PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION
In Section A, B and C you will hear everything ONLY ONCE. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct response to each question on the Colored Answer Sheet.
SECTION A TALK
Question 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now listen to the talk.
1. The rules for the first private library in the US were drawn up by ____
A) the legislature.
B) the librarian.
C) John Harvard.
D) the faculty members.
2. The earliest public library was also called a subscription library because books ____
A) could be lent to everyone.
B) could be left by book stores.
C) were lent to students and the faculty.
D) were lent on a membership basis.
3. Which of the following is NOT stated as one of the purposes of free public libraries?
A) To provide readers with comfortable reading rooms.
B) To provide adults with opportunities of further education.
C) to serve the community's cultural and recreational needs.
D) to supply technical literature on specialized subjects.
4. The major difference between modern private and public libraries lies in ____
5. The main purpose of the talk is ____
A) to introduce categories of books in US libraries.
B) to demonstrate the importance of US libraries.
C) to explain the roles of different US libraries.
D) to define the circulation system of US libraries.
SECTION B INTERVIEW
Question 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following question.
Now listen to the interview.
6. Nancy became a taxi driver because ____
A) she owned a car.
B) she drove well.
C) she liked drivers' uniforms.
D) it was her childhood dream.
7. According to her, what was the most difficult about becoming a taxi driver?
A) The right sense of direction.
B) The sense of judgment.
C) The skill of maneuvering.
D) The size of vehicle.
8. What does Nancy like best about her job?
A) Seeing interesting building in the city.
B) Being able to enjoy the world of nature.
C) Driving in unsettled weather.
D) Taking long drives outside the city.
9. It can be inferred from the interview that Nancy is a(n) ____ mother.
10. The people Nancy meets are ____
A) rather difficult to please.
B) rude to women drivers.
C) talkative and generous with tips.
D) different in personality.
SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING
In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONLY ONCE. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15-minute gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini lecture. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.
On Public Speaking
When people are asked to give a speech in public for the first time, they usually feel terrified no matter how well they speak in informal situations. In fact, public speaking is the same as any other form of (16) that people are usually engaged in. Public speaking is a way for a speaker to (17) his thoughts with the audience. Moreover, the speaker is free to decide on the (18) of his speech.
Two key points to achieve success in public speaking:
—— (19) of the subject matter.
—— good preparation of the speech.
To facilitate their understanding, inform your audience beforehand of the (20) of your speech and end it with a summary.
Other key points to bear in mind:
—— be ware of your audience through eye contact.
—— vary the speed of (21)
—— use the microphone skillfully to (22) yourself in speech.
—— be brief in speech; always try to make your message (23)
Example: the best remembered inaugural speeches of the US presidents are (24) once.
Therefore brevity is essential to (25) of a speech.
PART II PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION
The following passage contains ten errors .Each line contains a maximum of one error. In each case only one word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "^" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.
When ^ art museum wants a new exhibit,
it (never/) buys things in finished form and hangs
them on the wall. When a natural history museum
wants an exhibition, it must often build it.
The grammatical words which play so large a part in English
grammar are the most part sharply and obviously different from
the lexical words. A rough and ready difference which may
seem the most obvious is that grammatical words have "less
meaning", but in fact some grammarians have called them
"empty" words as opposed in the "full" words of vocabulary. But
this is a rather misled way of expressing the distinction. Although a
word like the is not the name of something as man is, it is very
far away from being meaningless; there is a sharp difference in
meaning between "man is vile" and "the man is vile", yet the
is the single vehicle of this difference in meaning.
Moreover, grammatical words differ considerably among
themselves as the amount of meaning they have even in the
lexical sense. Another name for the grammatical words has been
"little words". But size is by no meaning a good criterion for
distinguishing the grammatical words of English, when we consider
that we have lexical words as go, man, say, car. Apart from
this, however, there is a good deal of truth in what some people
say: we certainly do create a great number of obscurity when we
omit them. This is illustrated not only in the poetry of Robert
Browning but in the prose of telegrams and newspaper headlines.
PART III READING COMPREHENSIONS
In this section there are four reading passages followed by fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.
TEXT A Human cognition In developing a model of cognition, we must recognize that perception of the external world does not always remain independent of motivation. While progress toward maturity is positively correlated with differentiation between motivation and cognition, tension will, even in the mature adult, militate towards a narrowing of the range of perception. Cognition can be seen as the first step in the sequence events leading from the external stimulus to the behavior of the individual. The child develops from belief that all things are an extension of its own body to the recognition that objects exist independent of his perception. He begins to demonstrate awareness of people and things which are removed from his sensory apparatus and initiates goal-directed behaviors. He may, however, refuse to recognize the existence of barriers to the attainment of his goal, despite the fact that his cognition of these objects has been previously demonstrated. In the primitive beings, goal-directed behavior can be very simple motivated. The presence of an attractive object will cause an infant to reach for it; its removal will result in the cessation of that action. Studies have shown no evidence of the infants frustration; rather, it appears that the infant ceases to desire the object when he cannot see it. Further indications are that the infants attention to the attractive object increase as a result of its not being in his grasp. In fact, if he holds a toy and another is presented, he is likely to drop the first in order to clutch the second. Often, once he has the one desired in his hands, he loses attention and turns to something else. In adult life, mere cognition can be similarly motivational, although the visible presence of the opportunity is not required as the instigator of response. The mature adult modifies his reaction by obtaining information, interpreting it, and examining consequences. He formulates a hypothesis and attempts to test it. He searches out implicit relationships, examines all factors, and differentiates among them. Just as the trained artist can separate the value of color, composition, and technique, while taking in and evaluating the whole work, so, too, the mature person brings his cognitive learning strengths to bear in appraising a situation. Understanding that cognition is separate from action, his reaction are only minimally guided from conditioning, and take into consideration anticipatable events. The impact of the socialization process, particularly that of parental and social group ideology, may reduce cognitively directed behavior. The tension thus produced, as for instance the stress of fear, anger, or extreme emotion, will often be the overriding influence. The evolutionary process of development from body schema through cognitive learning is similarly manifested in the process of language acquisition. Auditing develop first, reading and writing much later on. Not only is this evident in the development of the individual being from infancy on, but also in the development of language for humankind. Every normal infant has the physiological equipment necessary to produce sound, but the child must first master their use for sucking, biting, and chewing before he can control his equipment for use in producing the sounds of language. The babble and chatter of the infant are precursors to intelligible vocal communication. From the earlier times, it is clear that language and human thought have been intimately connected. Sending or receiving messages, from primitive warnings of danger to explaining creative or reflective thinking, this aspect of cognitive development is also firmly linked to the needs and aspirations of society.
36. How does the child develop his perception?
A) Strong motivations give rise to perception.
B) He holds the conviction that thing around him parts of extended body and later on gives it up.
C) Parents and teachers play a key role in his development of cognition.
D) He believes that objects around him independent of his perception.
37. What stimulates adults' motivational cognition?
A) Predictable presence of opportunities.
B) Visible signs of opportunities.
D) Approachable information.
38. What is the influence of socialization process?
A) It may produce tension.
B) It may produce extreme emotion.
C) It may reduce one's cognitively guided behaviors.
D) A, B, and C
39. What links cognitive development to the needs of society?
A) Practical purpose.
B) Natural human cognitive development.
D) Sending or receiving messages.
TEXT B Pollution Is a Dirty Word Consume, consume, consume! Our society is consumer oriented-dangerous so. To keep the wheels of industry, we manufacture consumer goods in endless quantities, and, in the process, are rapidly exhausting our resources. But this is only half the problem. What do we do with manufactured products when they they are worn out? They must be disposed of, but how and where? Unsightly junkyards full of rusting automobiles already surround every city in the nation. Americans throw away 80 billion bottles and cans each year, enough to build more than ten stacks to the moon. There isnt room for much more waste, and yet the factories grind on. They cannot stop because everyone wants a job. Our standard of living, one of the highest in the world, requires the consumption of manufactured products in ever-increasing amounts. Man, about to be buried in his own waste, is caught in a vicious cycle. "Stop the world, I want to get off," is the way a popular song put mans dilemma. It wasnt always like this. Only 100 years ago man lived in harmony with nature. There werent so many people then and their wants were fewer. Whatever wastes were produced could be absorbed by nature and were soon covered over. Today this harmonious relationship is threatened by mans lack of foresight and planning, and by his carelessness and greed, for man is slowly poisoning his environment. Pollution is a "dirty" word. To pollute means to contaminate —— to spoil something by introducing impurities which make it unfit or unclear to use. Pollution comes in many forms. We see it, we smell it, taste it, drink it, and stumble through it. We literally live in and breathe pollution, and, not surprisingly, it is beginning to threaten our heath, our happiness, and our very civilization. Once we thought of pollution as meaning simply smog —— the choking, stinging, dirty air that hovers over cities. But air pollution, while it is still the most dangerous, is only one type of contamination among several which attack the most basic life function. Through the uncontrolled use of insecticides, man has polluted the land, killing the wildlife. By dumping sewage and chemical into rivers and lakes, we have contaminated our drinking water. We are polluting the oceans, too, killing the fish and thereby depriving ourselves of an invaluable food supply. Part of the problem is our exploding population. More and more people produce more wastes. But this problem is intensified by our "throw-way" technology. Each year American dispose of 7 million autos, 20 million tons of waste paper, 25 million pounds of toothpaste tubes and 48 million cans. We throw away gum wrappers, newspapers, and paper plates. It is no longer fashionable to reuse anything. Today almost everything is disposable. Instead of repairing a toaster or a radio, it is easier and cheaper to buy a new one and discard the old, even though 95 percent of its parts may still be functioning. Baby diapers, which used to be made of paper:" Wear it once and throw it away," will be the slogan of the fashion conscious. Where is this all to end? Are we turning the world into a gigantic dump, or is there hope that we can solve the pollution problem? Fortunately, solutions are in sight. A few of them are positively ingenious. Take the problem of discarded automobiles, for instance. Each year over 40,000 of them are abandoned in New York City alone. Eventually the discards end up in a junkyard. But card are too bulky to ship as scrap to a steel mill. They must first be flattened. This is done in a giant compressor which can reduce a Cadillac to the size of a television set in a matter of minutes. Any leftover scrap metal is mixed with concrete and made into exceptionally strong bricks that are used in buildings and bridges. Mans ingenuity has come to his rescue. What about water pollution? More and more citied are building sewage-treatment plants. Instead of being dumped into a nearby river or lake. sewage is sent through a system of underground pipes to a giant tank where the water is separated from the solid material called sludge, is converted into fertilizer. The sludge can also be made into bricks. Controlling air pollution is another crucial objective. Without food, man can live about five weeks; without water about five days. Without air, he can only live five minutes, so pure air is a must. Here the wrongdoer is the automobile. Where there is a concentration of automobiles, as in our big cities, air pollution is severe. It is important to see that our cars are equipped with pollution-control devices. Such devices effectively reduce the harmful gases emitted from the engine. Power plants, factories, and apartment buildings can also avoid air pollution. When possible they should use clean fuels like gas and oil. And the smokestacks of these buildings should be equipped with filters and other smoke-reduction devices. Can we eliminate pollution altogether? Probably not. Modern man pollutes with everything he does, so total elimination would require drastic measures. Every power plant would have to shut down. Industries would have to close. We would have to leave all our automobiles in the garage. Every bus and truck and airplane would have to stop running. There would be no way to bring food to the cities. There would be no heat and light. Under these conditions, our population would die in a short time. Since such a drastic solution is impossible, we must employ determined public action. We can reduce pollution, even if we cant eliminate it altogether. But everyone must do his part. Check your car to see if the pollution-control device is working. Reduce your use of electricity. Is air conditioning really necessary? Dont dump garbage or other waste on the land or in the water. Demand that government take firm action against polluters. We can have a clean world, we can do nothing. The choice is up to you.
40. Which of the following statement is Not a cause of pollution mentioned in the passage?
A) pollution explosion.
B) too much consumption.
C) It is out-dated to rescue things.
D) high unemployment rate.
41. which of the following statements is Not a suggested solution to air pollution?
A) building sewage-treatment plants.
B) strict restriction on the discharge of polluted water to rivers or lakes nearby.
C) using gigantic tanks to separate solid materials from water.
D) setting up underground sewage system to purify water.
42. What does this passage mainly address?
A) the severity of pollution nowadays.
B) pollution and its solution.
C) universal concern over environment.
D) consumption and pollution.
TEST C Not often in the story of mankind does a man arrive on earth who is both steel and velvet, who is as hard as rock and soft as drifting fog, who knows in his heart and mind the paradox of terrible storm and peace unspeakable and perfect. Here and there across centuries come reports of men alleged to have these contrasts and the incomparable Abraham Lincoln, born 150 years ago this day, is an approach if not a perfect realization of this character. In the time of the April lilacs in the year 1865, Lincolns death, the casket with his body was carried northwest a thousand miles and the American people wept as never before. During the four years he was President, he at times, especially in the first three months, took to himself the powers of a dictator. He commanded the most powerful armies then assembled in modern warfare. He enforced and cruised conscription of soldiers for the first time in American history. And under imperative necessity, he abolished the writ of habeas corpus. He directed politically and spiritually the wild, massive turbulent forces let loose in Civil War, a war truly as time has shown, of brothers. He argued and pleaded for compensated emancipation of the slaves. The slaves were property. They were on the tax books along with horses and cattle, the valuation of each slave written next to his name on the tax assessors books. And failing to get action of compensated emancipation; he took the only other course. As a Chief Executive having war powers he issued the paper by which he declared the slaves to be free under military. People, people in many other countries take Lincoln now for their own. He belongs to them. He stands for decency, honest dealing, plain talk and funny stories. Look where he came from, dont you know he was a struggler and wasnt he a kind of tough struggler? All his life right up to the finish. Something like that you can hear in a nearby neighborhood and across the seas. Millions there are who take Lincoln as a personal treasure. He had something they would like to see spread everywhere all over the world. Democracy we cant find the words to say exactly what it is, but he had it. In his blood and bones he carried it. In the breath of his speeches and writings it is there. Popular government, republican institutions government where the people had the say so, one way or another telling there elected leaders what they want. He had the idea, he embodied it. Its there in the lights and shadows of his personality. A mystery that can be lived but never fully spoken in words. Today, when we say perhaps that well assured and most enduring memory onto Lincoln is invisibly there today tomorrow and for a long long time yet to com. It is there in the hearts of the lovers of liberty. Men and women this country has always had them in crises. Men and women who understand that wherever there is freedom, there have been those who have fought, toiled and sacrificed for it. I thank you.
43. What does the author suggest as far as Abraham Lincoln's characteristics are concerned?
A) indefinable peace
B) admirable perfect
C) paradox of extremes
D) stern but approachable
44. Why do millions of people take Lincoln as a personal treasure?
A) He embodies decency, honest dealing, plain talk and a lot of other admirable qualities.
B) He is the kind of tough strugglers whom common people respect and love.
C) He stands for democracy.
D) all of the above.
45. Which of the following statement can Not be deduced from this passage?
A) He declared to free the slaves when he was a Chief Executive.
B) He persistently carried out ideas in his mind.
C) He is beloved as the embodiment of freedom and democracy.
D) Though admired by people, he took high-handed measures as a dictator.
TEXT D Lets Help Eliminate Workplace Anger "How many of you have been angry at least once today？" asked the conductor of an anger-management seminar. According to an article The New York Times, most of those in the room raised their hands." The fact is," the seminar leader continued," people get angry an average of 10 to 14 times a day. But anger is especially endemic to work. If you have a jib, youre guaranteed to get angry." Up would have gone my hand, had I been in the room and heard that last mark. And I would have respectfully disagreed. Although some statistics indicate that the number of on-the-job flare-ups has increased in recent years, to hold onto the nation that workplace anger is therefore guaranteed is counterproductive. It leaves one with the impression that any efforts to remain even-tempered at work are, at best, only a bandit. Anger-management experts do offer a few common-sense guidelines to minimize work related anger: dont let it fester; dont look for snubs in what are purely innocent incidents; dont get caught up in other peoples gripes; if you start to lose control, take a break. I would add, pray. Instead of sitting there fuming over some encounter, why not use the time to listen for Gods thoughts, his messages to you? To be sure, they will snuff out the heat of anger and bring calmness, clarity, and healing. "For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith the Lord, thoughts of peace, and not of evil, to give you an expected end" Better still, one can act preemptively to prevent a volatile atmosphere on the job. A good start is to consider that the people we work with —— whether its the person at the desk across from ours or the president of the company —— are not what we see on the surface. If we take it for granted that our coworkers are so many individuals composed merely of an assortment of physical and emotional characteristics, then our overall expectations on the job, as well as our concern for the well-being of those we work with, are limited. But our true nature isnt the sum of material and sometimes fiery emotional elements. Each one of us is Gods child. Everyones true selfhood comes from this one source —— God, divine Spirit —— and is therefore purely good and spiritual. "Man (including woman) is the offspring, not of the lowest, but of the highest qualities of Mind," wrote Mary Baker Eddy, author of "Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures". This divine Mind, or God, is expressing in each of us these "highest qualities" as our real nature, respectfully and loving, and revealing our actual relation to one another as sons and daughters of God. What we should be counting on at work, then, or anywhere else where people come into contact with one another, is an atmosphere in which everyone feels upheld by Gods thoughts of peace. In this atmosphere, solid relationships develop and solution appear even in situations where it was believed that none were possible. So, instead of bracing for a showdown with a fellow worker, you can arrive at work filled with the conviction that you and your colleagues, clients, and customers are all inherently good-natured —— God-natured —— the offspring of a totally loving creator. Youre certain to have higher expectations, more compassion, more patience. A real peacemaker attitude. This is doing more than managing work-related anger. This is helping to eliminating it.
46. What does the sentence "But anger id especially endemic to work" in the fist paragraph mean?
A) anger for sure would cause harm to one's work.
B) anger is as inevitable in workplace as indispositions to a person.
C) anger can threaten one's position in a workplace.
D) anger is like an indisposition, it is unavoidable but insignificant.
47. What's the meaning of the first sentence in the second paragraph "Up would have gone my hand"?
A) would have raised my hand.
B) would have vetoed the proposal by raising my hand.
C) would have strongly opposed to the view.
D) would have disagreed aired my own view.
48. What guidelines do the anger-management experts offer to subside workplace anger?
A) calm down and try to solve the problem.
B) take a breath begin to lose control.
C) divert your attention to pleasant things.
D) all of the above.
49. What does the author of "Science and Heath" try to convey readers in the book?
A) man is created by God with divine qualities.
B) human beings' real nature is as respectful as God.
C) we are all offspring of God, our relationship with others are that of brotherhood or sisterhood, so there's no reason for conflicts.
D) all of the above points.
50. what's the main idea of this passage?
A) we should spare no efforts to eliminate workplace anger.
B) pray can help minimize work-related anger.
C) the Christian atmosphere in which everyone feels as equal sons and daughters of God should be advocated to reduce work-place anger.
D) among various solution to workplace anger, resorting to peace by virtue of Christian belief is most efficient.
SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING
In this section there are seven passage followed by ten multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.
TEXT E First read the question. 51. The purpose of this passage is to _____ A. enunciate the impact of both climate change and policies on different interest groups. B. explore the reason for divergent attitudes towards the environmental issue. C. depict the picture of the present international environmental and economic situation. D. explain the interaction between environment and economy. Now go though Text E quickly to answer question 31. The Plants Players Both climate change and policies to minimize its effects have enormous environmental implications. The costs of climate change will vary widely from country to country. Developed countries are responsible for over two thirds of past emissions and some 75 percent of current emissions, but they are best positioned to protect themselves from damage. Developing countries tend to have low per capita emissions, are in great need of economic development and more vulnerable to climate-change impacts. These difference have helped to shape the position that Government take in international talks. The key players are: The European Union: In general, EU supported binding targets and timetable for emissions reduction. Other countries did not agree. The European Union also supported allowing countries to adhere to joint targets. This now affects the internal discussion between the EUS poorer members, who argue for higher emissions quotas within any future overall EU target, and the richer members, who would have to reduce their emissions further to compensate for this. The Jusscanz countries —— the non —— EU developed-countries —— including Japan, the United States, Switzerland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Norway. The non-European members of this group tend to share a concern for a more "flexible" approach to limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Despite what has been called the "creative ambiguity" of the final text, it is almost universally interpreted as committing developed countries to make a sincere effort to return their greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 level by 2000. When the Clinton Administration came into office in 1993, it softened the United States line and explicitly announced the United States intension to pursue stabilization. Countries with economies in transition. The industrialized countries of Central and East Europe and the former Soviet Union are significant emitters of greenhouse gases. However, due to the economic slump following 1990 levels through 2000. Afterwards, however, their economies and emissions levels are expected to revive. The group of 77 and China. Developing countries work through the Group of to develop common positions on emission-reduction commitments and financial and technological transfers. However, the G77 does not always present a united front, owing to the widely differing of its members. For example, China and other enormous coal resources that vital to their economic development. African countries tend to focus on vulnerability and impacts. Many of the Asian economic "tigers" have concerns about the possibility of being the next in line for emissions reduction targets. Countries with large forestry sectors and sensitive to the implications of developing forests as carbon "sinks". The association of small island states. They are particularly vulnerable to the risk of sea-level rise and therefore strongly support rapid action to reduce emissions. The organization of petroleum exporting countries. OPEC members tend to be concerned about the likely impact on their economies if other countries reduce their use of oil. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and others have emphasized the existence of scientific, uncertainty and argued that the process should move forward cautiously. Business. The first business groups to attend talks as observers represented energy-intensive firms concerned about the negative economic implications. More recently, other business sectors have started to follow the process more closely, including the insurance sector, which sees itself as vulnerable to increased storms and other possible climate change impacts, and clean energy firms that see market opportunities. Environmentalists, Green groups have been active in the climate change arena since the very beginning. Many are active in lobbying delegates and the media and produce newsletters during international meetings. The majority are from developed countries, although constant efforts are made to promote the participation of more nongovernmental organizations from developing countries. Local authorities. Many cities around the world have launched climate change plans that are even more ambitious than their than those of their national Governments. Urban governments are critically important because of their role in managing energy utilities, public transport and other emissions-producing activities of the public sector. Mayors and other urban leaders joined together in an association to present their views at related meeting.
51. The purpose of this passage is to _____
A) enunciate the impact of both climate change and policies on different interest groups.
B) explore the reason for divergent attitudes towards the environmental issue.
C) depict the picture of the present international environmental and economic situation.
D) explain the interaction between environment and economy.
TEXT F First read the questions. 52. Quite probably the following passage is from ____ A. an article in a scholarly magazine. B. a doctoral dissertation. C. a literature review on Austen. D. an autobiography. 53. What does Austens self-effacing anonymity suggest according to the authors remark? A. It suggests Austens introvert character. B. It shows her polite manners. C. It hints at her rejection of the outside world. D. It hints at her pretension. Now go through Text F quickly to answer question 32 and 33. Jane Austen Not a few of Jane Austens personal acquaintances might have echoed Sir Samual Egerton Brydges, who noticed that "she was fair and handsome, slight and elegant, but with cheeks a little too full," while "never suspecting she was an authoress." For this novelist whose personal obscurity was more than that of any other famous writer was always quickly to insist either on complete anonymity or on the propriety of her limited craft, her delight in delineating just "3 or 4 families in a country village". With her self-deprecatory remarks about her inability to join "strong manly, spirited sketches, full of Variety and Glow" with her "little bit (two inches wide) of Ivory", Jane Austen perpetuated the belief among her friends that her art was just an accomplishment "by a lady", if anything "rather too light and bright and sparkling". In this respect she resembled one of her favorite contemporaries, Mary Brunton, who would rather have "glide through the world unknown " than been "suspected of literary airs —— to be shunned, as literary women are, by the more pretending of their own sex, and abhorred, as literary women are, by the more pretending of the other! —— my dear. I would sooner exhibit as a ropedancer." Yet, decorous though they might first seem, Austens self-effacing anonymity and her modest description of her miniaturist art also imply a criticism, even rejection, of the world at large. For, as Gaston Bachelard explains, the miniature "allows us to be world conscious at slight risk". While the creators of satirically conceived diminutive landscapes seem to see everything as small because they are themselves so grand, Austens analogy for her art metaphorically, as her critics would too, in relation to female arts severely devalued until quite recently (for painting on ivory was traditionally a "ladylike" occupation), Austen attempted through self-imposed novelistic limitations to define a secure place, even as she seemed to admit the impossibility of actual inhabiting such a small apace with any degree of comfort. And always, for Austen, it is women because they are too vulnerable in the world at large —— who must acquiesce in their own confinement, no matter how stifling it may be.
52. Quite probably the following passage is from ____
A) an article in a scholarly magazine.
B) a doctoral dissertation.
C) a literature review on Austen.
D) an autobiography.
53. What does Austen's self-effacing anonymity suggest according to the author's remark?
A) It suggests Austen's introvert character.
B) It shows her polite manners.
C) It hints at her rejection of the outside world.
D) It hints at her pretension.
TEXT G First read the question. 54. The purpose of this article is to _____ A. make an advertisement for the new Underwater World Aquarium in Beijing. B. introduce the new aquarium in Beijing. C. introduce aquariums around the world. D. briefly describe the origin and the development of aquariums. Now go though Text G to answer question 34. A Talk Through A World Underwater In Beijing The new Underwater World Aquarium in Being uses the latest technology to enable visitors to walk though the tanks under the water, and view the fish without getting wet. The US 11 million (RMB 91 million) project enables visitors to see thousands of tropical fish swimming around and over them in their natural habitat, unfazed by the hundreds of human eyes watching them. The shell to house the saltwater aquarium has been constructed under an artificial lake in the suburbs of Beijing by the New Zealand company Richina Pacific which has also bought the rights to operate the aquarium. The opening was planned for late 1997. What New Zealand marine engineer/designer Ian Mellsop calls "the age of aquariums" has come to Beijing after being tested in major aquariums around the world. The technology for the heavy wrap-around acrylic viewing tunnel was developed for Kelly Tarltons Underwater World in Auckland, New Zealand. It has since been used in aquarium in Australia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Scotland and now in China. Mellsop says the acrylic tunnel technology opened the way for visitors to walk through an undersea world, rather than simply watching from behind flat panels. It was born, not from some "eureka-like" design discovery, but from Mellsops ever practical drive to reduce costs. The tunnel idea was not new. Straight tunnels had been around since the early 1980s. They were employed in the United States the year before Kelly Tarltons Underwater World opened, with horizontal panels forming the tunnel and a moving walkway carrying visitors down the middle of this tunnel. Kelly Tarltons Underwater World was conceived as an aquarium using straight tunnels, with concrete junction boxes to link them. But Mellsop had found a way to "bend" two-meter diameter concrete pipes and gluing them. Mellsop did some pricing and experimenting and discovered it would be feasible and cheaper to cut and join the acrylic panels themselves, and to use the acrylic pipe itself to turn corners, rather than simply leading the pipe into concrete junction boxes which would act as corners. In using this new method, Mellsop found the idea that would take the aquarium world by storm. "We realized we could make the tunnel meander wherever we wanted it to on the ocean floor," he says. The challenge was to get the tunnel the right size: too and viewers would lose the effect of being underwater; too tight and it would distort the undersea world and create a claustrophobic effect. "We still think that what we did back then is optimal," says Mellsop, referring to the tanks and tunnels under Aucklands Tamaki Drive. Reducing the cost of aquariums created a big for these educational and entertainment centres and counties began to demand aquariums for themselves. Aquariums had once been the preserve of public authorities because of throe huge cost, but they now became viable as paying attractions run by private operators. Instead of the 100 million or so that it was costing to build the big Japanese and American aquariums, because an acrylic tunnel is stronger than a flat panel, requiring less plastic, less concrete, less engineering, as well as providing a much closer experience of undersea life. Although the tunnel have not changed much, there have been advances in other areas, says Mellsop, notably in the life support systems for the marine life. He cites the companys Ellesmere Port Underwater World in Beijing as a good example of cutting-edge aquarium technology. It will be the largest aquarium in the UK "and I hope the best in the world". His most novel assignment was the building of a small aquarium for the Sultan of Brunei. It was situated in a night club at the Royal Brunei Polo Club guest house number four. There seems no end to the possibilities. Mellsop likens aquariums to zoos, with the potential for at least one in every major city in the world. The zoo analogy fits the visitor profile for underwater world: all ages, all types of people. "To heck with virtual reality," says Mellsop," Weve got actual reality, real fish and people just love it."
54. The purpose of this article is to _____
A) make an advertisement for the new Underwater World Aquarium in Beijing.
B) introduce the new aquarium in Beijing.
C) introduce aquariums around the world.
D) briefly describe the origin and the development of aquariums.
TEXT H First read the questions. 55. What is the bees great contribution to mankind? A. they can provide mankind honey which is valuable nutrition. B. pollination benefits mankind most. C. beekeeping is a very profitable business which enables a great number of people earn a living. D. the bee is a significant node in the chain of ecological system. 56. Why does the author mention the womens liberation movement? A. to make a comparison between the womens liberation movement and bees female monarchy society. B. to draw an analogy. C. to defend womens liberation movement with the example of bees female dominating culture. D. to illustrate an unparallel example for womens liberation movement. Now go through Text H quickly to answer question 35 and 36. A lush spring and summer are certain to bring acute frustrations and violent twinges of conscience farmers and gardeners, for if they dont use harmful insecticides, they may have fewer flowers, fruits, vegetables, or fodder —— temporarily; if they do use such insecticides, they may have no honeybees —— permanently. On balance, however, the latter is by far the greater evil, for pollination is the bees greatest gift to mankind, greater than the honey in the honeycomb; if the bees are eradicated, man will surly face disasters worse than army worms, Japanese beetles, or crab grass. Beekeeping was practically unknown in the Western Hemisphere until after the first European settlers arrived. The earliest reference to beekeeping here come from Virginia, where beekeeping was practical apiary in 1622; however, by 1640 Newbury, Massachusetts, and a fine municipal apiary, and in 1641 bee colonies in New England were selling for five pounds a piece, the equivalent of fifteen days labor by a skilled craftsman. Today, the New England honey crop, for example, total more than a million pounds of honey from approximately 38,000 colonies; this, however, represent only a relatively small part of Americans nearly five million colonies, most of which are now in the South and the West. Will there continue to be that many colonies? Already about a half million colonies have been destroyed by poisonous insecticides, and all over the country entomologists and ecologists are deeply worried about the loss of honeybees and the threat of dwindling food supplies as there pollinations are killed off. Imagine pollinating a ten-acre field with clumsy fingers. It takes a busy bee about seven seconds per sip, and a minimum of a 15,000 bees per acre can handle the job with dispatch daily, hence, producers of vast acreage of fruits, vegetables, and fodders plants rent hives of bees in the springtime to do the work which neither man nor machine can duplicate. Although bees have been in existence for millions of years and wild honey was sought by the most primitive man, it was only five or six thousand years ago that bees began to be cultivated and "managed " in apiaries. They became so precious to the Egyptian economy, in fact, that the pharaohs forbade the removal of any of them. Finally, after several unsuccessful bee nappings, St. Sossima managed to smuggle out ten honeybees and a queen in a hollow reed, and legend holds that all the honeybees now registered and "managed" are descendants of these Egyptian bees. Beekeeping is not without its hazards, however; in fact, Jay Mc Donough of Connecticut found that it can be rather disconcerting for the beginner. Several years ago, with his wife and two young daughters, Jay bought a fine old house, cleared land for an organic vegetable garden, and ordered a supply of bees for pollination purposes. He originally assumed he wanted the bees only for pollination, but the family soon discovered the advantages of a ready supply of honey and beeswax. At the outset, however, like any inexperienced beekeeper, Jay learned the hard way. His first three pounds of bees, shipped from Georgia with the queen-to-be carefully boxed separately and surrounded with honey-candy which would later be eaten off by her subjects when released her for her duties, arrived early one morning just as Jay, a first officer and copilot for Trans World Airlines, was due to leave for a six-day flight. At that juncture, he did not realize that bees caged for a relatively long journey have only vengeance on their minds. Nighttime, when bees are ready for bed, is the only time to release them, so that their queen with relative calm and enthusiasm, they will establish proper housekeeping arrangement. Time was pressing, however; so Jay carefully shook the caged bees into their new hive, deposited the unsuspecting queen in the midst of everything, and departed. Angry and disgruntled, the bees promptly tore into the queens retreat, stung her to death in reprisal for her mismanagement, and flew around confusedly. Fortunately, a local beekeeper who inspects registered bees came by that first day, learned of the palace revolt, and quickly introduced one of his own queens, successfully establish her on the throne before further damage occurred. In a few days she was laying from 2000 to 3000 eggs per day, and now there are several hives operating on the Mc Donough place. Beekeepers in general are outspoken critics of the wanton use of insecticides, and Olympio Cartinelli, also of Connecticut, is no exception, for not long ago Mr. Cartinellis fifteen colonies of honeybees were destroyed in a single day by a neighbors use of sprays to control the army worms in his cornfield. The whole family grieved over the loss of their hard-working friends, and so, in fact, did the neighbor because the bees had been pollinating other producing fields of his and the yield was sharply reduced. The bees invaluable aid to man is , of course, merely a side effect from the bees point of view, the bees main purpose in life being the production of honey food for herself and royal jelly for her queen; nursing feeding, and protecting the babies; and tolerating a few necessary males, the drones. Incidentally, the womens liberation movement would do well to study bee culture for pointers; the little honey-makers have the girl backed right the map when it comes to organization, sharply defined responsibilities, and control of males in a female monarchy. Whats more, the bees obviously know something we dont: we are aware that royal jelly has unique life-giving qualities, but cannot exactly define or reproduce it in a test tube. The praise and respect accorded bees by those who know and appreciate them is perhaps best summarized by Francis H. Mattutat, president of a firm which deals in bulk honey: "Bees are the only creatures that have come on the earth to bring creativity, without destructive side effect. They proliferate without upsetting other life cycles. In taking pollen and nectar to create honey, they render a greater service to plants, animals, and humanity. They set an example of instant justice, too. When in anger, confusion, of self-defense a bee stings its adversary, it instantly destroys itself. The use of its stinger id a one-time protest. Giving more than it takes, the bee is probably the most useful creature on earth."
55. What is the bee's great contribution to mankind?
A) they can provide mankind honey which is valuable nutrition.
B) pollination benefits mankind most.
C) beekeeping is a very profitable business which enables a great number of people earn a living.
D) the bee is a significant node in the chain of ecological system.
56. Why does the author mention the women's liberation movement?
A) to make a comparison between the women's liberation movement and bees' female monarchy society.
B) to draw an analogy.
C) to defend women's liberation movement with the example of bees' female dominating culture.
D) to illustrate an unparallel example for women's liberation movement.
TEXT I First read the question. 57. Who are addressed in this article? A. common people who wish to grasp the knack for saving money. B. the young bread-earners who always live beyond their means. C. prudent new arrivals from Asia. D. families that lack financial strategy. Now go though Text I quickly to answer question 37. Willie Huang, a certified financial planner with American Express Financial Advisors, Inc. in Queen, New York, himself an immigrant from Taiwan, regularly advises recent arrivals from Asia. He says they often make the same mistakes. After evaluating the Tsang assets, Huang praised their knack for saving money. "Their ability to live within their means is excellent," he says, comparing them favorable with some of his native-born U.S. clients who are deep in credit-card debt. But Huang found several dangerous flaws in the familys financial strategy. His advice: Invest more aggressively. Huang asserts the couple needs to invest in the stock market, the only place where they can find the growth they need to be able to retire comfortably. He wants the Tsangs to put some of their money into growth-oriented mutual funds, but like many Asian immigrants, Eric has watched friends and family lose money on the Hog Kong stock market. He prefers to bet his familys future on real estate and restaurants over which he has more control. Huang reluctantly recommends certificates of deposit, bank tome deposits that offer a much smaller return —— around 5% vs. average long-term returns of double that for growth tock funds. His plan: Keep a third of the 18,000 of saving in a checking account as a cash reserve. Put the other 12,000 in bank CDs. Get good heath coverage. Eric has looked into competitive health care plans and found that for a family of four the monthly cost would be between 600 and 800 —— too much, he decided. Most new Asian immigrants dont carry heath insurance, notes Sher Sparano, president of benefits Advisory Service, Inc. in Queen, New York. Sparano suggests that Eric look into the New York State Heath Insurance Partnership Plan for small business owners. This state plan subsidizes up to 45% of the cost of health care premiums of an employees or owner (and their families) of a participating small business. For a family of six (which Eric can claim because his parents are dependents), an applicants like Eric with no more than 47,708 in income would have to pay only 18751 a month. Purchase disability insurance. In the case of a catastrophic accident or illness, Eric would not qualify for federal social security disability payments since he has worked less than 10 years in the U.S. If permanently disabled, he would prove an unbearable drain on his family, which could not survive on Rebeccas 8,400 salary. Huang advises the family to immediately look for a disability insurance policy for Eric is guaranteed renewable and non-cancelable. Price: 100 a month for coverage that would would pay 1,500 a month in case Eric is disabled. Replace your life insurance policy. Many Asian immigrants buy life insurance, but usually the wrong kind. "Erics policy needs to be restructured to better cover the family for about the same amount theyre now spending per month," advises Huang. Erics coverage should be raised to 350,000 because he is the primary breadwinner. The policy for the children should be scraped because they are a poor way to save. Eric is still against stocks and is not convinced that CDs are a good idea either. "I have a business to run," he says." What if I need emergency money for the restaurant?" He is, however, very interested in disability insurance and the heath insurance plan, particularly since the latter will cover his parents. As for the life insurance advice, he says he wants to study it a bit more before making a decision.
57. Who are addressed in this article?
A) common people who wish to grasp the knack for saving money.
B) the young bread-earners who always live beyond their means.
C) prudent new arrivals from Asia.
D) families that lack financial strategy.
TEXT J First read the questions. 58. Whats the text mainly about? A. Chinas cinema in modern times. B. the development of Chinese film. C. the origin and development of Chinas cinema. D. major film made in China. 59. When was the film the North Is Ours produced? A. after the victory of the Anti-Japanese War. B. when the Yanan Film Group was founded. C. immediately before the founding of the Peoples Republic of China. D. during the Anti-Japanese War. Now go though Text J to answer question 38 and 39. The cinema was introduced into China at the end of the 19th century. On August 11,1896, a Western film was shown in Shanghai. It was the first film shown in China. In 1950, a photo studio in Beijing made the first Chinese film which was only a collection of scenes from a Beijing opera based on the classical novel The romance of the Three Kingdoms. In the early thirties, under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, film personnel in the Kuomintang ruled areas produced many progressive and revolutionary films such as Spring Silkworms, Plunder of Peach and Plum, Three Modern Women, The Great Road, Song of the Fishermen, and Crossroad. These films reflect the realities of society and the wishes of the people. During the Anti-Japanese War, many progressive films were made in the Kuomintang controlled areas. Among them were Defend Our Land, The March of Victory, The North Is Ours, Sons and Daughters of China, and The snowy Taihang Mountains. The films reflect the peoples demand for resistance against Japan. After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, the Kuomintang reactionaries established their monopoly of the film industry. In spite of the oppression and persecution by the Kuomintang, progressive film-makers, led by the underground Party organizations, produced a group of excellence film. Remote Love, Along the Songhua River, Eight Thousand Li of Cloud and Moon, and The Spring of River Flows East are all about the peoples life or struggles during the War of Resistance against Japan. Myriads of Lights and Crows and Sparrows depict the peoples sufferings under the the rule of the Kuomintang. In the liberated areas, the founding of the Yanan Film Group marks the starting point of the peoples film industry. This group, established under the direct leadership of the Communist Party in 1938, shot valuable documentaries which include Yanan and the Eighth Route Army, Dr. Norman Bethune, and Nanniwan. In 1946, the Yanan Film Studio was found. The newsreel Defend Yanan and the Shanxi-Gansu-Nigxia Border Areas, produced by the studio, recorded part of the liberation War. In October, 1946, the Northeast Film Studio was established in the Northeast Liberation War. Its main production were seventeen newsreels entitled The Democratic Northeast. Many films made before the founding of the Peoples Republic of China have strong points and qualities which contemporary film-makers should study and develop. Many old progressive films adopted a realistic style; therefore they reflect Chinese society and the lives the people and shoe sympathy for the oppressed and exploited. Early film-makers were clear about the purpose of their work: to make the plot development, customs and habits, language and acting their films conform to the taste of the audience. It is obvious that the pioneers of Chinas progressive films made great contributions to the development of Chinas film industry.
58. What's the text mainly about?
A) China's cinema in modern times.
B) the development of Chinese film.
C) the origin and development of China's cinema.
D) major film made in China.
59. When was the film the North Is Ours produced?
A) after the victory of the Anti-Japanese War.
B) when the Yan'an Film Group was founded.
C) immediately before the founding of the People's Republic of China.
D) during the Anti-Japanese War.
TEXT K First read the questions. 60. Which of the following statements is true according to the text? A. James Michener enjoyed donating, because he had no offspring. B. James Michener set a good example for other philanthropists, for he was imaginative and had his unique style C. Shortly before his death, he revealed a hidden regret that he would rather have all the money he had donated back. D. His largest donation went to the Texas center for writers, because he was a successful writer himself while many others struggled on their way. Now go though Text K quickly to answer question 45. A Joyful philanthropist In his long writing life, James Michener aimed to donate at least 90 percent of what he earned from his 43 novels. He seems to have more than made his goal; at his death, in October, 1997, his assets were estimated at least less than US 10 million. He had given away US 117 million. Michener makes a good example for other philanthropists, not just in how much he gave, but in his style of giving. The writer worked hard at doing good, following up his donation to see how the money was used. He gave to things for which he had a passion, and he had a lot of fun in doing so. Michener was 90 when he died. He was on Fortune magazines list of Americas top 25 philanthropists —— the only writer in a crowd of tycoons. Asked, shortly before his death, whether he ever wished he had his millions back, he said sure, so that he could have the pleasure of giving then away again. Too often, says Nelson Aldrich, editor of The American Benefactor, a magazine about philanthropists, the rich give without much imagination. "They give to the college they went to, and the hospital where theyll die, "Aldrich says." And most of the rich are stingy; few give even as much as 10 percent, the traditional tithe. They hold on the myth of not dipping into capital." Michener did, in fact, give to his college —— US7.2 million to Swarthmore, in Pennsylvania. He called it a repayment for the US 2,000 basketball scholarship they gave him in 1925. As he wrote to the college president, in 1969,"Coming as I did from a family with no income at all, and with no prospects whatever, college was the narrow door that led from darkness into light." His will leaves almost everything to Swarthmore, including future royalties from his books. (He had no family to leave his money to; although he was married three times, he had no children. His third wife, Mari Sabusawa Michener, died in 1994.) Michener always described himself as a foundling, born in New York City and raised by Mable Michener, a Quaker widow, in Doylestown, Pennsylvania. She lived, he said, by taking in other peoples children and other peoples laundry. For his last 15 years, Michener lived modestly in Austin, Texas, where he had moved to write the 1,000-page saga Texas. Each of his big bestsellers, including Texas, Hawaii and Covenant, made about US 5 million. And there were 20 of them. Whats more, he still collected royalties from the musical and movie South Pacific, which was inspired by his first book, Tales of the South Pacific, written when he was 40. Frail from kidney disease in his last years, Michener was pretty much confined to a declining chair in a small study, simply decorated. There were few personal possessions besides some photos of himself and his last wife, and an unframed, faded poster of Tahiti. A source of pleasure and company in those years was the Texas Center for writers. His largest gist, totaling US 64.2 million, went to the University of Texas, with US 18 million going to found and support the writers center. He got a lot back, he said —— "You meet bright people, you can consult with anybody there, and there are 23 libraries on campus." Every year Michener would meet with the 10 incoming students, one by one, and he went out with them every fall to the Salt Lick barbecue restaurant. He often ate at the college cafeteria, center director James Magnuson recall. He enjoy their barbecue chicken special. His gift to the Texas Center included hundreds of modern American paintings worth a total of US31 million. His US 25 million collection of Japanese prints had already been donated to Honolulus city art gallery. (He lived there for seven years while writing Hawaii, the 1959 book that set the pattern for his later, exhaustively researched bestseller.) His next largest gift was 11.5 million to two museums and the library in his hometown of Doylestown. Micheners smaller gift also reveal a lot about where his affections lay. And they reveal that it was a very good thing to have James Michener working in your vicinity. While researching Alaska, for example, he lived in a log cabin near the tiny Sheldon Jackson College in Stika (student population: 233) He used the campus library and set and talked to students in the cafeteria. After he left he gave the college US 750,000 for scholarship. After living in Houston to write Space, he endowed a college scholarship fund for children of NASA employees pursuing careers in science or engineering. Since 1982, 73 scholarships have been given out. After wring Centennial, on the setting of the West, Michener donates US50,000 to help pay for the Nebraska National Trails Museum. The University of Miami, where Michener did his research for Caribbean, got US1 million for a writing program for graduate students, especially those from the islands. Similarly, after Michener finishing Poland, Michener established a US400,000 fund to support young Polish writers. Michener considered himself a professional writer, not an author;" author" stuck him as a pretentious term. Like his writing, his philanthropy was intended to educate; thus his support of colleges, libraries and museums. Michener was generous to writers whose books were very difficult from his. For example, he endowed a US30,000-a-year fellowship at the University of Houston named for Donald Barthelme, a nobly surreal and sophisticated fiction writer. Michener endowed eight fellowships a year for graduates of the University of Iowa Writers Workshop, where the books produced tend to be slimmer, subtler and moodier than the typical Michener. The money was to support the young poets and novelists for a year while they struggled to get published. Frank Conroy, workshop director, remembers, "It wasnt just a case of, heres a some money, go and do good." He was a man who knew it was not easy to do good. You have to think, and think hard, to do good." Finally, Michener gave generously to the one kind of writer he would never be-an impoverished one. The Authors League Fund, the charitable arm of the Authors Guild and the Dramatists Guild, received US1.2 million over 10 years from Michener to help authors who were old and sick, without income or health insurance. Two months before he died, Michener wrote a note to Herbert Mitgang, director of the Fund. As Mitgang unfolded the letter, he discovered a cheque for US 125,000 for the fund. Writing that cheque and tucking it into the envelope must have been a satisfying gesture, and fun.
60. Which of the following statements is true according to the text?
A) James Michener enjoyed donating, because he had no offspring.
B) James Michener set a good example for other philanthropists, for he was imaginative and had his unique style
C) Shortly before his death, he revealed a hidden regret that he would rather have all the money he had donated back.
D) His largest donation went to the Texas center for writers, because he was a successful writer himself while many others struggled on their way.
PART IV TRANSLATION
Translate the following passage into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET.
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
American is presently going through the beginning of a national debate over various components of its international role, for example the proposition that the United States is the only remaining superpower. That may be true in the military sense. On the other hand, the issues susceptible to solution by military action are in decline. In many other areas, the world is becoming much more evenly balanced. Indeed, we are now living in a world composed of six or seven major global players with comparable capacities to shape events outside the field of nuclear arms. In such an international order, there are only two roads to stability: one is hegemony based on one countrys dominance; the other is equilibrium, which is another way of describing the notorious balance of power. Unfortunately, too many Americans tend to reject both approaches. The American public seems determined to reject the role of global policeman which hegemony implies, and which runs counter to the moral convictions of the American people. But balance of power or equilibrium has also been historically rejected as a source of endless tensions. At crucial periods such as in deciding to enter the two world wars to preserve the global balance of power, Americans have been prepared to overcome their prejudice. In other words, American is in the process of learning —— and it is not quite there yet —— that the emerging world order will have to be based on some concept of equilibrium.
PART V WRITING
Directions: For this part you are allowed 60 minutes to write an essay on this topic. Give your view on this by writing an essay of about 300 words.
What are the qualifications for a good youth of today? In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate reason. Marks will be awarded for content, organization as well as for syntactic variety and appropriate word choice. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.