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2006-01-23 00:00


  Directions: In Section A, B and C you will hear everything ONLY ONCE. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct response to each question on the Colored Answer Sheet.


  Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.

  Now listen to the talk.

  1. Who is called the father of aeronautics?

  A) Sir George Cayley.

  B) William Henson.

  C) Professor Langley.

  D) Wilbur and Orville Wright.

  2. How did Sir George Cayley make the plane lighter?

  A) By using solid piece of wood.

  B) By using diagonal bracing.

  C) By using plastic planks.

  D) By using a propeller-driven engine.

  3. What was true of Stringfellow's model plane?

  A) It was 10 meter long.

  B) There was no engine equipped.

  C) It made a flight as far as 40 yards.

  D) It made over 2000 successful flights.

  4. What is true of Wright brothers' plane?

  A) It weighed about 852 pounds.

  B) It had got a 4-cylinder engine.

  C) It made 12 successful flights in one day.

  D) It remained in the air for 59 minutes on the last flight of the day.

  5. Which of the following statements is Not true?

  A) Sir George Cayley was an Englishman in the early 19th century.

  B) The Lilienthal brothers lost their lives in the experiment flight.

  C) Professor Langley was a mathematician.

  D) It was the Wright brothers who made the first successful flight.


  Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following question.

  Now listen to the interview.

  6. What is true of Saturday's match?

  A) Very exciting.

  B) Very dull.

  C) It was between the Gunners and the Leeds.

  D) It was won by the Wolves.

  7. Alan thinks that the Gunners should have scored ____.

  A) 1 goal.

  B) 2 goals.

  C) 3 goals.

  D) 5 goals.

  8. What is Not true of of the Gunners?

  A) They scored three in the first half.

  B) They should have done better last Saturday.

  C) They are second in the table now.

  D) They didn't do well in the second half of the season last year.

  9. Why are the Gunners likely to finish top of the league?

  A) Because they have got good players.

  B) Because the combination of the forwards is good.

  C) Because they have got an excellent coach.

  D) Because they have beaten Leeds at home.

  10. What do we learn from the interview?

  A) The performance of the Gunners so far is satisfactory.

  B) The commentator likes joking.

  C) The Gunners are at the top of the league.

  D) The Gunners will play Leeds at home after Christmas.


  Directions: In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONLY ONCE. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15-minute gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini lecture. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.


  Fill in each of the gaps with ONE suitable word. You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable.

  Chemistry plays an important role in our life.    The (16) of a clock, the clothes we wear, and or leathers are all made (17). The water we drink is chemically purified. The glass, (18) if the mirror, the manufacturing of light bulbs, the paint and plaster on our walls require chemistry. The cooking, digestion and assimilation of the food are all chemical (19). The construction of an automobile may require many kinds of chemically made (20).

  Chemistry and its (21) have helped us to live longer. The science of medicine also (22) heavily upon chemistry. And with (23) and antiseptics, survey is no longer crude and limited.

  Our increasing knowledge of the chemical (24) that take place in the human body results in great strides in modern medicine. Fortunately, most of us do not need a profound knowledge of chemistry, but some understanding of chemistry should be a part of the (25) of every educated person.












  Directions: The following passage contains ten errors. Each line contains a maximum of one error. In each case only one word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

  For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.

  For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "^" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end    of the line.

  For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.


  When ^ art museum wants a new exhibit,

  (1) an

  it (never/) buys things in finished form and hangs

  (2) never

  them on the wall. When a natural history museum

  wants an exhibition, it must often build it.


  Whenever you see the old film, even on made as early


  as ten years before, you cant help being strucked


  by the appearance of the woman taking part. Their

  hair-styles and make-up look dated; their shirts look

  either too long nor too short; their general appearance


  is, in fact, slightly ludicrous. The men taking part, on

  the other hand, are clearly recognizable. There is

  something about their appearance to suggest they belong


  to an entirely different age. This illusion is created

  by changed fashions. Over the years, the great


  majority of men has successfully resisted all attempts


  to make them to change their style of dress. The


  same cannot be said for women. Each year a few

  so-call top designers in Paris and London lay down


  on the law and women the whole world over run to


  obey. The decrees of the designers are unpredictable

  and dictatorial. Sometimes they decide arbitrarily that

  skirts will be short and waists will be height; hips


  are in and buttons are out.












  Directions: In this section there are four reading passages followed by fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.

  TEXT A Despite Denmarks manifest virtues, Danes never talk about how proud they are to be Danes. This would sound weird in Danish. When Danes talk to foreigners about Denmark, they always begin by commenting on its tininess, its unimportance, the difficulty of its language, the general small-mindedness and self indulgence of their countrymen and the high taxes. No Dane would look you in the eye and say "Denmark is a great country". You are supposed to figure this out for yourself. It is the land of the silk safety net, where almost half the national budget goes toward smoothing out lifes inequalities, and there is plenty of money for schools, day care, retraining programs, job seminars —— Danes love seminar: three days at a study center hearing about waste management is almost as good as a ski trip. It is a culture bombarded by English, in advertising, pop music, the Internet, and despite all the English that Danish absorbs —— there is no Danish Academy to defend against it —— old dialects persist in Jutland that can barely be understood by Copenhageners. It is the land where, as the saying goes, "Few have too much and fewer have too little", and a foreigner is struck by the sweet egalitarianism that prevails, where the lowliest clerk gives you a level gaze, where Sir and Madame have disappeared from common usage, even Mr. and Mrs. Its a nation of recyclers —— about 55% of Danish garbage gets made into something new —— and no nuclear power plants. Its a nation of tireless planners. Trains run on time. Things operate well in general. Such a nation of overachievers —— a brochure from the Ministry of Business and Industry says, "Denmark is one of the worlds cleanest and most organized countries, with virtually no pollution, crime, or poverty. Denmark is the most corruption-free society in the Northern Hemisphere." So, of course, ones heart lifts at any sighting of Danish sleaze: skinhead graffiti on buildings ("Foreigners Out of Denmark!"), broken beer bottles in the gutters, drunken teenagers slumped in the park. Nonetheless, it is an orderly land. You drive through a Danish town, it comes to an end at a stone wall, and on the other side is a field of barley, a nice clean line: town here, country there. It is not a nation of jaywalkers. People stand on the curb and wait for the red light to change, even if its 2 a.m. and theres not a car in sight. However, Danes dont think of themselves as a waiting-at-2-a.m.-for-the-green-light-people —— that is how they see Swedes and Germans. Danes see themselves as jazzy people, improvisers, more free spirited than Swedes, but the truth is (though one should not say it) that Danes are very much like Germans and Swedes. Orderliness is a main selling point. Denmark has few natural resources, limited manufacturing capability; its future in Europe will be as a broker, banker, and distributor of goods. You send your goods by container ship to Copenhagen, and these bright, young, English-speaking, utterly honest, highly disciplined people will get your goods around to Scandinavia, the Baltic States, and Russia. Airports, seaport, highways, and rail lines are ultramodern and well-maintained. The orderliness of the society doesnt mean that Danish lives are less messy or lonely than yours or mine, and no Dane would tell you so. You can hear plenty about bitter family feuds and the sorrows of alcoholism and about perfectly sensible people who went off one day and killed themselves. An orderly society can not exempt its members from the hazards of life. But there is a sense of entitlement and security that Danes grow up with. Certain things are yours by virtue of citizenship, and you shouldnt feel bad for taking what you have entitled to, you are as good as anyone else. The rules of the welfare system are clear to everyone, the benefits you get if you lose your job, the steps you take to get a new one; and the orderliness of the system makes it possible for the country to weather high unemployment and social unrest without a sense of crisis.

  36. The author thinks Danes adopt a ____ attitude towards their country.

  A) boastful

  B) modest

  C) deprecating

  D) mysterious

  37. Which of the following is Not a Danish characteristic cited in the passage?

  A) Fondness of foreign culture.

  B) Equality in society.

  C) Linguistic tolerance.

  D) Persistent planning.

  38. The author's reaction to the statement by the Ministry of Business and Industry is ____.

  A) disapproving

  B) approving

  C) noncommittal

  D) doubtful

  39. According to the passage, Danish orderliness ____.

  A) sets the people apart from Germans and Swedes

  B) spare Danes social troubles besetting other peoples

  C) is considered economically essential to the country

  D) prevents Danes from acknowledging existing troubles

  40. At the end of the passage the author states all the following Except that ____.

  A) Danes are clearly informed of their social benefits

  B) Danes take for granted what is given to them

  C) the open system helps to tide the country over

  D) orderliness has alleviated unemployment

  TEXT B But if language habits do not represent classes, a social stratification into something as bygone as "aristocracy" and "commons", they do still of course serve to identify social groups. This is something that seems fundamental in the use of language. As we see in relation to political and national movements, language is used as a badge or a barrier depending on which may we look at it. The new boy at school feels out of it at first because he does not know the right words for things, and awe-inspiring pundits of six or seven look down on him for not being aware that racksy means "dilapidated", or hairy "out first ball". The miner takes a certain pride in being "one up" on the visitor or notice who calls the cage a "lift" or who thinks that men working in a warm seam are in their "underpants" when anyone ought to know that the garments are called hoggers. The "insider" is seldom displeased that his language distinguishes him from the "outsider".   Quite apart from specialized terms of of this kind in groups, trades and professions, there are all kinds of standards of correctness at which most of us feel more or less obliged to aim, because we know that certain kinds of English invite irritation or downright condemnation. On the other hand, we know that other kinds convey some kind of prestige and bear a welcome cachet.   In relation to the social aspects of language, it may well be suggested that English speakers fall into three categories: the assured, the anxious and the indifferent. At one end of this scale, we have the people who have "position" and "status", and who therefore do not feel they need worry much about their use of English. Their education and occupation make them confident of speaking an unimpeachable form of English: no fear of being criticized or corrected is likely to cross their minds, and this gives their speech that characteristically unselfconscious and easy flow which is often envied.   At the other end of the scale, we have an equally imperturbable hand, speaking with a similar degree of careless ease, because even if they are aware that their English is condemned by others, they are supremely indifferent to the fact. The Mrs. Mops of this world have active and efficient tongues in their heads, and if we happened not to like their ways of saying things, well, we "can lump it". That is their attitude. Curiously enough, writers are inclined to represent the speech of both these extreme parties with -in for ing. On the one hand, "Were goin huntin, my dear sir;" on the other, "Were goin racin, mate."   In between, according to this view we have a far less fortunate group, the anxious. These actively try to suppress what they believe to be bad English and assiduously cultivate what they hope to be good English. They live their lives in some degree of nervousness over their grammar, their pronunciation, and their choice of words: sensitive, and fearful of betraying themselves. Keeping up with the Joneses is measured not only in houses, furniture, refrigerators, cars, and clothes, but also in speech.   And the misfortune of the "anxious" does not end with their inner anxiety. Their lot is also the open or veiled contempt of the "assured" on the side of them and of the "indifferent" on the other.   It is all too easy to raise an unworthy laugh at the anxious. The people thus uncomfortably stilted on linguistic high heels so often form part of what is, in many ways, the most admirable section of any society: the ambitious, tense, inner-driven people, who are bent on "going places and doing things". The greater the pity, then, if a disproportionate amount of their energy goes into what Mr. Sharpless called "this shabby obsession" with variant forms of English —— especially if the net result is (as so often) merely to sound affected and ridiculous. "Here", according to Bacon, "is the first distemper of learning, when men study words and not matter …… It seems to me that Pygmalions frenzy is a good emblem …… of this vanity: for words are but the images of matter; and except they have life of reason and invention, to fall in love with them is to fall in love with a picture."

  41. The attitude held by the assured towards language is ____.

  A) critical

  B) anxious

  C) self-conscious

  D) nonchalant

  42. The anxious are considered a less fortunate group because ____.

  A) they feel they are socially looked down upon

  B) they suffer from internal

  C) they are inherently nervous and anxious people

  D) they are unable to meet standards of correctness

  43. The author thinks that the efforts made by the anxious to cultivate what they believe is    good English are ____.

  A) worthwhile

  B) meaningless

  C) praiseworthy

  D) irrational

  TEXT C   Fred Cooke of Salford turned 90 two days ago and the world has been beating a path to his door. If you havent noticed, the backstreet boy educated at Blackpool grammar styles himself more grandly as Alastair Cooke, broadcaster extraordinaire. An honorable KBE, he would be Sir Alastair if he had not taken American citizenship more than half a century ago.   If it sounds snobbish to draw attention to his humble origins, it should be reflected that the real snob is Cooke himself, who has spent a lifetime disguising them. But the fact that he opted to renounce his British passport in 1941 —— just when his country needed all the wartime help it could get —— is hardly a matter of congratulation.   Cooke has made a fortune out of his love affair with America, entrancing listeners with a weekly monologue that has won Radio 4 many devoted adherents. Part of the pull is the developed drawl. This is the man who gave the world "midatlantic", the language of the disc jockey and public relations man.   He sounds American to us and English to them, while in reality he has for decades belonged to neither. Cookes world is an America that exists largely in the imagination. He took ages to acknowledge the disaster that was Vietnam and even longer to wake up to Watergate. His politics have drifted to the right with age, and most of his opinions have been acquired on the golf course with fellow celebrities.   He chased after stars on arrival in America, fixing up an interview with Charlie Chaplin and briefly becoming his friend. He told Cooke he could turn him into a fine light comedian; instead he is an impressionists dream.   Cooke liked the sound of his first wifes name almost as much as he admired her good looks. But he found bringing up baby difficult and left her for the wife of his landlord.   Women listeners were unimpressed when, in 1996, he declared on air that the fact that 4 % of women in the American armed forces were raped showed remarkable self restraint on the part of Uncle Sams soldiers. His arrogance in not allowing BBC editors to see his script in advance worked, not for the first time, to his detriment. His defenders said he could not help living with the 1930s values he had acquired and somewhat dubiously went on to cite "gallantry" as chief among them. Cookes raconteur style encouraged a whole generation of BBC men to think of themselves as more important than the story. His treaty tones were the model for the regular World Service reports From Our Own Correspondent, known as FOOCs in the business. They may yet be his epitaph.

  44. At the beginning of the passage the writer sounds critical of ____.

  A) Cooke's obscure origins

  B) Cooke's broadcasting style

  C) Cooke's American citizenship

  D) Cooke's fondness of America

  45. The following adjectives can be suitably applied to Cooke Except ____.

  A) old-fashioned

  B) sincere

  C) arrogant

  D) popular

  46. The writer comments on Cooke's life and career in a slightly ____ tone.

  A) ironic

  B) detached

  C) scathing

  D) indifferent

  TEXT D   Mr. Duffy raised his eyes from the paper and gazed out of his window on the cheerless evening landscape. The river lay quiet beside the empty distillery and from time to time a light appeared in some house on Lucan Road. What an end! The whole narrative of her death revolted him and it revolted him to think that he had ever spoken to her of what he held sacred. The cautious words of a reporter won over to conceal the details of a commonplace vulgar death attacked his stomach. Not merely had she degraded herself; she had degraded him. His souls companion! He thought of the hobbling wretches whom he had seen carrying cans and bottles to be filled by the barman. Just God, what an end! Evidently she had been unfit to live, without any strength of purpose, an easy prey to habits, one of the wrecks on which civilization had been reared. But that she could have sunk so slow! Was it possible he had deceived himself so utterly about her? He remembered her outburst of that night and interpreted it in a harsher sense than he had ever done. He had no difficulty now in approving of the course he had taken.   As the light failed and his memory began to wander he thought her hand touched his. The shock which had first attacked his stomach was now attacking his nerves. He put on his overcoat and hat quickly and went out. The cold air met him on the threshold; it crept into the sleeves of his coat. When he came to the public-house at Chapel Bridge he went in and ordered a hot punch.   The proprietor served him obsequiously but did not venture to talk. There were five or six working-men in the shop discussing the value of a gentlemans estate in County Kildare. They drank at intervals from their huge pint tumblers, and smoke, spitting often on the floor and sometimes dragging the sawdust over their heavy boots. Mr. Duffy sat on his stool and gazed at them, without seeing or hearing them. After a while they went out and he called for another punch. He sat a long time over it. The shop was very quiet. The proprietor sprawled on the counter reading the newspaper and yawning. Now and again a tram was heard swishing along the lonely road outside.   As he sat there, living over his life with her and evoking alternately the two images on which he now conceived her, he realized that she was dead, that she had ceased to exist, that she had become a memory. He began to feel ill at ease. He asked himself what else could he have done. He could not have lived with her openly. He had done what seemed to him best. How was he to blame? Now that she was gone he understood how lonely her life must have been, sitting night after night alone in that room. His life would be lonely too until he, too, died, ceased to exist, became a memory —— if anyone remembered him.

  47. Mr. Duffy's immediate reaction to the report of the women's death was that of ____.

  A) disgust

  B) guilt

  C) grief

  D) compassion

  48. It can be inferred from the passage that the reporter wrote about the woman's death in a ____ manner.

  A) detailed

  B) provocative

  C) discreet

  D) sensational

  49. We can infer from the last paragraph that Mr. Duffy was in a(n) ____ mood.

  A) angry

  B) fretful

  C) irritable

  D) remorseful

  50. According to the passage, which of the following statement is Not true?

  A) Mr. Duffy once confided in the woman.

  B) Mr. Duffy felt an intense sense of shame.

  C) Mr. Duffy wanted to end the relationship.

  D) Mr. Duffy estranged probably after a quarrel.


  Directions: In this section there are seven passage followed by ten multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.

  TEXT E First read the question. 51. In the passage Bill Gates mainly discusses ____. A. a persons opportunity of a lifetime B. the success of the computer industry C. the importance of education D. high school education in the US Now go though Text E quickly to answer question 51.   Hundreds of students send me e-mail each year asking for advice about education. They want to know what to study, or whether its OK to drop out of college since thats what I did.   My basic advice is simple and heartfelt. "Get the best education you can. Take advantage of high school and college. Learn how to learn."   Its true that I dropped out of college to start Microsoft, but I was at Harvard for three years before dropping out —— and Id love to have the time to go back. As Ive said before, nobody should drop out of college unless they believe they face the opportunity of a lifetime. And even then they should reconsider.   The computer industry has lots of people who didnt finish college, but Im not aware of any success stories that began with somebody dropping out of high school. I actually dont know any high school dropouts, let alone any successful ones.   In my companys early years we had a bright part-time programmer who threatened to drop out of high school to work full-time. We told him no.   Quite a few of our people didnt finish college, but we discourage dropping out.   College isnt the only place where information exists. You can learn in a library. But somebody handing you a book doesnt automatically foster learning. You want to learn with other people, ask questions, try out ideas and have a way to test your ability. It usually takes more than just a book.   Education should be broad, although its fine to have deep interests, too.   In high school there were periods when I was highly focused on writing software, but for most of my high school years I had wide-ranging academic interests. My parent encouraged this, and Im grateful that they did.   One parent wrote me that her 15-year old son "lost himself in the hole of the computer." He got an A in Web site design, but other grades were sinking, she said.   This boy is making a mistake. High school and college offer you the best chance to learn broadly —— math, history, various sciences —— and to do projects with other kids that teach you firsthand about group dynamics. Its fine to take a deep interest in computers, dance, language or any other discipline, but not if it jeopardizes breadth.   In college its appropriate to think about specialization. Getting real expertise in an area of interest can lead to success. Graduate school is one way to get specialized knowledge. Choosing a specialty isnt something high schools students should worry about. They should worry about getting a strong academic start.   There is not a perfect correlation between attitudes in high schools and success in later life, of course. But its a real mistake not to take opportunity to learn a huge range of subjects. to learn to work with people in high school, and to get the grades that will help you get into a good college.

  51. In the passage Bill Gates mainly discusses ____.

  A) a person's opportunity of a lifetime

  B) the success of the computer industry

  C) the importance of education

  D) high school education in the US

  TEXT F First read the questions. 52. The passage focuses on ____. A. the history and future of London B. Londons manufacturing skills C. Londons status as a financial center D. the past and present roles of London Now go through TEXT F quickly to answer question 52.   What is London for? To put the question another way why was London, by 1900, incomparably the largest city in the world, which it remained until the bombardments of the Luftwaffe? There could be many answers to this question, but any history of London will rehearse three broad explanations. One is the importance of its life as a port. When the Thames turned to ice in February 1885, 50,000 men were put out of work, and there were bread riots from these whose livelihoods had been frozen with the river. Today the Thames could be frozen for a year without endangering the livelihoods of any but a few pleasure boatmen.   The second major cause of Londons wealth and success was that it was easily the biggest manufacturing center in Europe. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, Dutch looms and the stocking knitting frame were first pioneered in London. The vast range of Londons manufacturing skills is another fact; almost any item you can name was manufactured in London during the days of its prosperity. In 1851, 13.75 percent of the manufacturing work-force of Great Britain was based in London. By 1961, this had dramatically reduced. By 1993, there were a mere 328,000 Londoners engaged in manufacturing. In other words, by our own times, two of the chief reasons for Londons very existence —— its life as a port and as a center of manufacture —— had dwindled out of existence. Londons third great function, since the seventeenth century, has been that of national and international bourse: the exchange of stocks and shares, banking, commerce and, increasingly, insurance. Both Inwood and Francis Sheppard, in London: A history, manage to make these potentially dry matters vivid to the general reader, and both authors assure us that "The City" in the financial sense is still as important as ever it was. Both, however, record the diminution of the City as architectural and demographic entity, with the emptying of many city offices (since the advent of the computer much of the work can be done anywhere) and the removal distinctive landmarks.

  52. The passage focuses on ____.

  A) the history and future of London

  B) London's manufacturing skills

  C) London's status as a financial center

  D) the past and present roles of London

  TEXT G First read the question. 53. The primary purpose of the passage is to ____. A. discuss the impact of the internet B. forecast the future roles of the bookstore C. compare the publisher with the editor D. evaluate the limitation of the printed page Now go through TEXT G quickly to answer question 53.  Since the advent of television people have been prophesying the death of the book. Now the rise of the World Wide Web seems to have revived this smoldering controversy from the ashes. The very existence of paper copy had been brought into question once more. It might be the bookstore, rather than the book itself, that is on the brink of extinction. Many of you will have noted lots of bookseller websites popping up. They provide lists of books and let you read sample chapters, reviews from other customers and interviews with authors. What does all this mean? Browsing a virtual bookstore may not afford you the same dusty pleasure as browsing round a real shop, but as far as service, price and convenience are concerned, there is really no competition. This may change before long, as publishers websites begin to offer direct access to new publications. Perhaps it is actually the publisher who is endangered by the relentless advance of the Internet. There are a remarkable number of sites republishing texts online —— an extensive virtual library of materials that used to be handled primarily by publishing companies. From the profusion of electronic-text sites available, it looks as if this virtual library is here to say unless a proposed revision to copyright law takes many publications out of the public domain. However, can electronic texts still be considered books? Then again, it might be the editor at risk, in danger of being cut out of the publishing process. The web not only makes it possible for just about anyone to publish whatever they like —— whenever they like —— there are virtually no costs involved. The editors would then be the millions of Internet users. And there is little censorship, either. So possibly is the printed page, with its many limitations, that is perishing as the implications of new technologies begin to be the fully realized. Last year Stanford University published the equivalent of a 6,000-page Business English dictionary online. There seem to be quite obvious benefits to housing these multi-volume reference sets on the Web. The perceived benefits for other books, such as the novel, are perhaps less obvious.

  53. The primary purpose of the passage is to ____.

  A) discuss the impact of the internet

  B) forecast the future roles of the bookstore

  C) compare the publisher with the editor

  D) evaluate the limitation of the printed page

  TEXT H First read the questions. 54. The reviewers attitude towards the book is ____. A. ambiguous B. objective C. doubtful D. hostile Now go through TEXT H quickly to answer question 54.   The 1990s have witnessed a striking revival of the idea that liberal democratic political systems are the best basis for international peace. Western statesmen and scholars have witnessed a worldwide process of democratization, and tend to see it as a sounder basis for peace than anything we have had in the past. Central to the vision of a peaceful democratic world had been the proposition that liberal democracies do not fight each other, that they may and frequently do get into fights with illiberal states, but not with other countries that are basically similar in their political systems. The proposition appeals to political leaders and scholars as well. Yet it is doubtful whether the proposition is strong enough to bear the vast weight of generalization that has been placed on it. Among the many difficulties it poses, two stand out: first, there are many possible exceptions to the rule that democracies do not fight each other, and second, there is much uncertainty about why democracies have, for the most part, not fought each other. Liberal Peace, Liberal War: American politics and international security by John M. Owen is an attempt to explain the twin phenomena of liberal peace (why democracies do not fight each other) and liberal war (why they fight other states, sometimes with the intent of making them liberal). Owens analysis in the book strongly suggests that political leaders on all sides judged a given foreign country largely on the basis of its political system; and this heavily influenced decisions on whether or not to wage war against it. However, he also shows that military factors, including calculations of the cost of going to war, were often influential in tipping the balance against war. In other words, democratic peace does not mean the end of power politics. Owen hints at, but never address directly, a sinister aspect of democratic peace theory: its assumption that there would be peace if only everybody else was like us. This can lead only too easily to attempts to impose the favored system on benighted foreigners by force - regardless of the circumstances and sensibilities that make the undertaking hazardous. Owens central argument is not strengthened by the occasional repetition nor by the remorselessly academic tone of the more theoretical chapters. However, most of the writing is succinct; the historical accounts are clear and to the point; and the investigation of the causal links between liberalism and war is admirably thorough. There are several grounds on which the books thesis might be criticized. The most obvious is that some twentieth-century experience goes against the argument that liberal states ally with others, above all, because they perceive them as fellow liberals. In our own time, several liberal democracies have maintained long and close relations with autocracies. However, Owens argument for a degree of solidarity between liberal states provides at least part of the explanation for the continuation and even expansion of NATO in the post-Cold War era.

  54. The reviewer's attitude towards the book is ____.

  A) ambiguous

  B) objective

  C) doubtful

  D) hostile

  TEXT I First read the questions. 55. In ____, the table of contents of the magazine was placed on its back cover. A. 1922 B. 1948 C. the 1930s D. the 1960s 56. The magazine was criticized for failing to ____. A. appeal to the young. B. attract old people. C. interest readers aged 47. D. captivate readers in their 50s. Now go through TEXT I quickly to answer question 57.  NEW YORK —— Readers Digest, the most widely read magazine in the world, will get a new look in a bid to attract younger readers, Readers Digest Association Inc. Announced on March 29. Beginning with the May issue, the worlds largest-circulation magazine will move its table of contents off the front cover to modernize its look and make it easier for readers to navigate, editor in chief Christopher Willcox said. "When you have the table of contents on the cover, it limits what you can say about whats in the magazine", Willcox said. The magazines familiar table of contents will be replaced with a photograph. The small size and focus of the editorial content will be unchanged, publisher Gregory Coleman said. "It will be a much more visual magazine, with more photography and less illustration," he said in an interview. Readers Digest was first published in 1922, with line drawings on the covers, and in the 1930s begun listing the contents on the front. For a couple of years in the 1960s, Willcox said, the table of contents was shifted to the back cover. The May issue will feature a cover photo of a woman firefighter in San Francisco for an excerpt from a new book, "Fighting Fire." The names of a few articles are listed on the cover, but the full table of contents will be on pages 2 and 3. The issue began reaching subscribers on April 10 and will be on newsstands two weeks later. All 48 of the Digests worldwide editions —— 27 million copies in 19 languages —— are making the change. Publisher Gregory Coleman said he expected the redesign to boost advertising sales. "Weve done a lot of research, and have tested the concept in the US, Sweden, and New Zealand," Coleman said. The move comes as Readers Digest Association Inc. has struggled to boost profits. But industry analysis said its problems stretch beyond changed that were needed at the magazine. Publishing industry executives and Wall Street analysts have criticized the magazine for failing to attract the next generation of readers. The company says its average reader is about 47, the same as the age for weekly new magazines. "Theyve been looking for ways to make the magazine a little bit more the 90s than the 50s," said Doug Arthur at Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Co. "The company has to be addressing the response rate on its direct marketing campaign," where its main problem lie. The company earned US 133.5 million on sales of USD 2.8 billion in the year which ended last June. But it said, when it reported results, that profits would fall in the current year. In answer to a question, Coleman said the redesign was not done because of advertisers, although they were enthusiastic about the changes. "This is being done from a reader-driven standpoint," he said.

  55. In ____, the table of contents of the magazine was placed on its back cover.

  A) 1922

  B) 1948

  C) the 1930s

  D) the 1960s

  56. The magazine was criticized for failing to ____.

  A) appeal to the young.

  B) attract old people.

  C) interest readers aged 47.

  D) captivate readers in their 50s.

  TEXT J First read the questions. 57. Words in both the OWF and Longman Activator are ____. A. listed according to alphabetical order B. listed according to use frequency C. grouped according to similarities only D. grouped according to differences only 58. To know the correct word for "boiling with a low hear", you will probably turn to ____ first. A. page 10 B. page 99 C. page 100 D. page 448 Now go through TEXT J quickly to answer questions 58 and 59.   The Oxford Wordfinder (OWF) is a "production dictionary" designed for learners of English at Intermediate level and above. It is a useful tool with which to discover and encode (produce) meaning, rather than just to simply check the meaning, grammar and pronunciation of words. The OWF encourages a reversal of the traditional role of the language learners dictionary which is normally to help decode and explain aspects of words that appear in a text. The OWF is based upon similar lines to the ground breaking Longman Activator in that words in each dictionary are not simply listed in alphabetical order. Instead, they are grouped according to their similarities and differences in both meaning and use. Twenty-three main groups of 630 "keywords" (concept) in alphabetical order, assist the learner in exploring semantic areas such as: "People", "Food and drink", and "Language and Communication". Each of these rather large areas contains cross-referencing in order to provide further helpful lexical information. Some of the keywords helpfully direct the learner to another keyword. Most keywords, however, have an index that shows how lexical items and their related terms are organized. Other keywords point to smaller sub-section headings whilst a few contain sections labeled "More", which deal with less frequent occurring vocabulary. The majority of words in the OWF are group together because they are clearly related in meaning. Examples include: "rucksack", "suitcase", "truck" and "hold-all", on page 28, under the keyword "Bag". Other words are grouped together because statistically they tend to "collocate", i.e. appear in English very near if not next to each other. The reader would, more often than not, find them in the same sentence or phrase. Examples include those for "butter", "spread" and "melt", and those for Television on page 448: "watching", "turn on/off" and "program". The OWF is an ideal supplementary resource for learners to engage in word-building activities during topic based lessons. How is it best used? Lets say the learner wishes to know the correct word for "boiling with a low heat". The intermediate learner, who will probably begin her search under "Cook" on page 99, locates the sub-section: "cooking food in water" and finally finds the definition followed by the word: —— to boil slowly and gently: simmer. With the help of the OWF teachers could design a variety of such vocabulary exercises for a class, or even go on to designing a vocabulary-based syllabus. Definitions in the OWF are, as with all good dictionaries, concise but clear. They are obviously written according to a controlled defining vocabulary. Linguistic varieties are also taken into consideration: formal/informal labels are provided and, where it occurs, American English (AmE) is pointed out, e.g. for alcohol, liquor in AmE. on page 10. The OWF also contains many drawings that outline meaning where words could not possibly do so or would require too much space. Items chosen for inclusion in the OWF, along with example phrases outlining meaning are, it is assumed, based on evidence of frequency from a carefully constructed linguistic corpus, although this is not made clear.

  57. Words in both the OWF and Longman Activator are ____.

  A) listed according to alphabetical order

  B) listed according to use frequency

  C) grouped according to similarities only

  D) grouped according to differences only

  58. To know the correct word for "boiling with a low hear", you will probably turn to ____ first.

  A) page 10

  B) page 99

  C) page 100

  D) page 448

  TEXT K First read the questions. 59. Students who wish to take courses in Dutch or French ____. A. should pass the TOFEL test first B. must speak Dutch or French fluently C. may receive language training D. must have a good command of English 60. Belgian universities do NOT offer courses on ____. A. medical sciences B. computer sciences C. political and social sciences D. archaeology and art sciences Now go through TEXT K quickly to answer questions 59 and 60. To qualify to study in Belgium, it is essential to meet relevant requirements in (1) academic credentials, (2) linguistic skills, (3) academic objectives and (4) financial resources. Let us review these four points: 1. Academic credentials Equivalence and admissibility of degrees will be assessed according to Belgian law and individual university regulations. Please submit a copy of your degree with a translation to the chosen universitys admission board. 2. Language skills Chinese students who wish to follow courses in Dutch or French must realize that a superficial knowledge of the language will not do. The ability to speak Dutch or French is imperative in order to follow lectures and to pass examinations. A preparatory year of language instruction is available in some universities for already enrolled students. Please apply for information at university of your choice. Students who wish to attend lectures in English (post-academic training international courses) must of course have a good command of that language. Universities will inform you about their individual TOFEL requirements. 3. Programs Belgium universities offer basic academic courses, advance academic training courses, doctoral programs, post-academic training and various international study programs (Masters) in the fields of technology, law, economics and applied economies, political and social sciences, dentistry, pharmaceutical sciences, language and literature/history, archaeology and art sciences, psychology and educational sciences, medical sciences, engineering and applied biological sciences.   4. Financing Although precise determination of study and living expenses depends on individual life style, one can assess that about 350,000 Belgian Francs (BEF) (about 88,000 RMB) is necessary for one years study. This amount should include books, housing, food, transport, and health insurance. It does not include registration fees which can vary from about 25,000 BEF for a student under scholarship to 290,000 BEF for a self financing student, according to the chosen study program.

  59. Students who wish to take courses in Dutch or French ____.

  A) should pass the TOFEL test first

  B) must speak Dutch or French fluently

  C) may receive language training

  D) must have a good command of English

  60. Belgian universities do NOT offer courses on ____.

  A) medical sciences

  B) computer sciences

  C) political and social sciences

  D) archaeology and art sciences


  Directions: Translate the following part of the text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.



  Directions: Translate the following underlined part of the text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

  Youve been in love of course! If not youve got it to come. Love is like the measles; we all have to go through it. Also like the measles, we take it only once. One never need be afraid of catching it a second time. The man who has had it can go into the most dangerous places, and play the most fool-hardy tricks with perfect safety. He can, to see the last of a friend, venture into the very jaws of the marriage ceremony itself. He can keep through the whirl of a ravishing waltz, and rest afterwards in a dark conservatory, catching nothing more lasting than a cold.   No, we never sicken with love twice. Cupid spends no second arrow on the same heart. Loves handmaids are our life-long friends. Respect and Admiration, and Affection, our doors may always be left open for, but their great celestial master, in his royal progress, pays but one visit and departs. Meteor-like, it blazes for a moment, and light with its glory the whole world beneath. Happy those who, hastening down again before it dies out, can kindle their earthly altars at its flame. Love is too pure a light to burn long among the noisome gases that we breathe, but before it is chocked out we may use it as a torch to ignite the cozy fire of affection.


  Directions: Account for the boom in adult education and discuss the main reasons within 60 minutes. The length of your essay should be about 300 words.

  In the first part of your writing you should present a brief description of adult education boom and in the following part you should present the reasons with appropriate examples. In the last part you may state your own view on this topic.

  Mark will be awarded for content, organization, grammar, and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.

  Adult Education Boom


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