Ⅰ. Multiple Choice: (15%)
Directions: In this section, you are given 15 questions beneath each of which are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. You are to make the best choice either to complete the incomplete statement or to answer the question. One point is given to each correct choice.
1. Which of the following is NOT emphasized by traditional linguists?
A. Correctness. B. The purity of a language.
C. Literary excellence. D. Communication.
2. _______ the first language is used in the teaching of the second language in the Grammar-Translation Method.
A. A lot of B. A little of
C. Little of D. Not any
3. According to the Direct Method, every language has _______ structure.
A. similar B. its own
C. co-related D. the same
4. The Direct Method _______ the similarities between the first language acquisition and second language learning.
A. is against B. overemphasizes
C. draws on D. pays no attention to
5. Advocates of the Direct Method consider students' mother tongue as _______ system in learning the second language.
A. an interfering B. a helping
C. an integrating D. a similar
6. In order to find ways of associating the new materials with ideas or objects with which the pupils are familiar, D. Ausubel would prefer _______.
A. straightforward explanation and exposition B. pupil-generated discovery methods
C. rote learning D. inductive and deductive inference
7. Of the three procedures followed in a cognitive classroom, which can be viewed as the performance stage?
A. Exercises. B. Application activities.
C. Introduction of new materials. D. None of the above.
8. Chomsky and others claimed that every normal human being was born with a(n) _______.
A. ADL B. LDA
C. LAD D. ALD
9. The authors of the book The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom are _______.
A. Chomsky and Terrell B. Krashen and Halliday
C. Krashen and Terrell D. Chomsky and Krashen
10. The formula i+1 put forward by Krashen means input that contains structures _______ the learner's present level.
A. greatly above B. greatly below
C. somewhat above D. somewhat below
11. According to the affective filter hypothesis, which of the following is NOT an affective variable related to second language acquisition?
A. Motivation. B. Self-confidence.
C. Anxiety. D. Vocabulary.
12. Which one of the following activities is NOT included in the acquisition activities in the Natural Approach?
A. Affective-humanistic activities. B. Problem-solving activities.
C. Skill-getting activities. D. Content activities.
13. In the classroom, the 3DA emphasizes _______.
A. student's own responsibility of learning B. teachers‘ active role
C. practice and test D. practice and consolidation
14. From the mid-1970s the key concept in educational linguistics and language pedagogy is that of _______.
A. commnication or communicative competence
B. motivation in learning a foreign language
C. independence and autonomy in learning
D. language acquisition through the use of active trial
15. What do the three approaches (the Silent Way, Community Language Learning, and Suggestopaedia) have in common?
A. All stress the intrusion of the teacher into the learning process.
B. All lay emphasis on the individual and on personal learning strategies.
C. All view the learning of a second language the same as the learning of the first.
D. All three are deductive in the initial stage of the language learning process.
Ⅱ.Filling Blanks: (20% )
Directions: In this section there are 15 statements with 20 blanks. You are to fill each blank with ONE appropriate word. One point is given to each blank.
16. When discussing the rule of language, traditional linguists tended to take a _______ approach.
17. In the fifth century B.C., the ancient Greeks began to make a serious study of language in the realm of _______.
18. Leonard Bloomfield's book Language was once considered the _______ of linguistics.
19. The most important factor that made cognitive psychology dominant in the world is the development of the _______ technology.
20. Chomsky made the _______ between linguistic competence and linguistic performance.
21. According to some functional linguist, some utterance has no meaning at all if it is out of the context of _______.
22. Stephen Krashen holds that acquisition and learning have different _______ in the communication activities.
23. The relationship between the grammatical forms and their functions is not a _______ correspondence.
24. A single form can express a number of _______ and a single communicative function can be expressed by a number of _______.
25. In Hymes's views, “communicative competence” refers to the ability not only to apply grammatical rules of a language in order to form _______ correct sentences but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to _______.
26. Reinforcement which increases the likelihood of a response is known as _______ reinforcement.
27. The learning theory of Audiolingualism is the _______ psychology which is an empirically based approach to the study of human behaviour.
28. The basic theoretical principles of the Audiolingual Method reflect the influence of _______ linguistics and _______ psychology in language teaching.
29. According to the Oral Approach, it is an obvious requirement of any course that should proceed from _______ to difficult without _______ breaks.
30. Hornby, Gatenby and Wakefield analyzed the English language and classified its major _______ into sentence _______ which could be used to have oral practice.
Ⅲ. Matching: (15%)
Directions: This section consists of three groups of pairs listed in two columns, A and B. You are to match the one marked ①,②,③,④, or ⑤ in Column A with the one marked a, b, c, d, or e in Column B. One point is given to each pair you match.
A: period of development B: one feature of each period
① the 1890s a. uncertainty, meaning de-emphasized
② 1910-1940 b. attempts to establish foreign language as a school
③ the 1950s c. more emphasis on meaning
④ the 1960s d. attempts to solve language teaching problems by
⑤ the 1970s e. attempts to abandon the teacher-centred model
A: the main feature of the Audiolingual Method B: the advantage or disadvantage
associated with the feature
① emphasis on the teaching of listening and a. The use of language labs will allow each
speaking before reading and writing student to work at his own pace.
② emphasis on certain practice techniques: b. The technique of mim-mem and pattern
mimicry, memorization and pattern drills drills gives students more thorough
practice in using grammar patterns.
③ much use of tapes, language labs, and visual c. Students often fail to fully understand
aids the value of language.
④ tendency to manipulate language and disregard d. Students are not expected to make any
content spontaneous, personal contribution.
⑤ little or no grammatical explanation e. It achieves noticeable success in developing
aural comprehension and oral fluency.
A: the year B: the event
① 1882 a. the founding of the School of Applied Linguistics at Edinburgh University
② 1904 b. the start of the teaching of English as a second/foreign language as a
profession in Britain
③ 1908 c. the start of the reform movement
④ 1957 d. the publication of Jespersen's book How to Teach a Foreign Language
⑤ 1964 e. the founding of the International Association of Applied Linguisitics
Ⅳ. Questions for Brief Answers: (30%)
Directions: This section has six questions. You are to briefly answer them. Five points are given to each question.
34. What are the main features of the Communicative Approach?
35. What are the characteristics of Junior English for China and Senior English for China?
36. Why is the first language forbidden in the Direct Method classrooms?
37. What are the three crucial elements for learning to happen according to behaviourist psychology?
38. What are the limitations of the Cognitive Approach?
39. What was traditional linguists' attitude towards the written and spoken form of language?
V. Questions for Long Answers: (20%)
Directions: The two questions in this section are to be answered on the basis of your own teaching experience as well as the theoretical knowledge you've learned. Ten points are given to each question.
40. What are the main features of the Cognitive Approach? And in what aspects is the Cognitive Approach different from the Audiolingual Method?
41. On the basis of your teaching or learning experience can you discuss with us the advantages and disadvantages of the Grammar-Translation Method?