PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION
In Section A, B and C you will hear everything ONLY ONCE. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct response to each question on the Colored Answer Sheet.
SECTION A TALK
Question 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now listen to the talk.
1. Full details of births, marriages and deaths are recorded ____.
A) by the United States Demographic yearbook
B) by most underdeveloped countries
C) by all full developed countries
D) by the General Register office only
2. In the past centuries, ____.
A) birth rates were high and death rates were low
B) birth rates were low and so were death rates
C) birth rates were and death rates were high
D) birth rates were high and so were death rates
3. In the nineteenth century the population in the West ____.
A) began to drop
B) suddenly decreased
C) was stabilized
D) began to fluctuate
4. The economic conditions in a country with a low birth-rate and low death-rate would be of ____.
A) low standards of living and no industry
B) productive agriculture and a little industry
C) low standards of living and efficient agriculture
D) high standards of living and efficient industry
5. The talk mentions several ways in which population growth might be controlled. Which of the following is not one of these ways?
A) industrialization and a higher standard of living
B) an increase in the death-rate
C) an increase in heath and hygiene
D) birth control programs
SECTION B INTERVIEW
Question 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following question.
Now listen to the interview.
6. Old Fred does something stupid because ____.
A) he has some mental problems
B) he is too old to know what he is doing
C) he wants to have a good Christmas
D) he has got into the habit of stealing
7. British police are not armed. The average policeman ____.
A) doesn't really think about it
B) dislike it very much
C) worries about it greatly
D) wants a reform
8. The interviewee feels that the English people love ____.
9. Once a man ____.
A) threatened the police
B) took some hostages
C) robbed a bank
D) locked himself in a house
10. What was the most important factor in solving that man's problem?
SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING
In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONLY ONCE. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15-minute gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini lecture. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.
Making Artificial Diamond
Diamond are a form of (16), which is a very common element. Scientists began to make artificial diamonds from the (17) century. The first real success came in the laboratory of a (18). To make synthetic diamonds, what was needed was a pressure (19),and a (20) of between 2200 and 4400 F. Even with this equipment, scientists produced all sorts of (21), but no diamonds. The idea was then brought forward that perhaps the carbon needed to be dissolved in a (22), which helps a chemical reaction to take place more easily. Later, the carbon was mixed with (23). The pressure was bought up to 1,300,000 pounds to the square inch, and the temperature to (24).
At last, a number of shiny crystals were produced, which were analyzed both chemically and under (25), and there was no longer room for doubt. They were not like diamonds. They were diamonds.
PART II PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION
The following passage contains ten errors. Each line contains a maximum of one error. In each case only one word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "^" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.
When ^ art museum wants a new exhibit,
it (never/) buys things in finished form and hangs
them on the wall. When a natural history museum
wants an exhibition, it must often build it.
Vitamins, like minerals, are chemicals. There is
absolutely not difference in the chemical structure
of the nature vitamin C and the chemical structure
of the synthetic vitamin C. Also, while most sub-
stances are harmless at very low level of intake, all
substance —— even the elements that are essential to
life —— can be dangerous if you overdo them. Take water
for example. Six or eight glasses a day will keep your
body in good fluid balance. But you can also be drown
in it. Some people argue that individuals vary greatly
in their need for nutrients, it cannot necessarily be
stated any given amount is too much; that is all
relative. But since there is little solid information
on what is the optimal intake of any essential nutrient
in healthy individuals, it would be impossible to give
guidelines that take these proportional needs into the
account. Just as with other drugs, the relation to
different vitamin dosages varies, with some people
better able than others to tolerate large amounts. While
we do know that very specifically what the toxic level
is for vitamins A and D, we are far less sure about
vitamin E, even though it, too, is fat-soluble, and we
still dont understand the water-soluble vitamin, the C
and the B groups, which the body cant store.
PART III READING COMPREHENSIONS
In this section there are four reading passages followed by fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.
TEXT A Art of Middle Ages In the art of the Middle Ages, we never encounter the personality of the artist as as individual; rather it is diffused through the artistic genius of centuries embodied in the rules of religious art. Art of the Middle Ages is first a sacred script, the symbols and meanings o which were well settled. The circular halo placed vertically behind the head signifies sainthood, while the halo impressed with a cross signifies divinity. By bare feet, we recognize God, the angels, Jesus Christ and the apostles, but for an artist to have depicted the Virgin Mary with bare feet would have been tantamount to heresy. Several concentric, wavy lines represent the sky, while parallel lines water or the sea. A tree, which is to say a single stalk with two or three stylized leaves, inform us that the scene is laid on earth. A tower with a window indicates a village, and, should an angel be watching from depicted with curly hair, a short beard, and a tonsure, while Saint Paul has always a bald head and a long beard. A second characteristic of this iconography is obedience to a sacred mathematics. "The Divine Wisdom," wrote Saint Augustine, "reveals itself everywhere in numbers", a doctrine attributable to the neo —— Platonists who revived the genius of Pythagoras. Twelve is the master number of the Church and is the product of three, the number of the Trinity, and four, the number of material elements. The number seven, the most mysterious of all numbers, is the sum of four and three. There are the seven ages of man, seven virtues, seven planets. In the final analysis, the seven-tone scale of Gregorian music is the sensible embodiment of the order of the universe. Numbers require also a symmetry. At Charters, a stained glass window show the four prophets, Isaac, Ezekiel, Daniel, and Jeremiah, carrying on their shoulders the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. A third characteristic of art is to be a symbolic language, showing us one thing and inviting us to see another. In this respect, the artist was called upon to imitate God, who had hidden a profound meaning behind the literal and wished nature itself to be a moral lesson to man. Thus, every painting is an allegory. In a scene of the final judgment, we can see the foolish virgins at the left hand of Jesus and the wise at his right, and we understand that this symbolizes those who are lost and those who are saved. Even seemingly insignificant details carry hidden meaning: The lion in a stained glass window is the figure of the Resurrection. These, then, are the defining characteristics of art of the Middle Ages, a system within which even the most mediocre talent was elevated by the genius of the centuries. The artists of the early Renaissance broke with traditional at their own peril. When they are not outstanding, they are scarcely able to avoid insignificance and banality in their religious works, and, even when they are great, they are no more than the equals of the old masters who passively followed the sacred rules.
36. What does the circular halo placed behind the head signify in the art of the Middle Ages?
37. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the characteristics of the art of the Middle Ages?
A) It follows a kind of mathematics.
B) It's religious art, employing symbols to convey its meanings.
C) Art becomes an allegory, beyond each painting some profound meanings are hidden.
D) Art of the Middle Ages embodies the personality of the artist in a diffused way.
38. How does the writer value art of the Middle Ages?
A) The art of the Middle Ages is elevated by its religious and sacred facet.
B) Artists of the Middle Ages were absolutely talented.
C) The art of the Middle Ages formed its own unique system.
D) The religious works in the Middle Ages reached unparallel height in art.
TEXT B "The US economy is rapidly deteriorating," says Mr. Grannis. "The odds of a recession are now very high, perhaps by the end of the year." There are already some signs that important pillars are weakening. Consumer confidence has fallen for the past two months. The housing sector, which has been buoyant, is starting to sink. Corporate profits are falling. Some analysts are especially concerned over the sharp fall of commodity prices. They believe it represents the threat of deflation, it could cause a global slowdown. "The Fed will have to act forcefully to arrest the deflationary forces," says Robert Lamorte, chairman of Behavioral Economics, a consulting firm is San Diego. But other counter that the central bank doesnt need to intervene. They argue the Fed should wait to see real data before acting. "The fundamentals are better than the stock market reflects", says Peter Kretzmer, an economist at Nations-Banc Montgomery Security. Indeed, President Clinton tried to do his part to calm the market during his trip to Moscow, citing the strong job market and balanced budget. "We believe our fundamental economic policy is sound," he said. His comments echoed statements by Peter Rubin in Washington. Some numbers do continue to reflect a strong economy. On sep. 1, the Conference Board released its index of leading indicators. The index rose 0.4 percent, prompting the business organization to predict that the nations output should increase at a moderate pace for the rest of 1998. The group sees little risk of recession in the near term. But what has changed is the global economy. Japan and the rest of Asia are in recession. The woes are spreading to Latin America. "Im now convinced we are going to have a global economic recession," says Sung Won Sohn, chief economist at Norwest Corp, a Minneapolis-based bank. But, he added, its not certain the US will slide into a period of negative growth. He rates the risk of recession at only 10 to 15 percent. "We will be responding to the world economic situation rather than leading it." he says. Still, Fed watchers dont think the central bank will act to try to save the world. "Its inconceivable the Fed could make much difference in Asia, Russia, or Latin America," says Lyle Gramley, a former Fed governor. After the last stock market crash, in 1987, the Federal Reserve acted quickly to provide liquidity to the markets and to lower interest rates. But the economy is in better shape this time. The banking sector is stronger and the financial markets have been able to respond the enormous trading volume. "It is not the Feds job to manage the stock market," says Mr. Kretzmer. But the Fed will keep a close watch on Wall Street. If the market were to shave another 1,500 points off the Dow by the end of September, "then the Fed would think about lowering interest rates," says Mr. Gramley. In his view, the Feds main concern will be the impact of a sliding market on consumer confidence. Since 40 percent of the nation has investments in the stock market, any prolonged slide might make individuals feel less wealthy. They would cut back on vacations and "splurge" purchases. He expects the central bank to watch the next consumer confidence surveys and housing statistics closely.
39. What did President Clinton try to do during his trip to Moscow?
A) to pacify the market
B) to make a speech on American economy.
C) to intervene
D) to cooperate with Russian to pursue sustainable development.
40. What is the Fed's main concern according to Mr. Gramley?
A) to provide liquidity to the market
B) to keep a close watch on Wall Street, if there is a stock market crash, it will lower interest rates
C) to observe the influence of a sliding market on consumer confidence and give a timely response
D) to prevent the stock market from sliding too much
41. Which of the following is the most appropriate title for this passage?
A) Threat of Deflation in US.
B) Economic Situation in US.
C) Where US Economy is Heading.
D) The Sign of Recession in US Economy.
TEXT C I cry easily. I once burst into tears when the curtain came down on the Kirov Ballets "Swan Lake". I still choke up every time I see a film of Roger Bannister breaking the "impossible" four minute mark for the mile. I figure I am moved by witnessing men and women at their best. But they need not be great men and women, doing great things. Take the night, some years ago, when my wife and I were going to dinner at a friends house in New York city. It was sleeting. As we hurried toward the house, with its welcoming light, I noticed a car pulling out from the curb. Just ahead, another car was waiting to back into the parking space —— a rare commodity in crowded Manhattan. But before he could do so another car came up from behind, and sneaked into the spot. Thats dirty pool, I thought. While my wife went ahead into our friends house. I stepped into the street to give the guilty driver a piece of my mind. A man in work clothes rolled down the window. "Hey," I said, "this parking space belongs to that guy," I gestured toward the man ahead, who was looking back angrily. I thought I was being a good Samaritan, I guess —— and I remember that the moment I was feeling pretty manly in my new trench coat. "Mind your own business!" the driver told me. "No," I said. "You dont understand. That fellow was waiting to back into this space." Things quickly heated up, until finally he leaped out of the car. My God, he was colossal. He grabbed me and bent me back over the hood of his car as if I was a rag doll. The sleet stung my face. I glanced at the other driver, looking for help, but he gunned his engine and hightailed it out of there. The huge man shook his rock of a fist of me, brushing my lip and cutting the inside of my mouth against my teeth. I tasted blood. I was terrified. He snarled and threatened, and then told me to beat it. Almost in a panic, I scrambled to my friends front door. As a former Marine, as a man, I felt utterly humiliated. Seeing that I was shaken, my wife and friends asked me what had happened. All I could bring myself to say was that I had had an argument about a parking space. They had the sensitivity to let it go at that. I sat stunned. Perhaps half an hour later, the doorbell rang. My blood ran cold. For some reason I was sure that the bruiser had returned for me. My hostess got up to answer it, but I stopped her. I felt morally bound to answer it myself. I walked down the hallway with dread. Yet I knew I had to face up to my fear. I opened the door. There he stood, towering. Behind him, the sleet came down harder than ever. "I came back to apologize," he said in a low voice. "When I got home, I said to myself, what right I have to do that? Im ashamed of myself. All I can tell you is that the Brooklyn Navy Yard is closing. Ive worked there for years. And today I got laid off. Im not myself. I hope youll accept my apology." I often remember that big man. I think of the effort and courage it took for him to come back to apologize. He was man at last. And I remember that after I closed the door, my eyes blurred, as I stood in the hallway for a few moments alone.
42. On what occasion is the author likely to be moved?
A) A young person cheated of the best things in life.
B) A genius athlete breaks a world record.
C) A little girl suffers from an incurable disease.
D) When the curtain comes down on a touching play.
43. What does "dirty pool" at the end of the second paragraph mean?
A) Improper deeds
D) Dirty transaction
44. Why didn't the writer's wife and friends ask him what had happened?
A) They sensed that something terrible happened, they didn't dare to ask.
B) They were afraid that the writer might lose face if they asked.
C) They'd like to let it be for it was not their business.
D) They tried to calm the writer in this way.
45. What touched the writer in the end?
A) The big man's courage to admit his mistake.
B) The big man's sincerity and confession.
C) The big man's wretched experience.
D) The man at his best.
Text D It used to be said that English people take their pleasure sadly. No doubt this would still be true if they had any pleasure to take, but the price of alcohol and tobacco in my country has provided sufficient external causes for melancholy. I have sometimes thought that the habit of taking pleasure sadly has crossed the Atlantic, and I have wondered what it is that makes so many English-speaking people somber in their outlook in spite of good health and a good income. In the course of my travels in the American I have been impressed by a kind of fundamental malaise which seems to me extremely common and which poses difficult problems for the social reformer. Most social reformers have held the opinion that, if poverty were abolished and there were no more economic insecurity, the millennium would have arrived. But when I look at the face of people in opulent cars, whether in your country or in mine, I do not see that look of radiant happiness which the aforesaid social reformers had led me to expect. In nine cases out of ten, I see instead a look of boredom and discontent and an almost frantic longing for something that might tickle the jaded palate. But it is not only the very rich who suffer in this way. Professional men very frequently feel hopeless thwarted. There is something that they long to do or some public object that they long to work for. But if they were to indulge their wishes in these respects, they fear that they would lose their livelihood. Their wives are equally unsatisfied , for their neighbor, Mrs. So-and-So, has gone ahead more quickly, has a better car, a larger apartment and grander friends. Life for almost everybody is a long competitive struggle where very few can win the race, and those who do not win are unhappy. On social occasions when it is de rigueur to seem cheerful, the necessary demeanor is stimulated by alcohol. But the gaiety does not ring true and anybody who has just one drink too many is apt to lapse into lachrymose melancholy. One finds this sort of thing only among English-speaking people. A Frenchman while he is abusing the Government is as gay as a lark. So is an Italian while he is telling you how his neighbor has swindled him. Mexicans, when they are not actually starving or actually being murdered, sing ad dance and enjoy sunshine and food and drink with a gusto which is very rare north of the Mexican frontier. When Andrew Jackson conquered Pensacola from the Spaniards, it was Sunday. She pointed out the scandal to her husband, who decreed that cheerfulness must cease forthwith. And it did. When I try to understand what it is that prevents so many American from being as happy as one might expect, it seems to me that there are two causes, of which one goes much deeper than the other. The one that goes least deep is the necessity for subservience in some large organization. If you are an energetic man with strong views as to the right way of doing the job with which you are concerned, you find yourself invariable under the orders of some big man at the top who is elderly, weary and cynical. Whenever you have a bright idea, the boss puts a stopper on it. The more energetic you are and the more vision you have, the more you will suffer from the impossibility of doing any of the things that you feel ought to be done. When you go home and moan to your wife, she tells you that you are a silly fellow and that if you became the proper sort of yes—— man your income would soon be doubled. If you try divorce and remarriage it is very unlikely that there will be any change in this respect. And so you are condemned to gastric ulcers and premature old age. It was not always so. When Dr. Johnson complied his dictionary, he compiled it as he thought fit. When he felt like saying that oats is food for men in Scotland and horses in England, he said so. When he defined a fishing-rod as a stick with a fish at one end and a fool at the other, there was nobody to point out to him that a remark of this sort would damage the sale of his great work among fishermen. But if, in the present day, you are (let us say) a contributor to an encyclopedia, there is an editorial policy which is solemn, wise, and prudent, which allows no room for jokes, no place for personal preferences and no tolerance for idiosyncrasies. Everything has to be flattened out except where the prejudices of the editor are concerned. To these you must conform, however, little you may share them. And so you have to be content with dollars instead of creative satisfaction. And the dollars, alas, leave you sad. This brings me to major cause of unhappiness, which is that most people in America act not on impulse but on some principle, and that principles upon which people act are usually faxed upon a false psychology and a false ethic. There is a general theory as to what makes for happiness and this theory is false. Life is concerned as a competitive struggle in which felicity consists in getting ahead of your neighbor. The joys which are not competitive are forgotten. Now, I will not for a moment deny that getting ahead of your neighbor is delightful, but it is not the only delight of which human beings are capable. There are innumerable things which are not competitive. It is possible to enjoy food and drink without having to reflect that you have a better cook and better wine merchant than your former friends whom you are learning to cold-shoulder. It is possible to be fond of your wife and your children without reflecting how much better she dressed than Mrs. So-and-So and how much better they are at athletic than the children of that old stick-in-the-mud Mr. Such-and-Such. There are those who can enjoy music without thinking how cultured other ladies in their womens club will be thinking them. There are even people who can enjoy a fine day in spite of the fact that the sun shines on everybody. All these simple pleasures are destroyed as soon as competitiveness gets the upper hand. But it is not only competitiveness that is the trouble. I could imagine a person who has turned against competitiveness and can only enjoy after conscious rejection of the competitive element. Such a person, seeing the sunshine in the morning, says to himself, "Yes, I may enjoy this and indeed I must, for it is a joy open to all." And however bored he may become with the sunshine he goes on persuading himself that he is enjoying it because he thinks he ought to. "But," you will ask, "are you maintaining that our actions ought to be governed by moral principles?" Are you suggesting that every whim and every impulse should be given free rein? Do you consider that if So-and-Sos nose annoys you by being too long, that gives you a right to tweak it?" "Sir," you will continue with indignation," your doctrine is one which would uproot all the sources of morality and loosen all the bonds which hold society together. Only self-restraint, self-repression, iron self-control make it possible to endure the abominable beings among whom we have to live, No, sir! Better misery and gastric ulcers than such chaos as your doctrine would produce. I will admit at once that there is force in this objection. I have seen many noses that I should have liked to tweak, but never once have I yielded to the impulse. But this, like everything else, is a matter of degree. If you always yield to impulse, you are mad. If you never yield to impulse, you gradually dry up and very likely become mad to boot. In a life which is to be healthy and happy, impulse, though mot allowed to run riot, must have sufficient scope to remain alive and to preserve that variety and diversity of interest which is natural to a human being. A life lived on a principle, no matter what, is too narrowly determined, too systematic and uniform, to be happy. However much you care about success, you should have times when you are merely enjoying life without a thought of subsequence. However proud you may be, as president of a womens club, of your impeccable culture, you should not be ashamed of reading a low-brow book if you want to. A life which is all principle is a life on rail. The rails may help toward rapid locomotion, but preclude the joy of wandering. Man spent some million years wandering before he invented rails, and his happiness still demands some reminiscence of the earlier ages of freedom.
46. In the writer's opinion, in England alcohol and tobacco may ____.
A) make people indulge in pleasures
B) lead to despondency
C) pose touchy problems for social reformers
D) throw a heavy burden on the country's welfare program
47. What opinions do most social reformers hold?
A) Once poverty were rooted out, people would really enjoy their lives
B) If economic security were obtained, one would grow fidgety and berserk.
C) An ideal society is the one in which all the people were no longer afraid of poverty.
D) Great happiness and human perfection could be arrived at if and only if people learned to be content.
48. Who are easy to feel melancholy according to the writer?
C) English-speaking people
D) B and C
49. What is the man cause of unhappiness for many Americans in the writer's view?
A) Life is a long competitive struggle, very few lucky people can win the race and attain happiness.
B) Lack of freedom and stimuli makes people unsatisfied with life.
C) People tend to act on dubious principles.
D) People's obsession of getting ahead of their neighbors.
50. What solution does the writer suggest to dispel melancholy mood?
A) cultivate wide interest
B) balance impulse and principle
C) strive for success and enjoy its gain
D) A and B
SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING
In this section there are seven passage followed by ten multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your Answer Sheet.
TEXT E First read the question. 51. What is this passage mainly about? A. The tradition of folk art, especially clay modeling in China. B. The origin of clay modeling and its development. C. "Clay-Figurine" Zhang. D. modern clay modeling in China Now go though Text E quickly to answer question 51. Clay modeling is a folk art popular in both rural and urban areas. Colored clay figures are put on sale in cities, and at country fairs on the Spring Festival and other traditional festivals. Today workshops and enterprises have been established specializing in this kind of folk art. The Clay modeling of Beijing, Tianjin, Jiangsu and Wuxi each has its own style and characteristics. In Tianjin, everybody knows the name "Ni Ren Zhang" ("clay-figurine" Zhang). Traditionally, clay modeling was only a source of childrens toy, but thanks to the efforts of "Clay-figurine" Zhang, clay modeling has become a respectable art, and some of his products are among the treasures in Beijings museums and the China Art Gallery. The name "clay-figurine" Zhang is used to refer to Zhang Mingshan (1826-1906) who was the fist person to make colored clay figurines in Tianjin. He transformed clay modeling into an art. People later began to use the name to refer to the Zhang family. Mow people sometimes use it to refer to the workshop which was set up in 1959 and which has more than forty craftsmen whose surnames are not Zhang. Tianjin clay figurines are characterized by a sense of motion. All the figures look vivid and lifelike. Some of the themes are taken from legends and myths while others are taken from everyday life. Now, Zhang Naiying, the fifth generation of the Zhang family, has made a breakthrough. He combined clay modeling and modern sculpture to create eighty colored clay figurines based on the centimeters in height, but each had its unique posture, clothing, and facial expressions. Clay figurines have been popular in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, for more than six hundred years. Today multi-colored clay figurines made in Wuxi stand on desks or in shops around the world. They are called Ah Fu. "Fu" in Chinese used means fortune, and "Ah" is a meaningless auxiliary sound. The name was first used by local people to describe cherubic children. Now it refers to all clay figurines made in Wusi, especially those made at the Wuxi Clay Fifurine Mill. Today Ah Fu comes in more than a hundred designs: children in various postures, Lao Shouxing (an old man of longevity), historical and legendary figures, and animals of all kinds. All these clay figurines are made of dark clay from the foot of the Hui Hills near the city of Wuxi. The products of the Wuxi Clay Figurine Mill enjoy a wide market. Ah Fu figurines are sold not only in Wuxi but also in shops in more than fifty countries. Businessmen from the United States, Canada, Japan, Eastern Europe and South-east Asia buy wholesale from the mill. The mill pays great attention to training young apprentices. The young people are each assigned to a master craftsman. New recruits have to spend all their time learning the basic skills, and at the same time, take related cultural courses. Now the former apprentices have become the main force in the mill. Many of them have gone abroad on several occasions to be demonstrate their clay modeling skills.
51. What is this passage mainly about?
A) The tradition of folk art, especially clay modeling in China.
B) The origin of clay modeling and its development.
C) "Clay-Figurine" Zhang.
D) modern clay modeling in China
TEXT F First read the questions. 52. The following letter _____ A. is a letter attached to a revised manuscript. B. is to respond to the suggestions of the editor-in-chief of the magazine Biochemical et Biophysica Acta. C. is intended to explain ones views in his original manuscript. D. is intended to persuade the editor of a scientific magazine into publishing an article. Now go through Text F quickly to answer question 52. December 27,1973 Deitorial Secretariat Biochimica et Biophysica Acta P.O. Box 1345 Amsterdam The Netherlands Re: Art No. RP P-1265 Dear sir, Thank you for your kind letter of December 11, 1973. We are happy to know that our paper entitled "Purification of Clostridium perfringens phospholipas C (@-toxin) by affinity chromatography on agarose-liked egg-yolk lipoprotein" (Art no.RPP-1265) will be acceptable. We have tried to shorten and revise the manuscript in line with the suggestion made by one of the of the reviewers and yourself. I am enclosing duplicate copies of the revised version. In answer to the questions raised by the reviewer, we must admit that we have not tested for lipase activity known to exist in culture of this organism. However, since our purified phospholipase C was found homogeneous by various criteria, we believe contamination with lipase, if there is any, is likely to be slight. In any case, we will test for lipase activity as soon as poddible. As to the second question, we realized that the lipoprotein in affinity adsorbent was attacked by the enzyme to a small extent; a minute amount of phosphorycholine was always detected in the break-through peak. As reported, however, the same column can be repeatedly (at least four times) without losing its affinity for the enzyme. We still do not know whether or not all of the multiple forms of enzyme are artifacts formed exclusively during isoelectric focusing. But some evidence is now available for the presence of at least two forms of enzyme, which are separable by methods other than isoeletric focusing, i.e. CM —— or DEAE —— Sephadex chromatography (unpublished data). The clarification of this question is now in progress in our laboratory. We have accepted all the suggestions penciled in by the reviewer on the original manuscript; the abbreviation SDC has been avoided. Through these revision we have succeeded in shortening the manuscript by two pages in total, although the page numbers have been kept unchanged. In the revised manuscript we have put the reference numbers in the right order as requested. We would like, however, to keep the designation of the figures as it was, since we believe the suggestion may be based on a misunderstanding on the part of reviewers. As suggested, we have improved the description of the essential step involved in preparation of the affinity adsorbed (page 6,5th line from the bottom of the original manuscript) as follows:" by centrifuging the mixture at 13,000g for 15 min. to discard the precipitate. I hope that these revisions and the shortened text are satisfactory and that the revised version will be acceptable for publication in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. I also hope the revised manuscript will reach you before January 1. Sincerely yours, Nobuo Ogata, M.D. Enclosure: MS in duplicate No/th
52. The following letter _____
A) is a letter attached to a revised manuscript.
B) is to respond to the suggestions of the editor-in-chief of the magazine Biochemical et Biophysica Acta.
C) is intended to explain one's views in his original manuscript.
D) is intended to persuade the editor of a scientific magazine into publishing an article.
TEXT G First read the question. 53. Which of the following is the most suitable title? A. key to economic prosperity B. source of High Productivity C. elements in efficient management D. efficient of use of resource Now go through Text G quickly to answer question 53. A high volume of production, that is, coupled with efficient production methods, is a major key to economic prosperity. This is both at the macro level of nation, and at the micro level of the individual. Technically, productivity is an estimate of work output, being measured as production per production unit per unit of time. An example of this is output per worker per hour. It is a measure of the efficiency of use of resources. Under normal conditions, a high level of output per production unit allows a high level of consumption, so that such a society, be it large or small, can enjoy a high standard of living. Just as the individual with a high productivity is usually economically successful, so a nation with high productivity is likely to demonstrate comparative economic prosperity. High productivity depends on a combination of factors, of which the most important are as follows. individual productivity; incentives; appropriate capital equipment; market size individual productivity The productivity of the individual depends on both his ability and his desire to do the job. The former ability depends, in turn, on native ability and on training. The latter varies with incentive. The more complicated a job becomes, the more training is necessary to ensure efficient operation. Thus, developing training programs within production units is one important factor in the maintenance of high individual productivity. Moreover, the establishment of good general and specific education programs if essential to the maintenance of efficiency and contemporary practices in production. This is particularly true at managerial levels. The quality of management has a large significance to productivity since management teams are responsible for keeping equipment up to date, deciding production methods, developing marketing programs, fostering good relations between employers and employees, establishing good working conditions and installing incentives. incentives Incentives to efficiency at the individual and small group level can take various forms. Financial gain is one of the most common and also one of the most effective. However, others such as good working conditions, employee benefits and a positive social environment in the work place are important considerations. At the production unit level, whether it be a small workshop or a large factory, competition provides a serious incentive. When a company has a monopoly or a protected niche for its operation, a general lassitude can delay replacement of aging equipment, allow loss of vigor in marketing, and permit slackness in individual behaviors. Thus, a certain amount of competition is useful to keep a company at the forefront of production efficiency. capital equipment Appropriate capital equipment implies, in term of efficiency, having equipment which optimizes the output of items produced per dollar input. Generally, this means regular updating of all equipment, from production machinery to hand tools to office instrumentation. However, modernization incurs expenditure. If such spending is very large, it may be considered as a form of saving. Such investment spending may, under some circumstances delay a rise in standard of living. This could be because of preferred production of industrial products over consumer products and a reduction in consumer spending, because of deferred wage increase. So capital expenditure which will cause increased production in the future, can be considered as an enforced saving with a view to achieving a higher standard of living at a later date. market size As the quality of production increases, it is usually possible to reduce the cost of production per item. Thus, with very large production runs, the cost per item may be vastly reduced and profit per item will consequently be greater. Such as economy of scale is dependent on the accessibility of a large enough to justify the enormous but necessary start-up costs, Estimation of the market size may determine that the production must be distributed regionally, nationally or even world wide. It is clear that the supply side of the economy is the basis of economic viability. This applies to highly industrialized nations where labor is expensive and the tendency is towards technical specialization. It also applies to less developed nations where there is an abundance of labor. In all cases a balance exists between production costs and profits available in the product market.
53. Which of the following is the most suitable title?
A) key to economic prosperity
B) source of High Productivity
C) elements in efficient management
D) efficient of use of resource
TEXT H First read question 54. 54. This passage aims to ____. A. give 20 tips for the perfect father-to-be B. demonstrate 20 practical advices to the father-to-be C. explain the trial and happiness fathers experience. D. illustrate a successful birthing class and advices offered by the instructor. Now go through Text H quickly to answer question 54.
It was sipper day in birthing class and I was to provide the class a model demonstration. Gently I lifted the rubber baby doll, supporting its head with my forearm. The instructor smiled and told me that it was a good position —— if I wanted to put the diaper on the babys head.
My wife and I are experiencing our first baby in September and Im finding fatherhood isnt coming very naturally. Im a 38-year-old journalist, more accustomed to whining politicians than crying babies.
A white back, I sent an e-mail to a friend, a father of two teenagers, suggesting half-jokingly that he send me advice. He responded with a wonderful "Top 10" list of fatherhood tips. I started thinking: If I reached out to other friends, I could probably compile a pretty useful list of advice for a new father. So I sent a batch of e-mail.
What follows is 20 of their responses. None of it is expert advice. These are just a bunch of guys who have children ranging from toddlers to teens and have learned about fatherhood through trial and often error. Their advice is sometimes practical, sometimes philosophical, occasionally contradictory and always heart-felt. 1. If you haven't bought that new set of golf clubs before the baby is born, you can forget about it for the next 30 years. 2. Things you cannot do enough of: hold, hug or kiss the baby. Take the baby out for walks or drives. 3. Never swear or fight in front of the baby. (There will be plenty of temptation for both. Just wait. 4. Help out. Even being the main breadwinner does not compensate for the much harder job of staying home with the baby. 5. Live in a small house where you can interact with the kids. Dont let their rooms become their universe. 6. You can never invest enough in their self-esteem. 7. Encourage children to share. 8. Read to your children every night. Choose something slightly above their own reading level, because that will require explanations, and conversations will flow from that. 9. Immediately correct them if they are being mean or cruel, if they lie or steal, but let them figure some things out for themselves, even if they draw the wrong conclusions. 10. Teach by example: If you want kids to be loving, be loving. If you want them to respectful, be respectful. If you want them serene, be serene. 11. Help them with their homework. 12. Whisper in their ears before they go to bed at night, "think scholarship……think scholarship." 13. Dont pressure them. They have enough pressure at school. 14. Dont get angry if they spill things or break things. However, be strict if they insist on doing something that puts them in danger. 15. Dont compare them with other children. 16. Never be afraid of say youre sorry. There will be times when youll be unjust in how you discipline your kids; or youll say something hurtful. Tell them you have blown it. Tell them you love them. And ask for forgiveness. 17. Dont make promises you cant keep. Or threat. 18. Dont teach by talking. If your kid think talking with Dad means a lecture, rather than an effective exchange of thoughts and feeling, they wont want to talk to you. And they wont listen, wither. 19. Dont hit your children. If you cant make them understand without violence, find out what youve doing wrong. 20. Discuss serious subjects with them. You will be pleasantly surprised. They will be too.
54. This passage aims to ____.
A) give 20 tips for the perfect father-to-be
B) demonstrate 20 practical advices to the father-to-be
C) explain the trial and happiness fathers experience.
D) illustrate a successful birthing class and advices offered by the instructor.
TEXT I First read the question. 55. When will the "youngsters Wind Band Music Festival" be held? A. 2 pm, June 12 B. 7:30 pm, June 9,10 C. 8 am-11:30 am, 2 pm-5 pm, June 12 D. June 10-11 56. The Exhibition Gallery of Chinese Traditional Painting Research Institute is hosting ____. A. an ink painting show B. a landscape painting show C. a calligraphy show D. a show of works by some famous artists. Now go through Text I quickly to answer question 55 and 56. CONCERTS British conductor —— David Lockington from the United Kingdom will lead the China Broadcasting Symphony Orchestra here in Beijing. Starting early on the cello, Lodkington studied cello and conducting at Yale University in the United States after graduating from Cambridge University in England. In June he became conductor of the Grand Rapid Symphony Orchestra. Pianist Zhu Tong from Taiwan will be the soloist in the concert. Program: "Fantasy on a Theme of Thomas Tallis" by Williams, "Piano Concert Op 16" by Grieg, "Spain" by Charier, "Romeo and Juliet Suite" by Prokofiev. Time: 7:30 pm, June 9,10 Place: Beijing Concert Hall, 1 Beixinghuajie Tel: 6605-5812 Rigoletto —— A concert opera, "rigoletto" will be illustrated by the opera troupe and chorus of China National Opera Ballet Theatre. Gao Weichun will conduct. Lei Keyong will provide narration. Time: 2 pm, June 12 Place: Beijing Concert Hall, 1 Beixinhuajie Tel: 6605-5812 For Strauss —— To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the death of Richard Strauss, a comprehensive concert will be highlight the great masters orchestral and vocal works. Program: Overture to "Die Fledermaus" and Strauss waltzes, polkas and marches. Time: 7:30 pm, June 12 Place: Century Theatre, 40 Liangmaqiaolu Tel: 6466-3311 Plucked string —— The graceful Chinese ancient plucked string instruments will be played by musicians of the Central Orchestra of Traditional Music. In ancient pieces like "Floral Moonlit Night in a River in Spring" and "Flowing Water", pipa and quqin were used to be played by scholars, intellectuals or concubines. Program: "Generals Order", an ancient guzheng piece, "Camel bells on the Silk Road", a daruansolo and "The Beautiful Africa", a dulcimer solo. Time: 7:30 pm, June 12 Place: Minzu Concert Hall, 15 Xiaoyinglu, Chaoyang District Tel: 6491-9081 Traditional instruments —— Musicians from the China Film Symphony Orchestra will display the cream of traditional Chinese instrumental music. The instruments include dizi, guzheng, pipa, erhu, xiao and ruan. Time: 7:30 pm, June 19 Place: Beijing International Art Palace, Art Salon of Crowne Plaza Beijing, 48 Wangfujing Dajie Tel: 6513-3388 ext 1209 Wind bands —— A "youngsters Wind Band Music Festival" will be staged by some 30 amateur wind bands from more than 30 primary and middle schools in China. Organized by China Childrens Center and Dunshan Youngsters Arts Training Center, both Chinese and foreign youngsters are welcome to attend the concert, free of charge. Program: "Carmen Fantasy", "Going Home", "Poland Waltz", "The Blue Danube", "William Tell", "Sound of Music" and "The National Anthem of China". Time: 8 am —— 11:30 am, 2 pm —— 5 pm, June 12 Place: Chaoyang Stadium, Liulitun Xikou, Yaojiayuanlu, Chaoyang District Tel: 6559-9310 EXHIBITIONS Oil paintings —— The Wan Fung Art Gallery is holding an oil painting exhibition entitled "Inner Feeling". On show are dozens of oil paintings created by young and middle-aged painters including Lao Dao, Xin Yi, Han Xuejun and Zeng Chuangxing. Time: 9 am-7 pm, till June 15 Place: 136 Nachizi Dajie, Dongcheng District Tel: 6523-3320 Japanese art—— The Palace Museum will host the Kicho Art Exhibition from Japan. Kicho, an aristocratic tradition in Japan, was a woven cloth partition used for interior decoration among royal families in the Heian era (794-1190). It is now a traditional art in Japan which enjoys a high reputation around the world. Sponsored by the Palace Museum and the Yanazaki Junzo Kicho Institute of Japan, the exhibition will display 50 reproductions from the Heian Era. The Yanazaki Junzo Kicho Institute is famed in Japan for handmade kichos. Its kichos have been collected by galleries and museums around the world. Time: 9 am —— 4 am, until June 10 Place: 4 Jingshan Qianjie, Dongcheng District Tel: 6523-7344 Traditional scenes —— The Exhibition Gallery of Chinese Traditional Painting Research Institute is hosting an ink painting show. The displayed works, created by such artists of the institute as Liu Boshu, Li Lingyun, Wang Yingchun and Deng Lin, feature figures, landscapes, flowers and birds, as well as calligraphy. Time: 9 am —— 4 pm, until June 10 Place: 54 Xisanhuan Beilu, Haidian District Tel: 6841-1369 Stage Camille —— The Hong Kong Ballet perform the ballet adapted from this famous work of Alexander Dumas. The novel of the title was published in 1848 and had been adapted into film, ballet and opera. Time: 7:30 pm, June 10-11 Place: Century Theater, 40 Liangmaqiaolu, Chaoyang District Tel: 8425-2256 Ballet on ice —— The St Petersburg State Ice Ballet is to bring the three greatest of Tchaikovskys ballets: "Swan Lake", "The Nutcracker" and "sleeping beauty". Time: "The Nutcracker", 7:30 pm, June 10; "Sleeping Beauty", 7:30 pm, June 11; "Swan Lake", 7:30 pm, June 12. Place: Beizhan Theatre, 135 Xiwai Dajie, Xicheng District Tel: 6835-1383 In this family —— The China National Youth Theater will present a new drama about an intellectuals family. The father and mother devoted their youth to the Daqing oilfields, but the new generation of the family thinks differently. The conflicts reflect different values of two generations, while the experiences of the family members mirrors 50 years development of this century. Time: 7:30 pm, until 12 Place: Haidian Theater, 84 Haidianlu, Huangzhuang, Haidian District Tel: 6255-8026
55. When will the "youngsters' Wind Band Music Festival" be held?
A) 2 pm, June 12
B) 7:30 pm, June 9,10
C) 8 am-11:30 am, 2 pm-5 pm, June 12
D) June 10-11
56. The Exhibition Gallery of Chinese Traditional Painting Research Institute is hosting ____.
A) an ink painting show
B) a landscape painting show
C) a calligraphy show
D) a show of works by some famous artists.
TEXT J First read the question. 57. The in-house technique developed and used by Venter is to _____. A. to discover new genes B. to decode for the first time the genome of a living organism C. to spread up his research D. to isolate the DNA of the organism 58. Why is Venter criticized and doubted? A. His goal is to ambitious to be achieved by the end of 2001. B. There are loopholes in his technique. C. US 300 million is far from being ample for such an ambitious research. D. All of above. Now go through Text G quickly to answer question 57 and 58. ROCKVILLE, Maryland —— A pioneer of genetic research, 52-year-old biologist Craig Venter is challenging what he sees as the ultimate frontier of the discipline —— mapping the human genome. His announcement in May 1998 that he would complete the process by the end of 2001 at a cost of US 300 million drew considerable skepticism. For numerous colleagues, deciphering the totality of the genetic instructions necessary for the creation and running of the human body in only three years and with so little money is nothing short of science fiction. But Venter stands by his bold ambition and is determined to achieve his goal. "We are very confident we can complete the full genome sequence by the end of 2001", he said in an interview. "We cannot be absolutely confident because this is the biggest project that anybody has ever tried in biology. But we are very confident." In order to take on the financial and organizational might of the public sector, which is chasing the same goal, Venter and his firm Calera Genomic are using an in-house technique development by Venter to speed them on their way. This technique was born when Venter was an ocscure researcher at the government-funded National Institute of Health (NIH) in the 1980s, attempting to discover new genes. Rather than continue with the method of relying on chance to unearth genes, he decided instead to follow the gene trail by way of DNA, the molecule that transmits genetic information to cells. The procedure was a success and very quickly Venter was expanding the known gene library to include information on hundreds of new ones he had discovered. However, his technique has detractors, and his determination to patent his discoveries has added even more. His boss at the time, the Nobel Prize laureate James Watson, described his ambition as "sheer lunacy." Thus with a band of faithful followers, including his scientist wife Claire Fraser, Venter slammed the public sector door behind him and founded his own research center, The Institute for Genomic Research, with an ambitious aim: to decode for the first time the genome of a living organism, the bacteria that causes meningitis, Haemophilus influenza. With his eye on speed, Venter innovated to cut corners. Where tried and trusted techniques of gene sequencing dictate orderly process, Venter isolated the DNA of the organism, scrambled it and used a computer to reassemble the resulting puzzle. His method worked. In 1995, the 1.8 million letters of the entire genetic coke of the organism were published . "That was major breakthrough," said Fraser. "What we have shown is …… our approach can be used on virtually any genome and is one that will save a great deal of time and money." Here again, the critics were vocal, suggesting that his technique lacked rigor. "There will be a lot of holes," said Michael Waterson, a leader of the government-sponsored genome project. "Their book of life will need a lot of further editing."
57. The in-house technique developed and used by Venter is to _____.
A) to discover new genes
B) to decode for the first time the genome of a living organism
C) to spread up his research
D) to isolate the DNA of the organism
58. Why is Venter criticized and doubted?
A) His goal is to ambitious to be achieved by the end of 2001.
B) There are loopholes in his technique.
C) US' 300 million is far from being ample for such an ambitious research.
D) All of above.
TEXT K First read the question. 59. What is the cornerstone of writing according to the writer? A. conciseness B. clarity C. coherence D. continuity 60. Whats the main difference between persuasive writing and information writing? A. The writer of persuasive writing has to persuade readers as well as impart information. B. Concerned with affecting readers view, persuasive writing calls for special planning. C. The interest of the readers must be stimulated in persuasive writing. D. Readers are easy to follow the flow of persuasive writing. Now go through Text K quickly to answer question 59 and 60. Some principles for business writing Attitude: The writers point of view. The writer always has a point of view and it should be reflected in information writing. It may affect the readers point of view, but that is not the purpose. Here, the writers point of view provides clarity to the communication. Furthermore, it offers a personal approach to the communication —— naturalness. Courtesy and tact are also a part of the writers point of view. Sincerity reflects a quality that is very important for developing the readers opinion of the writers credibility. Clarity: The cornerstone of writing. Clarity is reflected in the writers knowledge of the subject. Placing the information in simple, short sentences for efficient comprehension is vital. Selecting words for specific meaning and eliminating ambiguity are essential. The vocabulary must be familiar to the reader, taking into consideration the readers background and experience with the subject of the communication. Clarity is also reflected in the organizational ability of the writer. If the writer creates a workable organization, the reader will be able to grasp the communication quickly and accurately. Conciseness: Respecting the readers time. Unnecessary detail is the constant plague of written business communications. The details are too many and, quite often, unnecessary. Much valuable time is wasted for readers by writers who are careless about brevity. Repetition has a place in writing, and it belongs in the summary of written communications. Often writes repeat the same ideas from paragraph to paragraph. Coherence: The writers organizational flow. All ideas should have some order. When order is established, the reader immediately begins to comprehend. If ideas are structured in time-order sequence, ascending or descending pattern, in a cause-and-effect, or in problem-and-solution structure, the essence of the message flows. It is easy to follow the relationship of multiple ideas in a simple communication. Some guidelines for persuasive writing Sometimes writing is a way of negotiation. You need take a position and give enough evidence to persuade your clients to accept your point of view, and take action. Writing persuasively is challenging for the business professional. Whether it is to be a memo, a formal letter, a report, or a elaborate contract, the writer must take time to analyze the intended readers. A clear understanding of writing to communication is necessary in order to recognize the difference with influencing the readers point of view. This could range from stimulating the reader to make a change in attitude, to coercing the reader to accept an issue. It takes more strategic planning for the writer to create a persuasive argument on paper. Stimulating interest: Starting on the right foot. The opening paragraph in written persuasion must get things off on the right foot. The interest of the reader must be stimulated by the introduction. It the writer has some notion of the readers attitude on the subject, it is much easier to stimulate interest. The conclusion, which normally comes at the end of a written communication, should appear right in the opening. By starting off with the conclusion, the reader will know immediately where the writer is aiming. This will eliminate any hidden fears, confusions, or possible misinterpretation on the part of the reader. This immediately places emphasis on clarity at the very beginning of the communication. Continuity: Establishing organizational flow. As in information writing, persuasive writing must have an organizational flow. By taking the topic and structure it into a sequence, the writer will be sure that the reader is able to follow the flow. Order of important is an excellent way to structure the ideas in a persuasive communication. By starting with the most important idea and moving to the least important, the writer is setting up priorities and emphasis. In this manner, it is very easy for the reader to understand the rationale for the writer. Cause and effect is another pattern of organization easy for the reader to follow and be influenced by. The writer can carefully establish all of the causes and then, one by one, describe each effect. This makes it very easy to show the relationship between cause and effect. It is the established relationship between the two that appears logical to the reader and that creates the positive attitude necessary for persuasion. Problem and solution as an organizational pattern works very much like cause and effect, in that the relationship between the two is important. The solution, if it does eliminate the problem, in a practical, workable, or desirable manner, will gain strong acceptance from the reader. Chronological, topical, and spatial patterns of organization can all be used in persuasive writing, these depend on the relationship of the subject to the reader. Need/satisfaction is another common structural pattern, and it works well in persuasive writing, in this pattern, the writer establishes a need for the reader, and once this has been clearly explained, an idea is presented that will satisfy that need. Once the need is met, the writer can then set up some plan of action that will explain how this satisfaction will take place and offer benefits to the reader. Credibility: A must for the writer and the content. As the writer presents conclusions, their justification must be established. This justification is accomplished by presenting good evidence in an organized structure that will support the conclusions.
59. What is the cornerstone of writing according to the writer?
60. What's the main difference between persuasive writing and information writing?
A) The writer of persuasive writing has to persuade readers as well as impart information.
B) Concerned with affecting readers' view, persuasive writing calls for special planning.
C) The interest of the readers must be stimulated in persuasive writing.
D) Readers are easy to follow the flow of persuasive writing.
PART IV TRANSLATION
Translate the following underlined part of the text into English. Write your translation on the Answer Sheet.
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE
Translate the following underlined part of the text into Chinese. Write your translation on Answer Sheet.
On each side of a bright river he saw rise a line of brighter palaces, arched and pillared, and inlaid with deep red porphyry, and with serpentine; along the quays before their gates were riding troops of knights, noble in face and form, dazzling in crest and shield; horse and man one labyrinth of quaint color and gleaming light —— the purple, and silver, and scarlet fringes flowing over the strong limbs and clashing mail, like sea-waves over rock at sunset. Opening on each side from the river were gardens, courts, vine; leaping of fountains through buds of pomegranate and orange; and still along the garden-paths, and under and through the crimson of the pomegranate shadows, moving slowly, groups of the fairest women that Italy ever saw —— fairest, because purest and most thoughtful; trained in all high knowledge, as in all courteous art —— in dance, in song, in sweet wit, in lofty learning, in loftier courage, in loftiest love —— able alike to cheer, to enchant, or save, the souls of men. Above all this scenery of perfect human life, rose dome and bell-tower, burning with white alabaster and gold: beyond dome and bell-dome the slopes of mighty hills, hoary with olive far in the north, above a purple sea of peaks of solemn Apennine, the clear, sharp-cloven Carrara mountains sent up their steadfast flames of marble summit into amber sky; the great sea itself, scorching with expanse of light, stretching from their feet to the Gorgonian isles.
PART VI WRITING
Directions: There are many differences between human beings and animals. Write an essay of about 300 words presenting some main differences within 60 minutes.
The differences between human beings and animals In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement and in the following parts you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details or examples. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar, and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instruction may result in loss of marks.