PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION
In Section A, B and C you will hear everything ONLY ONCE. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct response to each question on the Colored Answer Sheet.
SECTION A TALK
Question 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now listen to the talk.
1. The trio began their career in a ____.
B) coffee house
C) concert hall
2. Which of the following is not their song?
A) Walking in the Rain.
B) Blowing in the Wind.
C) Puff the Magic Dragon.
D) If I had a Hammer.
3. Which of the following is not their concert in 1969?
A) Civil Right.
B) The Vietnam War.
C) World Hunger.
4. Their song Light One Candle ____.
A) gives their accounts of the events in Central America
B) gives support to Soviet Jews
C) gives support to Martin Luther King
D) support the homeless
5. The singer's latest song is ____. A) Early Morning Rain
B) Leaving on a Jet Plane
C) El Salvador
D) Flowers and Stones
SECTION B INTERVIEW
Question 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following question.
Now listen to the interview.
6. Where did these people meet? A) In a library
B) On a bus
C) In a supermarket
D) At the newsagent's
7. Where did Mr. Mercer advise the couple to go? A) France.
8. What was the basic cost two weeks for two persons? A) '360.
9. Which of the following was suggested by Mr. Mercer? A) "Don't get too familiar with the hotel staff."
B) "Keep a check on your spending."
C) "Don't sit down at a bar."
D) "Book your hotel right away."
10. What happened to Jim at the end of the conversation? A) He bumped into someone.
B) He narrowly escaped an accident.
C) He ran into a lamp-post.
D) he got run over.
SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING
In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONLY ONCE. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15-minute gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini lecture. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.
ANSWER SHEET ONE
Fill in each of the gaps with ONE suitable word. You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable.
Nineteenth Century Science
The nineteenth century produced three important theories: the conservation of (16), the conservation of (17), and (18). The first two pointed towards (19), the third produced a revolution in thought, and science began to split up into the (20) we know today.
A French philosopher evolved a system called "(21)" in which science finally took the place of theology and metaphysics. The great scientific principles of (22) of matter and the conservation of energy led to the view that the essential reality of the universe was matter, and thoughts are the results of chemical activities in the brain.
Railways and steamships made great changes possible in systems of transports. The first London (23) exchanges was set up in 1879. The first station to supply electricity to private users began to operate in New York.
French science was often perfect in form and thought; English science was individualistic and highly (24); German science was (25) and very well organized.
PART II PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION
The following passage contains ten errors .Each line contains a maximum of one error. In each case only one word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "^" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.
When ^ art museum wants a new exhibit,
it (never/) buys things in finished form and hangs
them on the wall. When a natural history museum
wants an exhibition, it must often build it.
The changes in language will continue forever, but no one knows sure
who does the changing. One possibility is that children are
responsible. A professor of linguistic at the University of Hawaii,
explores this in one of his recent books. Sometimes around 1880, a
language catastrophe occurred in Hawaii when thousands of emigrant
workers were brought to the islands to work for the new sugar
industry. These people speaking different languages were unable to
communicate with each other or with the native Hawaiians or the
dominant English-speaking owners of the plantations. So they first
spoke in Pidgin English —— the sort of thing such mixed language
(30) populations have always done. A pidgin is not really a language at
all. It is more like a set of verbal signals used to name objects and
without the grammatical rules needed for expressing thought and
ideas. And then, within a single generation, the whole mass of mixed
people began speaking a totally new tongue: Hawaiian Creole. The
new speech was contained ready-made words borrowed form all the
original tongues, but beared little or no resemblance to the
predecessors in the rules used for stringing the words together.
Although generally regarded as primitive language, Hawaiian Creole
had a highly sophisticated grammar.
PART III READING COMPREHENSIONS
In this section there are four reading passages followed by fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.
TEXT A Green EFL Stresses the Environment As environment protection becomes a global issue, a new term —— "Green EFL" is working its way into our vocabulary. What does it mean? The Project in the English Country School in southern England gives you some idea and shows how environment protection and language teaching can be combined together. In this school, there are projects on the classification of trees and their leaves, on insects and other invertebrates, pond and river life, flowers and hedgerows. There are air pollution surveys, littler surveys, recycling projects, acid rain surveys, farm visits, countryside walks, sculpture and colleges created from natural materials. It is all backed up in the classroom with EFL materials about the environment —— the rain forests, biological diversity, global warming —— and with materials which concentrate on the students immediate environment under the general heading of "Health": smoking, alcohol and during abuse, diet and exercise. For example, the topic of pollution will involve the students searching the local environment to find out what has been thrown away. This is then classified according to the type of material found and whether it is recyclable or not. The students follow instructions to set up simple experiments to detect air and water pollution. They investigate mosses and lichens, looking up their findings in field guides, to determine the number and quality of species. They compare and collate their findings, producing diagrams, writing up their results and drawing conclusions. They then practice language work on topics such as the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming. How do the students benefit from this? In common with all project work, leaner autonomy, cooperation and motivation is fostered. The language practice takes place in a natural and enjoyable setting. As a result the students develop an appreciation of and an alertness and sensitivity toward their surroundings. Another advantage of Green EFL is that the environment is a global issue: What happens in one country affects what happens in another. The environment thus spans borders and cultures. We can teach the language, English, through the environment, without teaching "Englishness", or "Americanness", or whatever other culture values we might accidentally or deliberately put across to our students. Finally, through an understanding of the global environment, and the issues which affect it, students will be better able to meet challenges in the future. For the teacher interested in teaching English through environmental studies, there is a surprising amount of material available. The Cambridge Advanced English exam, with its emphasis on scientific/authentic English, had encouraged authors to include texts on various environmental issues. Sue O Connells "Focus on Advanced English", for example, includes a chapter called "Paradise Lost" about the rain forests; "Passport to Cambridge Advanced English" discusses the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming; "Cambridge Advanced English" by Leo Jones, has a chapter about Green peace and The Antarctic; and so on. Environmental topics in Childrens EFL textbooks are also catching on. Book 3 of Collin "Mode" series is particularly useful.
36. The Green EFL ____.
A) is a teaching program which combines protection and language teaching
B) is practical is southern England
C) is a newly coined term which addresses the global issue of environmental protection
D) All of above
37. How can students detect air and water pollution?
A) They look for mosses and lichens and draw the conclusion according to the number and quality of the species.
B) They go to the fields to measure the quality of air and water.
C) They set up experiments to investigate the substances in air and water.
D) They look for several kinds of species in the field, produce diagrams and draw conclusions.
38. According to the author, the second advantage of Green EFL is that ____.
A) students will not be confined to learn a particular culture value
B) students may develop sensitivity toward their surroundings
C) students can learn values through Green EFL
D) students shall have a better understanding of the global issue
TEXT B What is it that brings about such an intimate connection between language and thinking? Is there no thinking without the use of language, namely in concepts and concept-combinations for which words need not necessarily come to mind? Has not everyone of us struggled for words although the connection between "thing" was already clear? We might be inclined to attribute to the act of thinking complete independence from language if the individual formed or were able to form his concepts without the verbal guidance of his environment. Yet most likely the mental shape of an individual, growing up under such conditions, would be very poor. Thus we may conclude that the mental development of the individual and his way of forming concepts depend to a high degree upon language. This makes us realize to what extent the same language means the same mentality. In this sense thinking and language are linked together. What distinguishes the language of science from language as we ordinarily understand the word? How is it that scientific language is international? What science strives for is an utmost acuteness and clarity of concepts as regards their mutual relation and their correspondence to sensory data. As an illustration, let us take the language of Education geometry and Algebra. They manipulate with a small number of independently introduced concepts, respectively symbols, such as the integral number, the straight line, the point, as well as with signs which designate the fundamental operations, that is the connections between those fundamental concepts. This is the basis for the construction between concepts and statements on the one hand and sensory data on the other hand is established through acts of counting and measuring whose performance is sufficiently well determined. The super-national character of scientific concepts and scientific language is due to the fact that they have been set up by the best brains of all countries and all times. In solitude and yet in cooperative effort as regards the final effect they created the spiritual tools for the technical revolutions which have transformed the life of mankind in the last centuries. Their system of concepts has served as a guide in the bewildering chaos of perceptions so that we learned to grasp general truths from particular observations. What hopes and fears does the scientific method imply for mankind? I do not think that this is the right way to put question. Whatever this tool in the hand of man will produce depends entirely on the goals alive in this mankind. Once these goals exist, the scientific method furnishes means to realize them. Yet it can not furnish the very goals. The scientific method itself would not have led anywhere, it would not even have been born without a passionate striving for clear understanding. Perfections of means and confusion of goals seem —— in my opinion —— to characterize our age. If we desire sincerely and passionately the safety, the welfare and the free development of the talents of all men, we shall not be in want of the means of approach such a state. Even if only a small part of mankind strives for such goals, their superiority will prove itself in the long run.
39. How does the writer draw the conclusion that mental development of an individual depends on much upon language?
A) He studies statistics revealed by researchers.
B) By reasoning.
C) It is consensus.
D) He merely asserts it to be the case.
40. What determines the super-national character of scientific language?
A) Acuteness and clarity of scientific concepts.
B) The fact that it is introduced by the smartest brains.
C) Its correspondence to sensory data.
D) Its function as the spiritual tools.
41. With which of the following statements would the writer probably favor?
A) Scientific method only provide mankind means to attain our goal.
B) Scientific method would lead us to doom and chaos.
C) Scientific method is like a two-edged sword, it can produce welfare as well as warfare.
D) Both A and C
TEXT C "See Spot Run": Teaching My Grandmother To Read When I was 14 years old and very impressed with my teenage status (looking toward to all the rewards it would bring), I set for myself a very special goal —— that to differentiate me from my friends that I dont believe I told a single one. As a teacher, I was expected to have deep, dark secrets, but I was not supported to keep them from my friends. My secret was a project that I undertook every day after school for several months. It began to when I stealthily made my way into the local elementary school —— horror of horrors should I be seen; I was now in junior high. I identified myself as a graduate of the elementary school, and being taken under wing by a favorite fifth grade teacher, I was given a small bundle from a locked storeroom —— a bundle that I quickly dropped into a bag, lest anyone see me walking home with something from the "little kids" school. I brought the bundle home —— proudly now, for within the confines of my home, I was proud of my project. I walked into the living room, and one by one, emptied the bag of basic reading books. They were thin books with colorful covers and large print. The words were monosyllabic and repetitive. I sat down to the secret task at hand. "All right", I said authoritatively to my 70-year-old grandmother, "today we begin our first reading lesson". For weeks afterwards, my grandmother and I sat patiently side by side roles reversed as she, with a bit of difficulty, sounded out every word, then read them again, piece by piece, until she understood the short sentences. When she slowly repeated the full sentence, we both would smile and clap our hands —— I felt so pound, so grown up. My grandmother was born in Kalamata, Greece, in a rocky little farming village where nothing much grew. She never had the time to go to school. As she oldest child she was expected to take care of her brother and sister, as well as the house and acclimating exceptions, and her father scratched out what little he could form from the soil. So, for my grandmother, schooling was out. But she had big plans for herself. She had heard about America. About how rich you could be. How people on the streets would offer you a dollar just to smell the flower you were carrying. About how everyone lived in nice houses —— not stone huts on the side of mountains —— and had nice clothes and time for school. So my grandmother made a decision at 14 —— just a child, I realize now —— to take a long and sickening 30-day sea voyage alone to the United States. After lying about her age to the passport officials, who would shake their heads vehemently at anyone under 16 leaving her family, and after giving her favorite gold earrings to her cousin, saying "In America, I will have all the gold I want", my young grandmother put herself on a ship. She landed in New York in 1916. No need to repeat the story of how it went for years. The streets were not made of gold. People werent interested in smelling flowers held by strangers. My grandmother was a foreigner. Alone. A young girl who worked hard doing piecework to earn money for meals. No leisure time, no new gold earrings —— and no school. She learned only enough English to help her in her daily business as she traveled about Broonklyn. Socially, the "foreigners" stayed in neighborhoods where they didnt feel like foreigners. English came slowly. My grandmother had never learned to read. She could make out a menu, but not a newspaper. She could read a street sign, but not a shop directory. She could read only what she needed to read as, through the years, she married, had five daughters, and helped my grandfather with this restaurant. So when I was 14 —— the same age that my grandmother was when she left her family, her country, and everything she knew —— I took it upon myself to teach my grandmother something, something I already knew how to do. Something with which I could give back to her some of the things she had taught me. And it was slight repayment for all she taught me. How to cover the fig tree in tar paper so it could survive the winter. How to cultivate rose bushes and magnolia trees that thrived on her little piece of property. How to make baklava, and other Greek delights, working from her memory. ("Now we add some milk?" "How much?" "Until we have enough.") Best of all, she had taught me my ethnic heritage. First, we phonetically sounded out the alphabet. Then, we talked about vowels —— English is such a difficult language to learn. I hadnt even begun to explain the different sounds "gh" could make. We were still at the basics. Every afternoon, we would sit in the living room, my grandmother with an afghan converting her knees, giving up her crocheting for her reading lesson. I, with the patience that can come only from love, slowly coached her from the basic reader to the second-grade reader, giving up my telephone gossiping. Years later, my grandmother still hadnt learned quite enough to sit comfortably with a newspaper or magazine, but it felt awfully good to see her try. How we used to laugh at her pronunciation mistakes. She laughed more heartily than I. I never knew whether I should laugh. Here was this old woman slowly and carefully sounding out each word, moving her lips, not saying anything aloud until she was absolutely sure, and then, loudly, happily saying, "Look at spot. See Spot run." When my grandmother died and we faced the sad task of emptying her home, I was going through her night-table drawer and came upon the basic readers. I turned the pages slowly, remembering. I put them in a paper bag, and the next day returned them to the "little kids" school. Maybe someday, some teenager will request them again, for the same task. I will make for a lifetime of memories.
42. The girl got books from ____ to teach her grandmother.
A) the local elementary school
B) the library
C) the bookstore
D) her own bookcase
43. Ever since the girl took up the task to teach her grandmother, she gave up the habit of ____.
A) cultivating rose bushes
B) reading adventurous stories
C) prattling on telephone
D) playing chess with her schoolmates
44. How did the girl feel about the experience of teaching her grandmother?
A) She was proud for she was even able to teach her grandmother.
B) She felt it a pleasant secret.
C) She treasured the special experience.
D) All of the above.
45. What is the main theme of this text?
A) It's never too late to learn.
B) An old woman had a rough but rewarding life.
C) The love between the grandmother and her granddaughter is profound.
D) A girl can teach an old woman the hard-to-learn skill of reading English.
TEXT D Jefferson Today Thomas Jefferson, who died in 1826, looms ever larger as a figure of special significance. Americans, of course, are familiar with Jefferson as an early statesman, author of the Declaration of Independence, and a high-ranking presidential Founding Father. But there is another Jefferson less well known. This is the Jefferson who, as the outstanding American philosopher of democracy, has an increasing appeal to the worlds newly emerging peoples. There is no other man in history who formulated the ideas of democracy with such fullness, persuasiveness, and logic. Those interested in democracy as a poetical philosophy and system —— even those who do not accept his postulates or are critical of his solutions —— must reckon with his thought. What, then, is his thought, and how much of it is still relevant under modern conditions? Of all the ideas and beliefs that make up the political philosophy known as Jefferson democracy, perhaps three are paramount. These are the idea of equality, the idea of freedom, and the idea of the peoples control over government. Underlying the whole, and serving as a major premise, is confidence in man. To Jefferson, it was virtually axiomatic that the human being was essentially good, that he was capable of constant improvement through education and reason. He believed that "no definite limit could be assigned" to mans continued progress from ignorance and superstition to enlightenment and happiness. Unless this kept in mind, Jefferson can not be understood properly. What did he mean by the concept of equality, which he stated as a "self-evident" truth? Obviously, he was not foolish enough to believe that all men are equal in size or intelligence or talents or moral development. He never said that men are equal, but only that they come into the world with "equal rights". He believed that equality was a political rather than a biological or psychological or economic conception. It was a gift that man acquired automatically by coming into the world as a member of the human community. Intertwined with equality was the concept of freedom, also viewed by Jefferson as a "natural tight." In the Declaration of Independence he stated it as "self-evident" that liberty was one of the "inherent" and "unalienable rights" with which the Creator endowed man. "Freedom", he summed up at one time, "is the gift of Nature." What did Jefferson mean by freedom and why was it necessary for him to claim it as an "inherent" or "natural" right? In Jefferson thought there are two main elements in the idea of freedom. There is, first, mans liberty to organize his own political institutions and to select periodically the individuals to run them. The other freedom is personal. Foremost in the area of individual liberty, Jefferson believed, was the untrammeled right to say, think, write, and believe whatever the citizen wishes —— provided, of course, he does not directly injure his neighbors. It is because political and personal freedom are potentially in conflict that Jefferson, in order to make both secure, felt the need to found them on "natural right". If each liberty derives from an "inherent" right, then neither could justly undermine the other. Experience of the past, when governments, were neither too strong for the ruled or too weak to rule them, convinced Jefferson of the desirability of establishing a delicate natural balance between political power and personal rights. This brings us to the third basic element in the Jeffersonian idea: the peoples control over government. It is paradoxical that Jefferson, who spent most of his adult years in politics, had an ingrained distrust of government as such. For the then-existing governments of Europe, virtually all of them hereditary monar chies, he had antipathy mixed with contempt. His mistrust of strong and unchecked government was inveterate. "I am not," he said, "a friend to a very energetic government. It is always oppressive." Government being a necessity for civilized existence, the question was how it could be prevented from following its tendency to swallow the rights of the people. Jeffersons answer to this ancient dilemma was at variance with much traditional thinking. He began with the postulate that government existed for the people, and not vice versa; that it had no independent being except as an instrument of the people; and that it had no legitimate justifications for existence except to serve the people. From this it followed, in Jeffersons view, that only the people, and not their rulers or the privileged classes, could and should be relied upon as the "safe depositories" of political liberty. This key idea in the Jeffersonian political universe rested on the monumental assumption that the people at large had the wisdom, the capability, and the knowledge exclusively to carry the burden of political power and responsibility. The assumption was, of course, widely challenged and vigorously denied in Jeffersons day, but he always asserted his confidence in it. Confidence in the people, however, was not enough, by itself, to serve as a safeguard against the potential dangers inherent in political power. The people might become corrupted or demoralized or indifferent. Jefferson believed that the best practice for the avoidance of tyranny and the preservation of freedom was to follow two main policies. One was designed to limit power, and the other to control power. In order to put limits on power, Jefferson felt, it was best to divide it by scattering its functions among as many entities as possible —— among states, countries, and municipalities. In order to keep it in check, it was to be impartially balanced among legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Thus, no group, agency, or entity would be able legitimately to acquire power for abuse. This is, of course, the theory that is embedded in the Constitution and that underlies the American federal system with its "check and balance". For the control of power or, more specifically, the governmental apparatus itself, other devices had to be brought into play. Of these, two are of special importance: suffrage and elections. Unlike many contemporaries, Jefferson believed in virtually universal suffrage. His opinion was that the universal right to vote was the only "rational and peaceable instrument" of free government. Next to the right to vote, the system of free elections was the foremost instrument for control over government. This involved, first, the election by the people of practically all high government officials, and, secondly, fixed and regular periods of polling, established by law. To make doubly sure that this mechanism would work as an effective control over power, Jefferson advocated frequent elections and short terms of office, so that the citizens would be enabled to express their "approbation or rejection" as soon as possible. This, in substance, is the Jeffersonian philosophy —— faith in the idea of equality, of freedom, and in the right to and need for popular control over government. What, in all this, is relevant to peoples without a democratic tradition, especially those who have recently emerged in Asia and Africa? The rejection of democratic procedures by some of these peoples has been disheartening to believers in freedom and democracy. But it is noteworthy that democratic and parliamentary government has been displaced in areas where the people had no background in freedom or self-rule, and where illiteracy is generally high. Even there it is significant that the new dictatorships are usually proclaimed in the name of the people. The Jeffersonian assumption that men crave equality and freedom has not been denied by events. Special conditions and traditions may explain non-democratic political methods for the achievement of certain purposes, but these remain unstable wherever the notion of liberty has begun to gain ground. "The disease of liberty", Jefferson said, "is catching." The proof of this is to be found even in such societies as the Spanish and the Islamic, with their ancient traditions of chieftainships where popular eruptions against dictatorial rule have had an almost tidal constancy. But it is a slow process, as Jefferson well knew, "The ground of liberty", he said, "is to be gained by inches; we must be contented to secure what we can get, from time to time, and eternally press forward for what is yet to get. It takes time to persuade men to do even what is for their own good." Does Jefferson survive? Indeed he does.
46. What are the three most paramount ideas in Jeffersonian democracy?
A) Equality, freedom and people's control over government.
B) Equality, confidence in man and people's control over government.
C) Equality, freedom and confidence in man.
D) Freedom, confidence in man and people's control over government.
47. How did Jefferson interpret the concept of equality?
A) He asserted that it was a political concepts as well as a biological and economic concept.
B) He believed that men were born with equal rights.
C) Equality is a gift of Nature.
D) Both B and C
48. In Jefferson's opinion, what could prevent tyranny and preserve freedom?
A) Suffrage and election.
B) Checks and balances.
C) The two politics to limit power and to control power.
D) The dividing of functions among many entities.
49. Which of the following statements would the writer probably Not support?
A) The rejection of democratic procedures is partly attributed to ignorance.
B) Jefferson's ideas of democracy are often distorted by some people on purpose.
C) Universal suffrage is the cardinal instrument for control over government.
D) Once the concept of liberty is accepted by the majority, a democratic society will be strongly demanded.
50. The primary purpose of this text is to ____.
A) explain Jefferson's ideas of democracy
B) exalt Jefferson as an outstanding philosopher
C) illustrate Jefferson's influence on modern politics
D) view Jeffersonian democracy under modern conditions
SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING
In this section there are seven passage followed by ten multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.
TEXT E First read the question. 51. What is the main point of this passage? A. Automobile ownership is still just a dream for most people. B. Chinese banks starts to offer car loans. C. Car price will probably go down as a result of the efforts Chinese Government spends to boost consumer spending. D. The automobile industry in Shanghai is not promising. Now go though Text E quickly to answer question 51. Shanghai —— Shanghai advertising executive Sun Gang stole time from the office and fought his way through an unruly scrum of visitors queuing to see the newest cars from the world industry at the June 15 to 20 Auto Shanghais 99 exhibition. "I am a car lover," he said, casting an appreciative glance over a sleek Honda sedan as he struggled to keep several manufactures brochures under his arm. But the suggestion that he might drive home his own, with the help of auto loans more available than ever under a Chinese government campaign to boost consumer spending, brought only a bitter chuckle. "If somebody was willing to give me this (car) for no money at all, I could hardly afford to pay the license-plate fee," he said. "I have a good job now, and my wifes salary isnt bad either …… We thought about applying, but it just didnt make sense." Chinese banks have started offering car loans to help boost the Chinese economy and allow domestic banks to prepare for competition after Chinas possible entrance to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Banks nationwide have only issued some 10,000 such loans since the policy came into play in the second half of 1998, Xinmin Evening News said. Car prices are so high that the short term allowed, five yeas at maximum, make monthly payments an unacceptably heavy burden, the newspaper said. Even in Shanghai where incomes are the highest in China, the average employed person would have to spend every penny they earned for nearly 16 years to pay the 187,000 Yuan price of the cheapest sedan from Shanghai Volkswagen. Making matters worse, the countrys distribution of wealth limits the helpfulness of car buyer financing. Few consumers are in the income bracket where an auto purchase is only slightly out of reach, said Michael Dunne, the president of Automotive Resource Asia, an industry consultancy. Unlike the "bell curve" seen in the US economy, where the majority of potential buyers are in the middle-income range, the Chinese market is "a camel model", he said. Demand is either from the wealthy elite who can afford luxury cars or the masses —— people who could only afford a car at vastly lower price. "There isnt much in-between," he said. According to a recent analysis by the Shanghai Financial News daily, only about 7-8 percent of households in Shanghai could realistically consider financing a car purchase. Xu Zhengye, an official at the Shanghai car-loan center of the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, said business was also poor because extraneous monthly car ownership costs deterred applicants. "There are between 1,000 and 2,000 Yuan in non-loan monthly costs," he said, referring to parking, insurance, road-user taxes, petrol and maintenance. "It would be cheaper to take a taxi everyday," he said. Local governments further depress demand by limiting distribution of license plates and charging exorbitant fees for their issue, according to an official at the Shanghai Auto Industry Sales General Co. Consumers in the city can freely obtain licenses for cars built in Shanghai for 20,000 Yuan, but must bid at auctions held by the Public Security Bureau to get one for any other model. The latter licenses, issued only occasionally in small batches, regularly go for 100,000 Yuan, the official said. "Of course no producer wants to see such high license fees," he said, adding that the city government uses them to prevent traffic congestion and control air pollution
51. What is the main point of this passage?
A) Automobile ownership is still just a dream for most people.
B) Chinese banks starts to offer car loans.
C) Car price will probably go down as a result of the efforts Chinese Government spends to boost consumer spending.
D) The automobile industry in Shanghai is not promising.
TEXT F First read the questions. 52. The Japanese translation of the American car "Randan" is ____. A. star B. idiot C. killer D. monkey 53. As a conclusion, what does the writer suggest multinational corporations to do in order to avoid mistakes and losses? A. Study foreign market in which the product will be plunged into. B. Prudent planning. C. Package modification. D. Both A and B. Now go through TEXT F quickly to answer question 52 and 53. The Language Barrier A close examination of foreign markets and language differences is necessary and should be required before a products domestically successful name is introduced abroad. Unfortunately, this step is sometimes neglected in a companys enthusiasm to plunge into overseas marketing operations. Sometimes, the company or product name may require alteration because it conveys the wrong message in a second language. Large and small firms alike have discovered this. For example, when the Coca-Cola Company was planning its marketing strategy for China in the 1920s, it wanted to introduce its product with the English pronunciation of "Coca-Cola." A translator used a group of Chinese characters that, when pronounced, sounded like the product name. These characters were placed on the cola bottles and marketed. Was it any wonder sales levels were low? The characters actually translated to mean "bite the wax tadpole." Since the product was new, sound was unimportant to the consumers; meaning was vital. Today Coca-Cola is again marketing its cola in China. The new characters used on the bottle translated to "happiness in the mouth." From its first marketing attempts, Coca-Cola learned a valuable lesson in international marketing. General Motors was faced with a similar problem. It was troubled by a lack of enthusiasm among Puerto Rican auto dealers for its recently introduced Chevrolet "Nova" about ten years ago. The name "Nova" means star when literally translated. However, when spoken it sounded like "no va" which, in Spanish, means "it doesnt go". This obviously did little to increase consumer confidence in the vehicle. To remedy the situation, General Motors changed the automobile name to "Caribe", and sales increased. Comparable situations have also be experienced by other car manufacturers. In fact, problems with the names used in international automobile promotions seem to crop up frequently. For example, the American Motors Corporations car "Matador" might conjure up images of virility and strength in America, but in Puerto Rico it means "killer" —— not a favorable connotation in a place with a high traffic fatality rate. A U.S. company was taken by surprise when it introduced its product in Latin American and learned that the name meant "jackass oil" in Spanish. Another well-intentioned firm sold shampoo in Brazil under the name "Evitol". Little did it realize that it was claiming to be selling a "dandruff contraceptive". One manufacturing company sold its machines in the Soviet Union under the name "Bardak" —— a word that signifies a brothel in Russian. The name of an American product that failed to capture the Swedish market translated to "enema", which the product was not! Of course, foreign firms can make mistakes, too. A Finnish brewery introduced two new beverages in the United States —— "Koff" beer and "Siff" beer. Is it any wonder that sales were sluggish? Another name Americans found unappealing was on packages of a delicious chocolate-and-fruit product sold in German and other European delicatessens. The chocolate concoction had the undesirable English name "Zit"! Many times the required name change is a rather simple one. Wrigley, for example, merely altered the spelling of its "Spearmint" chewing gum to "Speermint" to aid in the German pronunciation of the flavor. "Maxwell House" proved slightly more difficult: the name was changed to "Maxwell Kaffee" in Germany, to "Legal" in France, and to "Monkey" in Spain. Product names are not the only ones that can generate company blunders. If a firms name is misinterpreted or incorrectly translated, it, too, can have the same humorous, obscene, offensive, or unexpected connotations. For example, a private Egyptian airline, Misair, proved to be rather unpopular with the French nationals. Could the fact that the name, when pronounced, meant "misery" in French have contributed to the airlines flight? Another airline trying to gain acceptance in Australia only complicated matters when it chose the firm name "EMU". The emu is an Australian bird incapable of flying. When Esso realized that its name phonetically meant "stalled car", it understood why it had had difficulties in the Japanese market. As a final illustration, consider the trade magazine that promoted giftware and launched a worldwide circulation efforts. The magazine used the word "gift" in its title and as part of its name. When it was latter revealed that "gift" is the German word for "poison", a red-faced publishing executive supposedly retorted that the Germans should simply find a new word for poison! Of course, some company names have traveled quite well. Kodak may be the most famous example. A research team deliberately developed this name after carefully searching for a word that was pronounceable everywhere but had no specific meaning anywhere. Exxon is another such name that was reportedly accepted only after a lengthy and expensive computer-assisted search. Multinational corporations have experienced many unexpected troubles concerning company or product names, and even attempts to alter names have led to blunders. It should be evident that careful planning and study of the potential market is necessary because name adaptation can be every bit as important a product or package modification.
52. The Japanese translation of the American car "Randan" is ____.
53. As a conclusion, what does the writer suggest multinational corporations to do in order to avoid mistakes and losses?
A) Study foreign market in which the product will be plunged into.
B) Prudent planning.
C) Package modification.
D) Both A and B
TEXT G First read the question. 54. What kind of working experience did the applicant get from the year 1968 to 1969? A. Clerical assistant in chemistry Department of Chicago University. B. Laboratory assistant in Chicago Downtown Hospital. C. Staff member in chemistry club in Chicago University. D. All of the above. Now go through TEXT G quickly to answer question 54. Resume of Marjorie B. Major 120 Main Street Centerville, Ky. Telephone: MA 1-2345 OBJECTIVE Laboratory Technician SCHOLASTIC RECORD-COLLEGE 1966-1970 University of Chicago Chicago, Ill. B.Sc., 1970 Minored in Mathematics Scholastic Average: B plus Scholarships: 1966-1970: Half-tuition scholarship 1967-1970: Full-tuition scholarships Working Experience: 1968-1969 Laboratory Assistant, Chicago Downtown Hospital. Work involved blood, urine analyses; record-keeping. Average 10 hours per week during the school year. Worked full-time during summers of 1968 and 1969. 1966-1968 Clerical Assistant, Chemistry Department, University of Chicago. Maintained records of Ford Foundation project on the body chemistry of twins. Extracurricular activities: 1966-1970: Chemistry Club; Treasurer 1968 1966-1970: Womens Tennis Team; co-captain 1969, 1970 Sorority: Alpha Alpha Alpha, Honorary Society of Chemistry Department SCHOLASTIC RECORD-HIGH SCHOOL 1962-1966 Centerville High School Centerville, Ky. Scholastic Average: A minus Scholastic Recognition: In 1966, won Kentucky Science Fair prize for an exhibit on the spectroscopic analysis of the stars. Extracurricular activities: Tennis Club; 1962-1966 Orchestra; 1962-1963 Glee Club; 1964-1966 PERSONAL (Followed model on P.212) References School, working, and personal references available.
54. What kind of working experience did the applicant get from the year 1968 to 1969?
A) Clerical assistant in chemistry Department of Chicago University.
B) Laboratory assistant in Chicago Downtown Hospital.
C) Staff member in chemistry club in Chicago University.
D) All of the above.
TEXT H First read the question. 55. The tone implied in the title of this text is ____. A. nostalgic B. euphemistic C. sarcastic D. pungent Now go through TEXT H quickly to answer question 55. Darkness at Noon Blind from birth, I have never had the opportunity to see myself and have been complete dependent on the image I create in the eye of the observer. To date it has not been narcissistic. There are those who assume that since I cant see, I obviously also can not hear. Very often people will converse with me at the top of their lungs, enunciating each word very carefully. Conversely, people will also often whisper, assuming that since my eyes dont work, my ears dont either. For example, when I go to the airport and ask the ticket agent for assistance to the plane, he or she will invariably pick up the phone, call a ground hostess and whisper: "Hi, Jane, weve got a 76 here." I have concluded that the word "blind" is not used for one of two reasons: Either they fear that if the dread word is spoken, the ticket agents retina will immediately detach, or they are reluctant to inform me of my condition of which I may not have been previously aware. On the other hand, others know that of course I can hear, but believe that I cant talk. Often, therefore, when my wife and I go out to dinner, a waiter or waitress will ask Kit if "he would like a drink" to which I respond that "indeed he would". This point was graphically driven home to me while we were in England. I had been given a years leave of absence from my Washington law firm to study for a diploma in law degree at Oxford University. During the year I became ill and was hospitalized. Immediately after admission, I was wheeled down to the X-ray room. Just at the door sat an elderly woman —— elderly I would judge from the sound of her voice. "What is his name?" the woman asked the orderly who had been wheeling me. "What is your name?" the orderly repeated to me. "Harold Krents", I replied. "Harold Krents", he repeated. "When was he born?" "When were you born?" "November 5, 1994", I responded. "November 5,1994", the orderly intoned. This procedure continued for approximately five minutes at which point even my saint-like disposition deserted me. "Look," I finally blurted out, "this is absolutely ridiculous. Okay, granted I cant see, but its got to have become pretty clear to both of you that I dont need an interpreter." "He says he doesnt need an interpreter," the orderly reported to the woman. The toughest misconception of all is the view that because I cant see, I cant work. I was turned down by over forty law firms because of my blindness, even though my qualifications included a cum laude degree from Harvard College and a good ranking in my Harvard Law School class. The attempt for employment, the continuous frustration of being told that it was impossible for a blind person to practice law, the rejection letters, not based on my lack of ability but rather on my disability, will always remain one of the most disillusioning experiences of my life. Fortunately, this view of limitation and exclusion is beginning to change. On April 16, 1976, the Department of Labor issued regulations that mandate equal-employment opportunities for the handicapped. By and large, the business communitys response to offering employment to the disabled has been enthusiastic. I therefore look forward to the day, with the expectation that it is certain to come, when employers will view their handicapped workers as a little child did me years ago when my family still lived in Scarsdale. I was playing basketball with my father in our backyard according to procedures we had developed. My father would stand beneath the hoop, shout, and I would shoot over his head at the basket attached to our garage. Our next-door neighbor, aged five, wandered over into our yard with a playmate. "Hes blind," our neighbor whispered to her friend in a voice that could be heard distinctly by Dad and me. Dad shot and missed; I did the same. Dad hit the rim: I missed entirely: Dad shot and missed the garage entirely. "Which one is blind?" whispered back the little friend. I would hope that in near future when plant manager is touring the factory with the foreman and comes upon a handicapped an nonhandicapped person working together, his comment after watching them work will be, "Which one is disabled?"
55. The tone implied in the title of this text is ____.
TEXT I First read the question. 56. Which of the following statements is Not true according to the text? A. World chess champion is competing against the world through Internet. B. It is expected to be the largest interactive competition in the history of the Internet. C. Kasparovs opponents are unskilled amateurs even including a five-year-old boy. D. Kasparov is eager to win the tournament. Now go through TEXT I quickly to answer question 56. Kasparov against the World via Internet New York —— World chess champion Garry Kasparov made his first move against the world on June 21 in a Manhattan park, with a one-meter-high pawn linked to the Internet. His opponent: anyone who can click a mouse and knows the rules of chess. The "Kasparov vs the world" interactive tournament "will be a success no matter what the outcome", said the 36-year-old champion as he addressed an audience of young chess fans in Brant Park, Playing white, he simulated his online opening move —— king pawn to E4 —— which he called "the most traditional move", on a giant board. It was posted to the Web site www.msn.com, which then started immediately fielding countermoves from around the world. Visitors to the site have 24 hours to vote for their sides move. Kasparov will then reply with another 24 hours, and so on, until the conclusion of the match, expected to take most of the summer. Kasparovs opponents can even include unskilled amateurs, as long as they "know the rules of the game," he said. The "World Team" is being guided by five young chess experts who are suggesting their own possible moves and tactics. Before each move is actually played, all site visitors may vote for the move of their choice; the most popular one will be the "World Team" move. This chess tournament is the marriage of an ancient game and a high-tech world —— a paring not foreign to Kasparov, the Russian grand master billed as the greatest chess player ever. Two years ago, he lost to an IBM computer. He says this cutting-edged encounter "is a more pleasant event for the human race." After all, hell pitted against human minds, not the computer chips that once beat him. The five players leading the opposing team are among the worlds finest young chess players. They include Irina Krush, the 15-year-old US womens chess champion; Etienne Bacrot, 16, of France, who became the youngest grand master in history at age 14; Florin Felecan, a 19-year-old who is the highest-rated American chess player under age 21; and Elizabeth Pahtz, 14, of Erfurt, Germany, who is ranked eighth in the World Championship of youngsters. The Moscow-based Kasparov cut a deal with Microsoft Corp to play the current match in the "Gaming Zone" of Microsofts MSN network of Internet services. The teams of the deal were not disclosed. The world-scale interactive game "will make it possible to play the world champion from your own living room", said Yusuf Mehdi, directory of Microsofts Consumer and Commerce Group. After each move, the site will air live "chats" on coaches strategies and options. On June 21 at 8 am, Kasparov answered questions on the Internet from fans around the world. In the highly publicized 1997 "Deep Blue" tournament, he was defeated by the IBM supercomputer —— a "man vs machine" victory that left his pride wounded. When asked what attracted him to chess as a 5-year-old in Soviet Azerbaijan, he said, "I like to win." Hes 100 international points ahead —— way ahead —— of his nearest competitor, he said, so "I dont think about my rating. It doesnt matter."
56. Which of the following statements is Not true according to the text?
A) World chess champion is competing against the world through Internet.
B) It is expected to be the largest interactive competition in the history of the Internet.
C) Kasparov's opponents are unskilled amateurs even including a five-year-old boy.
D) Kasparov is eager to win the tournament.
TEXT J First read the questions. 57. What does the word "epigram" originate from? A. Epitaph in ancient Rome. B. Concise, pointed or sarcastic saying in the Greek Anthology. C. Words carved on stones, etc, usually terse, sage or sarcastic. D. A figure of speech in writing. 58. If wisely used, epigram can ____. A. add a philosophical touch to the article B. deliver the implied sense of the article C. shorten the article as well as intensify its theme D. All of the above Now go through TEXT J quickly to answer question 57 and 58. The word "epigram" is from Greek, meaning "inscription, to write upon or to carve upon". Thus it refers to the words carved on stones, monument or statue, normally concise, pointed or sarcastic. It has about the same contents as epitaph. Later, many writers adopted it as a figure in verse, prose or poem. Early at the beginning of the century, Roman authors, especially Martial composed epigrams. Many epigrams are gathered in the Greek Anthology. However, the verse epigram has become relatively rare in more recent time. But very many have used the form in prose or speech to express something tersely or wittily, especially from the 16th century onwards. Epigram was much cultivated in the 17th century in England by Johnson, Donne, Herrick, Dryden, Swift … In the 18th century and 19th century, Pope, Burns, Blake, Landon and others can be taken as the experts of using epigram. Thus, epigram has developed from the inscription on a gravestone, into a figure of speech in writing. An epigram is concise, or sarcastic saying. It is a terse, sage witty and often paradoxical line. It states a simple truth pitifully and pungently and usually arouses interest and surprise by its deep insight into certain aspects of human behavior of feeling. Among all the figures, epigram is remarkable for its philosophical touch and double meaning transferring ability. Therefore, authors often appeals to epigram when they want to express their political idea in an implied way. Generally speaking, this figure, when wisely used, can shorten the spaces of your article, can deepen the meaning of the sentence, can touch the reader in a richer way, can deliver the subtle sense of the writer philosophically. Partially, epigram mingles with Paradox in wit; antithesis in giving force; satire in sharpness; epitaph in initial usage. An epitaph differs from an epigram in being a kind of valediction which may be solemn, complimentary or even flippant. It follows epigrammatic style. Epigram is the same as oxymoron and antithesis in clever diction and neatness. In Chinese, epigram has been an outstanding figure in literature for ages. Especially in ancient Chinese, it appeared so frequently that it almost was the way to write articles of philosophy. Epigram can be translated directly, only occasionally the meaning can not be put through owing to the different habit, custom or anecdote between nations. Besides, it is rare for us to put an English epigram into a Chinese one.
57. What does the word "epigram" originate from?
A) Epitaph in ancient Rome.
B) Concise, pointed or sarcastic saying in the Greek Anthology.
C) Words carved on stones, etc, usually terse, sage or sarcastic.
D) A figure of speech in writing.
58. If wisely used, epigram can ____.
A) add a philosophical touch to the article
B) deliver the implied sense of the article
C) shorten the article as well as intensify its theme
D) All of the above
TEXT K First read the questions. 59. This text deals with ____. A. the scope of sociolinguistics B. the development of sociolinguistics C. the nature of sociolingustics D. the achievement of sociolinguistics 60. Which of the following statement is Not true according to the text? A. Socioliguistics is a new interdisciplinary field. B. The study of language and society with purely sociological objectives does not belong to sociolinguistics. C. The ethnography of speaking is an area which explores the ways language is used in different cultures. D. Chapter 9 in this book will introduce some basics of social dialectology. Now go through TEXT K quickly to answer question 59 and 60. Sociolinguistics views language as a social-cultural phenomenon which should be studied in relation to society. Linguists, anthropologists, sociologists, psychologists and educationalists are interested in enquiring in the relationship between language, and culture and society. All of them have made very important contributions to the emergence and development of the discipline. Sociolingusistics is a new interdisciplinary field. The term sociolinguistics means many different things to many different people. This multiplicity of interpretations is due to the fact that, while everybody would agree that sociolinguistics has something to do with language and society, it is clearly also not concerned with everything that could be considered "language and society". Therefore, different scholars draw the line between language and society, and sociolinguistics in different places and hence a number of areas of study have appeared. In terms of objectivities, it is possible to divide studies of language and society into three groups: those where the objectives are purely sociological; those where they are partly sociological and partly linguistic; and those where the objectives are wholly linguistic. The first group does not belong to sociolinguistics. The second category is where the main problem with the term sociolinguistics lies: some people would include the whole of this area within sociolinguistics; others would exclude it totally; yet others would include some areas but not all. In the case of the third category, the term sociolinguistics is uncontroversial. In this book we will introduce you to some aspects of the last two categories. And now we will highlight five of the major areas of study in this interdisciplinary field as follows. The sociology of language is a label applied to courses taught in linguistics departments in the United States, and it is a field whose objectives are at least partly linguistic. The term is most prominently associated with the work of Joshua Fishman. The sociology of language focuses upon the social organization of language behavior, including not only language usage but also language attitudes. The sociology of language most typically studied topics such as bilingualism or multilingualism, diglossia, verbal repertoire, code-switching, language loyalty and language planning, etc. Descriptions in this field typically concentrate on, in Fishmans words, "who speaks (or writes) what language (or what language variety) to whom and when and to what end?" (Fishman 1969, in Giglioli 1972: 46). In this book we will highlight some aspects of the above topics in Chapter 5, 6, 12 and 13. The ethnography of speaking refers to an area whose objectives are clearly both linguistic and social. As employed first by Hymes in the 1960s, this term is applied to a field which looks at the role of language in the "communicative conduct of communities" —— the ways is which language is actually used in different cultures. It examines the functions and uses of styles, dialects and languages, and looks at the way in which speech acts are interpreted and carried through in particular societies. It also tends to be cross-cultural in emphasis. It involves elements from sociology, social anthropology, education, folklore and poetics, as well as linguistics. There is no clear boundary between the ethnography of speaking and the sociology of language, and they overlap with each other in many respects. Chapter 9 in this book will introduce some basics of the ethnography of speaking. Social dialectology addresses itself to issues such as the relationship between language and social class. However, the general heading of "language and society" presupposes some kind of social interaction i.e. conversational discourse. This can not be fully identified with "discourse analysis" where it is understood to mean simply text grammar or the grammatical analysis of units larger than then sentence. There are many studies in conversational analysis which are concerned with the organization of conversation. Some researchers have looked more specifically at the structures of discourse, and pointed out that stretches of discourse are no more unstructured sequences of utterances than sentences are unstructured sequences of words. Other researches have examined the nature of the cohesion of conversational discourse. Yet other scholars have been concerned with what has been referred to as "rules for discourse". Chapter 10 and 11 in this book will highlight some important approaches to the discourse analysis. Discourse analysis belongs to the second category of the studies on language and society. Some discourse analysts would refer to their own work as falling under the heading of sociolinguistics but others would not. The analysis of discourse under main objectives has not been to learn more about a particular society. Rather, it has been concerned to learn more about language. It examines the uses of language; the mechanism of language change; the nature of linguistic systems, etc. Therefore, this type of work is sometimes referred to as "sociolinguistics proper". Labor is the major founder of social dialectology. His survey of the social dialects of New York city in the 1960s is regarded as the pioneering work and The Social stratification of English in New York City (1966) is the representative work in this area. Chapter 2, 3, and 4 of this book will be devoted to some aspects of this area.
59. This text deals with ____.
A) the scope of sociolinguistics
B) the development of sociolinguistics
C) the nature of sociolingustics
D) the achievement of sociolinguistics
60. Which of the following statement is Not true according to the text?
A) Socioliguistics is a new interdisciplinary field.
B) The study of language and society with purely sociological objectives does not belong to sociolinguistics.
C) The ethnography of speaking is an area which explores the ways language is used in different cultures.
D) Chapter 9 in this book will introduce some basics of social dialectology.
PART IV TRANSLATION
Translate the following part of the text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE
Translate the following underlined part of the text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
And that is part of this same, unremarkable theme: spring does come. In the garden the rue anemones come marching out, bright as toy soldiers on their parapets of stone. The dogwoods float in casual clouds among the hills. This is the Resurrection time. That which was dead, or so it seemed, has come to life again —— the stiff branch, supple; the brown earth, green. This is the miracle: There is no death; there is in truth eternal life. So, in the spring, we plunge shovels into the garden plot, turn under the dark compost, rake fine the crumbling clods, and press the interest seeds into orderly rows. These are the commonest routines. Who could find excitement here. But look! The rain falls, and the sun warms, and something happens. It is the germination process. Germ of what? Germ of life, germ inexplicable, germ of wonder. The dry seeds ruptures and the green leaf uncurls. Here is a message that transcends the rites of any church or creed or organized religion. I would challenge any doubting Thomas in my pea patch. Everywhere, spring brings the blessed reassurance that life goes on, that death is no more than a passing season. The plan never falters; the design never changes. It is all ordered. It has all been always ordered. Look to the rue anemone, if you will, or to the pea patch, or to the stubborn weed that thrusts its shoulders through a city street. This is how it was, is now, and ever shall be, the world without end. In the serene certainty of spring recurring, who can fear the distant fall?
PART V WRITING
Directions: Physical recreation and intellectual activities are two important ways people usually take in their leisure time. Then which one is more preferable for you?
Write an essay of about 300 words within 60 minutes. After presenting the two different ideas about advertisements you should state your own opinion about this topic and give the reason why. Mark will be awarded for content, organization, grammar, and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.