are unable to produce the same kind of weapons.
C. many other countries are not financially capable of producing weapons that are in line with American weapons.
D. their enemies may come up with other dangerous weapons.
83. The trouble, according to the passage, for American to increase its military power is that
A. its allies may not be able to follow the American way of attacking other countries.
B. America may lose its allies for one reason or another.
C. America has to withdraw their armies from Asia and other areas.
D. America's rivals can use the same kind of weapons to attack America.
Questions 84-90 are based on the following passage.
Imagine a society in which cash no longer exists. Instead "cash" is electronic, as in bank-card systems. Currency and coin are abandoned.
The immediate benefits would be profound and fundamental. Theft of cash would become impossible. Bank robberies and cash-register robberies would simply cease to occur. Attacks on shopkeepers, taxi drivers, and cashiers would all end. Purse snatchings would become a thing of the past. Urban streets would become safer. Retail shops in once-dangerous areas could operate in safety. Security costs and insurance rates would fall. Property values would rise. Neighborhoods would improve.
Drug traffickers and their clients, burglars and receivers of stolen property, arsonists for hire, and bribe-takers would no longer have the advantage of using untraceable currency. Electronic "money" would leave incriminating trails of data, resulting in more arrests and convictions. These prosecutions, in turn, would inhibit further crimes.
The impact of the monetary change on underground economies would be nearly as dramatic as the effect on crime. In the United States, the underground economy is estimated at between 10% and 28% of the gross national product. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) researches suggest that almost all hidden labor is paid in currency.
In a society devoid of physical money, a change from cash to recorded electronic money would be accompanied by a flow of previously unpaid income-tax revenues running in the tens of billions of dollars. As a result, income-tax rates could be lowered and the national debt reduced.
Cash has been the root of much social and economic evil. The emergence of electronic funds-transfer technology makes it possible to change the nature of money and to divorce it from evil. Eighty percent of Americans regularly use credit cards. The development of a federal system to handle the country's 300 billion annual cash transactions in the United States electronically is within reach.
A national electronic-money system would operate as debit-card system. Each individual's "money" would be held in his money-system account. A transaction would effect an instant transfer of "money" from his account to that of another account holder.
The principal differences between a national electronic-money system and commercial bank-card systems would be: The money system would be federally operated; payment would constitute "legal tender"; system-account holders would be able to receive as well as pay out funds by use of their accounts; and funds would be transferable between private-account holders as well as between merchants and private-account holders.
Only cash would be supplanted by electronic money. The use of checks, drafts, money orders, traveler's checks, cashier's checks, as well as letters of credit, acceptances, and other financial instruments would remain in regular use. Credit card and automatic-teller-machine systems (ATMs) would not necessarily change, although you could no longer obtain cash at ATMs.
84. To abandon the use of cash, according to the author, can in many ways help people
A. avoid many problems that upset the society.
B. get rid of petty theft and property robbery
C. remove all the trouble that bewilders them.
D. get a better living environment
85. Electronic "money" refers to
A. money that denies direct transactions.
B. the bank paper and coins.
C. money issued by the electronic industry.
D. money that is hard to obtain.
86. "Hidden labor" in this passage refers to labor that is paid in
A. electronic money.
B. money that is hard to count.
C. after-tax money.
D. money that is untaxed.
87. Which of the following pairs of terms is identical in meaning?
A. electronic money and coin
B. coin and paper money
C. electronic money and funds-transfer
D. physical money and electronic money
88. According to the author, we must change
A. the forms of the money in order to catch thieves and robbers.
B. the nature of money in order to root out the cause of evils.
C. the availability of money so that evils can be stopped.
D. the use of money so that income-tax can be reduced.
89. The greatest disadvantage of using cash is that it
A. encourages people to steal.
B. makes money readily available for people in need of it.
C. enables people to engage in many kinds of illegal activities.
D. discourages people from paying tax.
90. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. When the electronic money is used, the state will be able to collect more tax.
B. All monetary systems should aim at making cash unobtainable.
C. When cash is unobtainable, the rate of crimes can be reduced.
D. A national commercial bank-card system should also be abolished.
Questions 91-95 are based on the following passage.
It is amazing how many people still say, "I never dream", for it is now decades since it was established that everyone has over a thousand dreams a year, however few of these nocturnal productions are remembered on waking. Even the most confirmed "non-dreamers" will remember dreams if woken up systematically during the rapid eye movement (REM) periods. These are periods of light sleep during which the eye-balls move rapidly back and forth under the closed lids and the brain becomes highly activated, which happens three or four times every night of normal sleep.
It is a very interesting question why some people remember dreams regularly - perhaps several a night on occasion - while others remember hardly any at all under normal conditions. In considering this, it is important to bear in mind that the dream tends to be an elusive phenomenon for all of us. We normally never recall a dream unless we awaken directly from it, and even then it has a tendency to fade quickly into oblivion.
Given this general elusiveness of dreams, the basic factor that seems to determine whether a person remembers them or not is the same as that which determines all other memory, namely degree of interest. Dream researchers have made a broad classification of people into "recallers" - those who remember at least one dream a month - and "non-recallers", who remember fewer than this. Tests have shown that cool, analytical people with a very rational approach to their feelings tend to recall fewer dreams than those whose attitude to life is open and flexible. Engineers generally recall fewer dreams than artists. It is not surprising to discover that in Western society, women normally recall more dreams than men, since women are traditionally allowed an instinctive, feeling approach to life.
In modern urban-industrial culture, feeling and dreams tend to be treated as frivolities which must be firmly subordinated to the realities of life. We pay lip-service to the inner life of imagination as it expresses itself in the arts, but in practice relegate music, poetry, drama and painting to the level of spare-time activities, valued mainly for the extent to which they refresh us for a return to work. We discourage our children from paying much attention to anything that might detract from the serious business of studying for exams or making a living in the "real" world of industry and commerce.
91. Many people are unaware that they dream because
A. their dreams fade very quickly.
B. they do not recall their dreams.
C. they sleep too heavily.
D. they wake up frequently.
92. During REM periods, people
A. dream less.
B. wake up more easily.
C. remember their dreams more clearly.
D. experience discomfort.
93. People who remember their dreams do so because they
A. find the content relevant.
B. are awakened suddenly.
C. have retentive memories.
D. are regular dreamer.
94. Those who recall their dreams tend to be
95. The writer believes that, in Western society, dreams are considered to be
Questions 96-100 are based on the following passage.
In most aspects of medieval life, the closed corporation prevailed. But compared to modern life, the medieval urban family was a very open unit: for it included, as part of the normal household, not only relatives by blood but a group of industrial workers as well as domestics whose relation was that of secondary members of family. This held for all classes, for young men from the upper classes got their knowledge of the world by serving as waiting men in a noble family: what they observed and overheard at mealtime was part of their education. Apprentices lived as members of the master craftsman's family. If marriage was perhaps deferred longer for men than today, the advantages of home life were not entirely lacking, even for the bachelor.
The workshop was a family; likewise the merchant's counting house. The members ate together at the same table, worked in the same rooms, slept in the same or common hall, converted at night into dormitories, joined in the family prayers, participated in the common amusements.
The intimate unity of domesticity and labour dictated the major arrangement within the medieval dwelling-house itself. Houses were usually built in continuous rows around the perimeter of their gardens. Freestanding houses, unduly exposed to the elements, wasteful of the land on each side, harder to heat, were relatively scarce: even farmhouses would be part of a solid block that included the stables, barns and granaries. The materials for the houses came out of the local soil, and they varied with the region. Houses in the continuous row forming the closed perimeter of a block, with guarded access on the ground floor, served as a domestic wall: a genuine protection against felonious entry in troubled times.
The earliest houses would have small window openings, with shutters to keep out the weather; then later, permanent windows of oiled cloth, paper and eventually glass. In the fifteenth century, glass, hitherto so costly it was used only for public buildings, became more frequent, at first only in the upper part of the window. A typical sixteenth-century window would have been divided into three panels: the upper-most panel, fixed, would be of diamond-paned glass; the next two panels would have shutters that opened inwards; thus the amount of exposure to sunlight and air could be controlled, yet on inclement days, both sets of shutters could be closed, without altogether shutting out our light. On any consideration of hygiene and ventilation this type of window was superior to the all-glass window that succeeded it, since glass excludes the bactericidal ultra-violet rays.
96. The urban family unit described in the passage
A. consisted of people related by blood.
B. was made up of workers, servants and family members.
C. excluded domestics and craftsmen.
D. was composed of members of the same social class.
97. How did young noblemen receive their education?
A. They were taught in their own homes.
B. They received training in practical skills.
C. They were sent to other households.
D. They were educated with other young men.
98. According to the writer, why were there few free-standing houses?
A. Building land was expensive.
B. Such houses were costly to construct.
C. Such houses suffered the effects of bad weather.
D. There was no room left for a garden.
99. Where could you have expected to find glass used in the fourteenth century?
A. In small windows in private houses.
B. In buildings designed for public use.
C. Forming one part of a window protection.
D. Behind protective shutters.
100. In the writer's opinion, all-glass windows were not an improvement because they were less
Section 3: Cloze Test (25 Points)
In the following passage, there are 25 blanks representing words that are missing from the context. You are to provide each of the blanks with the missing word. The time for this section is 25 minutes. Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.
Social Responsibility in Science and Art
Compared with the immediate practical responsibility of the scientist, the _____(1) of the artist must seem puny. The decision which faces ____(2) is not one of practical action: of course he will try to throw this ____(3) into the scale, and that weight, if he is a writer or ____(4) a painter of genius, may have its effect. For the novelist - in our society the only artist who has a mass audience and at the same time effective economic control of the means of addressing ____(5) - the hope of some decisive influence is a reasonable ____(6). For him, since he takes of all artists _____(7) is probably the largest portion of his culture as material, there is no _____(8) escape from the necessity for treating the content of his work seriously than ____(9) is for the social psychologist he is coming so closely to resemble. The dichotomy which people have tried to establish between artistic proficiency and _____(10) content is becoming unbearable to almost all sensitive minds. I doubt if it has ever been real - we might have admired Shelley as ____(11) if he had been indifferent to such things as war and tyranny, though I doubt it; certainly ____(12) he been indifferent we should never have been led by ____(13).
There is no Hippocratic oath in literature, and I am not attempting to draw ____(14) up. As far as I am concerned, the artist is a human being writ large and his ____(15) are the ethics of any human being. Perhaps I can best illustrate ____(16) seems to me the new _____(17) of those duties of assertion and refusal from one writer, and I do not ____(18) it is without significance that this _____(19) projects the whole situation of choice into a scientific parable, the ____(20) of a pestilence: a ____(21) many human ____(22) are called to fight against, called not by any supernatural ____(23) but by the simple fact that the fight against a plague is _____(24) like a biological human _____(25).